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Upgrading of Motivational Effectiveness of Experiments for Gifted and Ungifted Students in Science Education Josef Trna, Eva Trnova Masaryk University,

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Presentation on theme: "Upgrading of Motivational Effectiveness of Experiments for Gifted and Ungifted Students in Science Education Josef Trna, Eva Trnova Masaryk University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Upgrading of Motivational Effectiveness of Experiments for Gifted and Ungifted Students in Science Education Josef Trna, Eva Trnova Masaryk University, Faculty of Education, Brno, Czech Republic Special Needs of Pupils in Context with Framework Educational Programme for Primary Education MSM II. International Congress of Educational Research, , Antalya, Turkey

2 1. INTRODUCTION Many science educators create interesting school experiments. They usually do not think about the concrete applications of the experiments in teaching and learning science. Every school experiment should consist of three parts: - correct presentation of scientific phenomena, - technical and safety considerations, - appropriate methods for learning. Use the wrong method with an experiment - do not achieve the desired educational objectives including motivation. Science experiments can help in school education and also in improvement of student's giftedness for science. Every educational activity based on experiments can be a strong motivational stimulus for the development of a students giftedness. It should be recognized though that some experiments are more convenient for gifted students.

3 1.1 Motivation in science education The process of learning science depends a great deal on students motivation. In teaching and learning we can find three special types of needs: - social - achievement - cognitive Social and achievement needs: self-identification, positive relationships, status, influence, competence, realised goal of successful performance, and the avoidance of failure. Social and achievement needs lead to external motivation of the student which can be both positive and negative. Cognitive needs lead only to positive motivation.

4 1.2 Cognitive motivational teaching techniques based on science experiments Cognitive motivation science teaching techniques: Stimulation through unconscious perception and experimentation. Use of models of natural objects and phenomena. Application of systematisation of science knowledge. Use of similarity and analogy between natural objects or phenomena. Undertaking problem exercises and projects. Demonstrating simple experiments and toys. Seeing paradoxes and tricks. Watching films, video programs, TV programs, and computer programs. Experiencing humour in science. Visiting science museums and centres.

5 1.2 Cognitive motivational teaching techniques based on science experiments Interdisciplinary cognitive motivation teaching techniques: Science for life (especially related to social issues - health, food, energy, and environment). Applications of science knowledge in technology. Use of ITC in science. History related to science discoveries and scientists lives. Analysis of scientists quotations. Use of sci-fi literature and films. Application of relation between science and art. Use of philosophical aspects of science.

6 1.2 Cognitive motivational teaching techniques based on science experiments Most of these cognitive motivational teaching techniques can be based on observation and experiments. Simple experiments have the strongest motivational effectiveness. Combinations of motivational teaching techniques result in an upgrading of students motivation. An additional upgrade of motivational effectiveness can be realised especially with the use of interdisciplinary connections.

7 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODOLOGY Selection of appropriate science school experiments and their insertion into motivational teaching techniques are the core tasks which were to be investigated. We identified two research questions: What role do science experiments play in science education in terms of students motivation? What kinds of science experiments are appropriate for cognitive motivational teaching techniques? The first research question - by use of the video-study method. The video-study method is based on an analysis of video recordings of lessons. This method was developed at the end of the 20th century in relation to the TIMSS studies. This method, which was transferred from university centres in Germany (Kiel) (Tesch, 2005) and Switzerland (Zürich, Bern) to the Centre for Pedagogical Research (CPR) in the Faculty of Education, Masaryk University. The second research question - by creating several kinds of experiments appropriate to specific cognitive motivational teaching techniques. Verification and validation of these types of experiments were done using action research.

8 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODOLOGY The phases of the video-study method: - Making video recordings with the assistance of classic camcorders located in classrooms. - Software processing of recorded data. In our research we used Videograph, a multimedia player of computerised video recording (including audio records). - Record transcription, which means word-for-word transcription from the audio record into the text. - Video recording coding as a systematic registration and classification of phenomena stored on the video recording based on a relevant categorical system. - Evaluation of acquired data in a chosen statistic program. We evaluated data in the program SPSS (for calculation of inter-rater-reliability) and Statistica (for descriptive statistics).

9 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODOLOGY The categorical system was used: 5 – Unclear: proceeding activity cannot be categorised as any of the processes mentioned above 4 – Work following the experiment: this phase includes results, confirmed or disproved hypothesis of verifiable physical phenomenon etc. 3 – Experiment implementation: experiment is carried out in either demonstrational form conducted by teacher, or students´ experiment (e.g. laboratory task); 2 – Experiment preparation: a part of a lesson that includes for example hypothesis, a procedure describing carrying out an experiment, draft or other motivation factors; 1 – Experiment is not in progress: teaching proceeds without any connection with an experiment; 0 - None: time before teaching, lessons are not in progress (break, time before bell ringing, teachers arrival and start of the lesson), teaching interruption and time after finishing lessons.

10 3 RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION 3.1Roles of science experiments in students motivation The video-analysis was applied on 62 video-recordings of physics lessons on two physics topics: Composition of forces (27 video-lessons) and Electric circuit (35 video-lessons); all were filmed in A group of thirteen lower secondary school physics teachers from twelve schools were involved. Experimentation phases: Work following the experiment Experiment implementation Experiment preparation Experiment is not in progress Duration of average lesson Representation of experimentation phases in physics lessons

11 3 RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION 3.1Roles of science experiments in students motivation The category experiment is not in progress is the most frequent one (77%) in the analysed physics lessons. The experiment realisation lasted approximately the same amount of time as the experiment preparation. The preparation of the experimentation phase lasted about the same amount of time as work following the experiment. If we compare results of all categories, there are unsatisfactory results: the total time spent on experimentation is insufficient and the proportion of the phases is unreasonable. We have found out can surmise that this condition can cause a lack of motivation in students for science education.

12 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques It is possible to expect that every school experiment has a motivational impact on students. The fact that simple experiments give the strongest motivational effect is verified by several studies. A science teacher should have research based on teaching methods that use experiments in every day school practice with a high level of motivational efficiency. All the simple experiments were created from empirical research and were verified and validated using action research within a school setting.

13 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques The simple experiment is a special type of school experiment variously defined (Haury & Rillero, 1994). We define the simple experiment by description of its aspects which are: - transparency - activity of students - easy realisation - creativity of students and teachers - low costs - prevention of misconceptions - motivational effects

14 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques Simple experiments are the basis of hands-on and minds-on activities and a source of strong motivation. Simple experiments can activate cognitive needs such as problem solving, but can also satisfy the needs of our senses and kinaesthetic activity. This simultaneous activation of two or more cognitive needs can result in a strong motivational impact (Trna, 2008). Simple experiments are also beneficial in education, because they do not require complex and expensive equipment and students can perform them in class and at home. Experiments, especially simple experiments, might also have another essential function. It is the diagnosis and development of gifted students in science. According to todays parental demands, school should provide diagnosis of a students giftedness and provide further development (Kanevsky, 1992). That is why we developed a typology of simple experiments for application in cognitive motivational teaching techniques based on these experiments.

15 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques A. Impressive simple experiments and observation: This type of motivational simple experiments are connected with the emotive experience of surprise and beauty. We can include many demonstrations of optical phenomena: a rainbow, celestial observation, or discharges in gas, as well as presentation of many natural objects such as flowers, mineral crystals, aquarium fish and exotic birds. Observation of flowers

16 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques B. Problem and paradox simple experiments: The problem and paradox simple experiments have a very strong motivational impact. We present an example of such kind of simple experiments: We put a paper ball into a tube (e. g. toilet paper tube). The ball of paper has to have the same diameter as the tube so it does not easily fall out. We hold the vertical tube with the paper ball in one hand and try to tap with splayed fingers on the top of the tube to get the ball out of the tube. The ball does not fall out and surprisingly crawls upwards inside the tube. Explanation: Surprising behaviour of the ball is caused by its inertia. Paper ball

17 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques C. Simple experiments in everyday a safe live: Everyday living and safe living are two groups of very interesting educational contents used in science education. If we combine simple experiments from everyday and safe living, we provide a powerful source for students motivation. We place a strip of soft paper over an empty glass. A coin put on this paper strip falls into the glass because the paper strip does not hold it. If we pleat the same paper strip, the coin does not fall into the glass. The pleated paper strip holds even a column of coins. Explanation: There is needed a greater deformational force to deform pleated paper with vertical carriage than flat paper. Solidity and elasticity of paper

18 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques D. Entertainment-edutainment simple experiments: The toy in the role of a simple experiment includes the need to use senses, kinaesthetic activities and relaxation function. There is successful evidence of the motivational efficiency of toys. Bubble makers, yo-yos, click-clacks, and kaleidoscopes are good examples. The toy is an object which displays a feature that is remarkably emphasized - elasticity, colour, distinctive behaviour, etc. One toy-egg does not capsize as another one. Explain the base of this phenomenon. Explanation: The centre of gravity of the paradox egg is so low that it cannot be overturned. Toy-egg

19 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques E. Family science simple experiments: Science experimentation can be passed into families - transfer of knowledge and skills acquired by students at school into families. Family education by means of school education can bring families (parents and grandparents) important information about new technical equipment at home (microwave, mobile phone etc.) and also about risks in everyday living (transport, fire, poisonous materials etc.). Paint the sole of the foot with oil (ink, paint, etc.) and step on absorbing paper (blotter). Use a ruler to measure the widest (w1) and narrowest part (w2) of the footprint. Calculate I = w2/ w1. Evaluate results using the table. I = w 2 / w 1 normal footI = less 0, 45 start to be flatI= 0, 45 flat footI= more 0, 45 Flat foot measurement

20 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques F. Simple experiments supported by ICT: Information and communication technologies (ICT) benefit new possibilities in education. ICT can be use effectively also for implementation of simple experiments for teaching science. Options in application experiments by use of ICT are: Video recordings of experiments Database of video recordings and photos with descriptions on the Web Video handbook with instructions for teachers how to demonstrate experiments Video recordings of students experimentation Web presentations of school experimentation The motivational effect of these experiments is based on students interest to use ICT.

21 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques G. Simple experiments for skills and creativity development: Experimentation leads students not only to effective understanding - also to the development of manual and intellectual skills. Use of simple experiments in education therefore supports development of students skills of experimentation and develops their creativity. This approach is especially profitable for science education of gifted students. As an example, we have a simple experiment demonstrated by a teacher during a lesson and alternative simple experiments made subsequently by students: A glass tube with water is closed at both ends. There is an air bubble in the water. If the tube is inclined appropriately, the bubble begins to move upwards by uniform motion (constant velocity). Uniform motion­ teachers simple experiment

22 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques G. Simple experiments for skills and creativity development: A glass test tube with water is closed. There is a glass ball in the water. If the tube is inclined appropriately, the ball begins to move down by uniform motion (constant velocity). Uniform motion - students alternative simple experiments

23 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques G. Simple experiments for skills and creativity development: A glass test tube with water is closed. There is a polystyrene ball with a diameter close to the interior diameter of the test tube. If the test tube is inclined appropriately, the ball begins to move upwards by uniform motion (constant velocity). Uniform motion - students alternative simple experiments

24 3.2 Special kinds of simple experiments for cognitive motivational teaching techniques G. Simple experiments for skills and creativity development: A glass test tube with the air is closed. There is a polystyrene ball with a diameter close to the interior diameter of the test tube. If the test tube is inclined appropriately, the ball begins to move down by uniform motion (constant velocity). Uniform motion - students alternative simple experiments

25 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS School science experiments are significant instruments for effective and motivational science education. Simple experiments have strong motivational effectiveness and can be used in several cognitive motivational teaching techniques. There are several applications: impressive simple experiments, problem and paradox simple experiments, simple experiments in everyday a safe live, entertainment-edutainment simple experiments, family science simple experiments, simple experiments supported by ICT, and simple experiments for skills and creativity development.

26 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Teachers professional skills in three stages: - Scientific experiment skill (complex competency to carry out scientific experiments). - School experiment skill (complex competency to carry out school experiments). - Skill to teach students by experiments (competency to teach students by school experiments). Not only science teachers knowledge but particularly acquiring skills to experiment simply is very important (Royer, Cisero & Carlo, 1993). Creation of these professional skills is acquired though experiences of the teacher and thats why acquiring these skills is not possible to acquire during pre-service teacher training and especially into in-service training. The current use of ICT also allows creation of e-learning courses and databases on the Web.

27 References Bransford, J. D., (ed). (2000). How People Learn. Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington: National Academies Press. Haury, D. L. &, Rillero, (1994). P. Perspectives of Hands-On Science Teaching. Columbus: ERIC- CSMEE Janík, T. & Míkova, M. (2006). Videostudie. Brno: Paido. Kanevsky L. (1992). Gifted Children and the Learning Process: Insightness on Both from the Research. In: Monks F, Peters W, editors. Talent for the Future. Assen: Van Gorcum. Novák, P. & Trna, J. (2009). Video-study of the role of experiments in physics education. In Multimedia in Physics Teaching and Learning. Udine (Italy): University of Udine. Royer, J. M., Cisero, Ch. A. &, Carlo, M. S. (1993). Techniques and procedures for Assessing Cognitive Skills. Review of Educational Research 1993; (2): Tesch, M. (2005). Das Experiment im Physikunterricht: Didaktische Konzepte und Ergebnisse einer Videostudie. Kiel: IPN. Trna, J. (2005). Motivation and Hands-on Experiments. In: Proceedings of the International Conference Hands-on Science in a Changing Education. HSci2005. Rethymno (Greece): University of Crete. p Trna, J., Trnova, E (2006). Cognitive Motivation in Science Teacher Training. In Science and Technology Education for a Diverse Word. Lublin (Poland): M. Curie-Sklodovska university press,

28 Thank you for your attention. Josef Trna, Eva Trnova Masaryk University Brno, Czech Republic


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