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Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 10 of Truth in the Balance, copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 05/04/2013 This.

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Presentation on theme: "Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 10 of Truth in the Balance, copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 05/04/2013 This."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 10 of Truth in the Balance, copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 05/04/2013 This material is made available by the author at no charge. It may be reproduced for use in a Christian environment such as Sunday schools or Bible classes, but it may not be used for any commercial purposes. To be certain that you have the most up-to-date version of this material, go to the Origins Resource Association website, Follow the links to Bible College Materials and check that the revision date shown online is the same as shown above. If not, download the latest version by David A. Prentice

2 Any model of origins must deal with Four Major Areas: 1. How did matter and energy come into existence? 2. How did they get from there to their present state? 3. How did life begin? 4. How did it get from there to its present state? 10-1

3 2007 by David A. Prentice THE FOUR PILLARS OF EVOLUTION 1. Embryology – a fraud! 2.Homology - Presence of similar struc- tures in creatures not con- sidered closely related. 3. Biogeography - Variation within species in different areas 4.Paleontology - The fossil record 10-2

4 2007 by David A. Prentice DNA: THE BLUEPRINT FOR LIFE DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a double helix made up of millions or billions of the nucleotides Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. It is subdivided into dozens of chromosomes, each of which may contain thousands of genes. The genes are made up of thousands of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T. By using these in many different combinations, DNA can spell out the instructions to produce any type of living thing. A few dozen pairs of nucleotides, out of millions or billions on the complete strand 10-3

5 2007 by David A. Prentice FUNCTIONS OF DNA 1. Cell Repair and Maintenance. DNA contains the instructions to put together hundreds of amino acids into each of the thousands of types of proteins the cell needs to work properly. 2. Cell Reproduction. It contains the instructions to link those proteins into a complete cell, as well as to reproduce itself so that offspring can also function properly and reproduce. 3. Survival and Diversity of the Kind. DNA contains far more genes than are visibly expressed in any individual. Unexpressed genes are available to pass on to future generations. DNA can carry so much extra information that if one breeding pair had the right combination of genes, they could produce an entire kind containing multiple species and breeds. God planned you when He created Adam and Eve! 10-4

6 2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT EVOLUTIONISTS ARE OVERLOOKING DNA is a form of communication – a language written in chemicals – that specifies how to make a living thing from other chemicals. 1. All known communication starts with an idea. 2. The idea is then converted into syntax and grammar in order to be expressed. 3. Once the syntax and grammar are expressed in words, THEN the idea is converted to letters and symbols to convey the message. First comes the concept, then the grammar, then the letters. But evolutionists believe the letters of DNA (A, C, G, T) came first, then accidentally arranged themselves into triplets, then into genes, then the genes accidentally came together into meaningful instructions for how to produce living things. They have the whole process BACKWARDS! 10-5

7 2007 by David A. Prentice EVOLUTION: Natural Processes Only! "Even if all the data point to an intelligent designer, such a hypothesis is excluded from science because it is not naturalistic." Immunologist Scott C. Todd in a letter to Nature magazine, Sept Immunologist Scott C. Todd in a letter to Nature magazine, Sept the theory of evolution itself [is] a theory universally accepted not because it can be proved by logically coherent evidence to be true but because the only alternative, special creation, is clearly incredible. D.M.S. Watson, Adaptation, Nature, Vol. 123 (1929), p

8 2007 by David A. Prentice TWO MAJOR TYPES OF GENES HOMEOTIC: Common to all members of a kind. Responsible for structures characteristic of the kind and often crucial to life. (Heart, lungs, eyes, etc.) All homeotic genes expressed (i.e., produce visible results) in all members of a kind. ALLELES: Genes that can exist in several different forms, e.g., blue vs. brown eyes, hair color, etc. Some are dominant and some recessive. Dominant genes are expressed. Recessive may not be, but can be passed on invisibly from one genera- tion to another and sometimes appear as throwbacks. 10-7

9 2007 by David A. Prentice TYPES OF CELL REPRODUCTION MITOSIS: The cell makes an exact duplicate of its DNA, then splits into two daughter cells that are genetically identical (except in case of a DNA copying mistake, known as a mutation). Most cell reproduction is by mitosis. MEIOSIS: Two parents each furnish a special reproductive cell with half the kinds normal amount of DNA to a single-celled offspring. Except in abnormal cases, the offspring receives all the homeotic genes from its parents. It also receives many of the parents alleles. After conception, the new organism grows by mitosis. 10-8

10 2007 by David A. Prentice EFFECTS OF MUTATION ADULT: Unless the mutation occurs in a reproductive cell, it will not be passed on to offspring. In some cases a mutation may produce cancerous growths; in others it may not have an obvious effect. EARLY STAGES: A mutation in an embryo or infant will be passed on to any cells descended from the affected one. If it is in a homeotic gene it will almost always be harmful or fatal. If it is in an allele of a variable gene it will be recessive and may have no visible effect, but may appear in future generations. 10-9

11 2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT ENZYMES DO Enzymes are special types of protein mol- ecules, made of thousands of amino acids. The shapes of the amino acids cause the enzymes to also have a very precise 3-dimensional shape. They are so small that they are able to capture and manipulate individual atoms or molecules. Enzymes are able to snap open and closed because of their 3-D shape. This allows them to either put things together or take them apart. They serve as catalysts, speeding up a reaction to millions of times its normal rate. Living things use thousands of differ- ent types of en- zymes. Each kind has its own unique set of enzymes. Bovine chymotrypsin model by Sugio, Kashima, Inoue, Maeda, Nose, & Shimohigashi - from the Protein DataBank of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics 10-10

12 2007 by David A. Prentice DNA DUPLICATION – The Beginning Model of a typical helicase enzyme by D. Fass, C. E. Bogden, J. M. Berger - from the Pro- tein DataBank of RCSB. Enzymes known as ligases break the hydrogen bonds between A and T, C and G on the two halves of the DNA strand. Next, helicase enzymes exactly matched to the organisms DNA unwind the halves. This allows the two com- plementary strands to serve as templates to make two com- plete new DNA molecules

13 2007 by David A. Prentice N N N N H O-O- N H H+H+ H+H+ N-N- O-O- N H H N H H+H+ GUANINE CYTOSINE Ribose & Phosphate Three Hydrogen bonding sites each N N H H ADENINE N H+H+ H N-N- O N H H THYMINE O-O- N H+H+ H H C Ribose & Phosphate Two H bonding sites each DNA Error Checking Step 1 – Matching Nucleotides (Hydrogen bonding sites indicated by colors. Blue = positive, red = negative.) Because of matching numbers of hydrogen bonds between pairs, enzymes make a copying mistake only about once in every 100,000 attempts

14 2007 by David A. Prentice DNA Error Checking Step 2 – Preliminary Proofreading Because of the matching numbers of hydrogen bonds, A and T align at a precise distance, as do C and G. If any of the four is accidentally paired with the wrong type, the incorrect distances produce a bump on the newly forming DNA strand. In a process known as proofreading exo- nuclease, enzymes move along the strand and check that all distances are correct. If they detect a bump, they snip out the offending nucleotide and insert the correct one in its place. This brings the rate of copying errors down to about one in 10 million. Correct Spacing: A - T C - G Incorrect: A - A A - C A - G C - C etc

15 2007 by David A. Prentice DNA Error Checking Step 3 – Final Proofreading A family of en- zymes known as DNA polymerases uses the two halves of a DNA strand to make two copies of the original. After the copies are complete, some of the polymerases re- scan them to proofread for errors resulting from nucleotide mismatches. If an error is detected, one of the polymerases snips out the offending segment, then manufactures and inserts a corrected segment. This reduces the rate of copying errors to about one in 10 billion. Part of the clamp-loader complex of DNA polymerase 3 in e. coli. Model by Guenther, Onrust, Sali, ODonnell, & Kuriyan- from the Protein DataBank of RCSB. All this is done by lifeless chemicals. How do they know what to do? An accident of evolution? 10-14

16 2007 by David A. Prentice EVOLUTION: A MATTER OF FAITH Evolutionists believe that the first living things were extremely simple. Because DNA had not evolved yet, they must have used some (unknown) far simpler information storage system. They would not have had any error- correcting mechanisms at all. Atheists believe that the elaborate error-correcting mechanisms were later added to DNA one mutation at a time. They must believe that the intricate system of enzymes that prevent errors is itself the result of thousands of perfectly coordinated errors. Errors produced the error prevention mechanism. Theists believe that God added the error correcting mechanism much later, then overrode it millions of times because He wanted so much to have evolution

17 2007 by David A. Prentice IS IT SOUP YET? NO! Even with a primordial soup containing only Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen, the chemistry is so complicated that experimenters buy purified amino acids instead of making their own. But this soup is far too simple! (1) Two amino acids require Sulfur; (2) DNA and RNA require Phosphorous; (3) Early plants would have required Magnesium for photosynthesis; and (4) Living things also need Iron, Copper, Calcium, and many other elements. When the extra elements are added to the soup, the chemistry to produce a cell becomes impossibly hard

18 2007 by David A. Prentice PARALLEL PLANT AND ANIMAL MUTATIONS Many members of the animal kingdom need elements such as molybdenum, manganese, copper, selenium, iron, calcium, potassium, and so on. They have no way to extract these directly from the environment. It just so happens that many plants furnish exactly the minerals that the animals need, in a usable form. Since every living thing is supposed to have come from the same single-celled ancestor, there would have had to be two complementary and parallel series of mutations going on for hundreds of millions of years: 2. Plant DNA had to mutate so as to get the minerals out of the ground and make them available to the animals. Is this an amazing series of millions of coincidences? Or does it point toward design instead? Animal DNA had to mutate so as to require those specific minerals.

19 2007 by David A. Prentice MUTATIONS KNOWN TO HAVE A BENEFIT BENEFIT TO INDIVIDUAL 1. A certain mutation in a worm known as C. elegans causes it to have more than twice the normal life span. 2. Some birds on the Galapagos islands have inherited a mutation causing them to have small, poorly developed wings. This helps them to be better swimmers. 3. If a person receives the sickle cell trait from just one of his parents, he will be immune to malaria. Evolution is supposed to happen to species, not individuals. Even these beneficial mutations go the wrong way! HARM TO SPECIES 1. The reproduction rate is greatly reduced, so the species suffers. 2. The birds cannot fly. In any other environment, they could not compete with other species and would probably die off quickly. 3. Malaria is serious but curable. It is not added to the gene pool. Sickle cell is incurable and permanently damages the human gene pool. A few mutations benefit the individual affected. However, they all harm the affected species

20 2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT IS SICKLE CELL? Model of normal hemoglobin by Fermi & Perutz - from the Protein DataBank of RCSB. Model of sickle-cell hemoglobin by Harrington, Adachi, & Royer – from the Protein DataBank of RCSB. Site of mutation Because of the shape of the hemoglobin molecule, normal blood cells are shaped like flattened discs. They flow freely through tiny blood ves- sels. The sickle cell mutation changes the shape of the hemoglobin molecule. Since the blood cell contains millions of these molecules, it as- sumes a sickle shape. This can lead to blockages in small blood vessels. Sickle cell prevents oxygen from reaching cells. An individual receiving the mutation from both parents will likely die a slow, painful death BENEFIT: If the individual receives the sickle cell trait from only one parent, he or she is immune to malaria. HARM: sickle cell is permanently added to the gene pool. It does not help the species evolve; it damages it.

21 2007 by David A. Prentice HOW CELLS MANUFACTURE PROTEINS 1. The cell sends a chemical message (e.g. a hormone) to the DNA in its center indicating which protein is needed. 2. Certain enzymes locate the DNA segment that codes for the needed protein, then ligases and helicases unzip the two halves of the DNA strand at that location. 3. Other enzymes such as RNA polymerases use one of the strands to put together messenger RNA, which will be used to make the protein. 4. The mRNA is transported to an area of the cell known as endoplasmic reticulum where the manufacturing is done. 5. The mRNA attaches to ribosomes to prepare for the manufacturing to begin. 6. Transfer RNA molecules move into place and match up with three nucleotides on mRNA. Each tRNA molecule (three nucleotides long) matches with exactly one of the 20 amino acids used in living things. 7. As each tRNA molecule puts its attached amino acid in place, the chain of amino acids grows. The tRNA releases the amino acid and goes off to be recycled. 8. When the chain of amino acids is complete, it is carried to another area of the cell where it is folded into its correct 3-dimensional shape. 9. Finally, the complete protein is transported to the area where it is needed

22 2007 by David A. Prentice THE GENETIC CODE Many genes in DNA contain the instructions to manufacture proteins. These coding genes are made of hundreds or thousands of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T. Coding genes are broken down into triplets. Each triplet contains the information to place a specific amino acid in a protein, as follows. Many genes in DNA contain the instructions to manufacture proteins. These coding genes are made of hundreds or thousands of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T. Coding genes are broken down into triplets. Each triplet contains the information to place a specific amino acid in a protein, as follows. Source: Sean Black, codes indicating the end of a coding section AGT, AGC, TCT, TCC, TCA, or TCG – Serine TTA, TTG, CTT, CTC, CTA, or CTG – Leucine CCT, CCC, CCA, or CCG - Proline ACT, ACC, ACA, or ACG - Threonine GTT, GTC, GTA, or GTG - Valine GCT, GCC, GCA, or GCG - Alanine GGT, GGC, GGA, or GGG - Glycine CGT, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, or AGG – Arginine TGG - Tryptophan ATG - Methionine TTT or TTC - Phenylalanine. TAT or TAC - Tyrosine TGT or TGC - Cysteine CAT or CAC - Histidine CAA or CAG - Glutamine AAT or AAC - Asparagine AAA or AAG - Lyseine GAT or GAC - Aspartic acid GAA or GAG - Glutamic acid ATT, ATC, or ATA - Isoleucine TAA, TAG, and TGA – stop 10-21

23 2007 by David A. Prentice HOW SICKLE CELL HAPPENS A single DNA copying mistake causes sickle cell anemia. Normal hemoglobin contains about 600 amino acids, including the sequence -leucine-threonine-proline-glutamic acid-glutamic acid-lysine-serine The DNA sequence is CTG ACT CCT GAG GAG AAG TCT. Sickle cell hemoglobin differs by one amino acid. The altered sequence is -leucine – threonine – proline – valine -glutamic acid–lysine-serine The DNA sequence is CTG ACT CCT GTG GAG AAG TCT. Valine substitutes for glutamic acid because of one wrong nucleotide (T in place of A) out of three billion in DNA! Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratories,

24 2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT IS SICKLE CELL? Model of normal hemoglobin by Fermi & Perutz - from the Protein DataBank of RCSB. Model of sickle-cell hemoglobin by Harrington, Adachi, & Royer – from the Protein DataBank of RCSB. Site of mutation Because of the shape of the hemoglobin molecule, normal blood cells are shaped like flattened discs. They flow freely through tiny blood ves- sels. The sickle cell mutation changes the shape of the hemoglobin molecule. Since the blood cell contains millions of these molecules, it as- sumes a sickle shape. This can lead to blockages in small blood vessels. Sickle cell prevents oxygen from reaching cells. An individual receiving the mutation from both parents will likely die a slow, painful death. BENEFIT: If the individual receives the sickle cell trait from only one parent, he or she is immune to malaria. HARM: sickle cell is permanently added to the gene pool. It does not help the species evolve; it damages it.

25 2007 by David A. Prentice WHY MUTATIONS ARE HARMFUL Could we replace one letter or space at a time in the phrase In the beginning God created to make it say For God so loved the world ? Of course! But how far would we get if it had to make sense every step of the way? Not very far at all. Mutations have to make biological sense. If not, they would produce a corpse rather than an evolving line of organisms

26 2007 by David A. Prentice NUMBERS OF BASE PAIRS IN DNA Bacteria have only a few million base pairs in their DNA. If everything evolved from the same one-celled ancestor, the most highly evolved (such as humans) ought to have the greatest number of base pairs. Bacteria have only a few million base pairs in their DNA. If everything evolved from the same one-celled ancestor, the most highly evolved (such as humans) ought to have the greatest number of base pairs. TYPE OF ORGANISM Simplest Bacteria Insects Birds Reptiles Most plants Humans Sharks and Frogs Newts Some varieties of beans Some varieties of lilies # OF BASE PAIRS 1 to 2 million Hundreds of millions A billion 1 to 2 billion Hundreds of millions to several billion 3 billion 4 billion 30 billion 100 billion EVOLUTION IS NOWHERE TO BE SEEN IN DNA

27 2007 by David A. Prentice VIRUSES AND GENE THERAPY Medical science has learned how to use specific viruses to treat mutated genes. A virus starts out containing a small amount of DNA or RNA. Its normal genetic contents are chemically removed, then a desired unmutated gene is inserted. If everything goes according to plan, the virus then puts the corrected gene into the patients cell. Medical science has learned how to use specific viruses to treat mutated genes. A virus starts out containing a small amount of DNA or RNA. Its normal genetic contents are chemically removed, then a desired unmutated gene is inserted. If everything goes according to plan, the virus then puts the corrected gene into the patients cell. WHY GENE THERAPY IS IRRELEVANT TO EVOLUTION: 1. Gene therapy goes contrary to nature. It is anything but ran- dom. It requires a great deal of intelligent design and careful control to insert specific desired genes into a cell. 2. It is not the virus itself that helps the species, but the artificially inserted gene. Viruses must be carefully selected so as to be effective on the particular species, without harming the subject. 3. The original mutation does not improve anything. The gene therapy is an attempt to undo the mutation by inserting the normal, unmutated gene

28 2007 by David A. Prentice VIRUSES AND BACTERIA 1. The vast majority of bacteria are not harmful. Their work as decomposers makes them crucial to life on earth. 2. Only a small number of viruses affect any given species. Most viruses, too, are not harmful. They are essential to the survival of bacteria. They act like bees pollinating flowers, allowing bacteria to exchange genetic information that helps them to survive in case of a change in their environment. 3. Viruses are insufficient to add billions of nucleotides to DNA. a.Only a few dozen viruses affect any given species, and each virus only contains one to three genes. Even if a species gained dozens of genes this way and the process repeated hundreds of times, the number of nucleotides added would be a few million, not billions. b.The process would stop once multi-celled organisms evolved. Viruses are usually not passed on to future generations in sexual reproduction

29 2007 by David A. Prentice DUPLICATION OF EXISTING GENES Since mutations do not add genetic information and viruses add only a small amount, where did all the extra DNA in higher organisms come from? Many evolutionists believe that duplicate copies of existing, fully functional genes are occasionally added during reproduction, then the extra copies mutate to produce new features. Since mutations do not add genetic information and viruses add only a small amount, where did all the extra DNA in higher organisms come from? Many evolutionists believe that duplicate copies of existing, fully functional genes are occasionally added during reproduction, then the extra copies mutate to produce new features. PROBLEMS: Adding extra copies of genes is usually not beneficial. This is what causes Down, Warkany, Patau, and Edwards syndromes. 2. The duplicate gene contains instructions to perform a specific function. Changing it through mutations causes a loss of genetic information, not a gain. 3. Mutations would have to be responsible for the very first appearance of blood, hearts, lungs, bones, eyes, ears, legs, wings, and every other structure not found in bacteria. 4. Meanwhile, the mutations in the animal kingdom would have made ani- mals need iron, calcium, copper, manganese, molybdenum and many others just as the mutations in the plant kingdom caused plants to go out and get those very minerals out of the soil so animals could use them. Who needs God when you have all-powereful mutations?

30 2007 by David A. Prentice HOW ABOUT SUPERBUGS? Suppose you have an automated barnyard set up to feed and water 1000 chickens, of whom 950 are white and 50 are brown. A SIMILAR THING HAPPENS WITH BACTERIA. HAS ANYTHING EVOLVED? NO! Nothing new was added. Since there is no competition, the 50 brown chickens breed and multiply quickly. Any white babies die quickly. Before long, you have 1000 brown chickens. The machinery sweeps away the carcasses. Only brown ones are left. A competitor sneaks in poison, but only white chickens are susceptible. They all die. We introduce antibiotics, to which many of them are susceptible. However, a few are immune from the start. Since there is no competition, the resistant strain multiplies quickly and fills the ecological niche. Even in samples of bacteria frozen for centuries, we always find that some are resistant to any given antibiotic. Theyve always had the resistance. HAS ANYTHING EVOLVED? NO! Nothing new was added

31 2007 by David A. Prentice PLEIOTROPY Only a small part of DNA contains the coding to produce proteins. On the coding sections, it has long been thought that one gene -- one protein. Experimenters have deliberately induced mutations in many genes in higher organisms. To their surprise, almost every gene which has been studied in this way affects not just one, but two or more body structures. We must conclude that many segments of DNA are used two or more times -- much like the subroutines in a computer program. DNA contains far more information, encoded in a far more complex way, than we ever realized. AN ACCIDENT OF EVOLUTION? 10-30

32 2007 by David A. Prentice Pseudogenes – Are They Junk DNA? Many species have similar segments of DNA which have no known function. Evolutionists claim that these are pseudogenes or junk DNA left over from common ancestors. THE ATTITUDE: We are SO SMART that if we dont know the function, there must not be any function. THE TRUTH: 1. Though we know only a tiny percentage of what happens in DNA, we have already learned that some segments formerly thought to be useless -- including several pseudogenes -- have a definite function after all. 2. Some pseudogenes are thought to be involved in cell differentiation. 3. Some have now been found to have a regulatory function, turning other genes on and off. 4. DNA is a 3-dimensional structure, looping back on itself in many places. Pseudogenes may contain structural information to help it do so. 5. Some segments of DNA contain coding information that is not obvious because the segments are not continuous. Some pseudogenes may fall into this category. 6. Many pseudogenes may be damaged copies of formerly functional alleles. This is deterioration, NOT evolution

33 2007 by David A. Prentice DIFFERENCES IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES Out of thousands of families of proteins, the only sequence that can be used to support evolution is cytochrome-c. bacteria yeasts plants insects verte- brates JAWLESS Verte- brates (cyclo- stomes) bony fish cartilagin- ous fish JAWED Vertebrates TERRESTRIAL Vertebrates amphibia reptiles mammals AMNIOTES PRIMATES monkeys apes humans gibbons rodents, cattle, etc. between any insect and any vertebrate will be about the same; between any bony fish and any mammal will be about the same; and between humans and any type of monkey will be about the same. There is no evolutionary pattern. For any given family of proteins, the per- cent difference between any two major groups shows a hierarchical structure. For instance, the variation between any bacterium and any insect will be about the same; After Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis 10-32

34 2007 by David A. Prentice Homology – The Second Pillar of Evolution Homology is the presence of sim- ilar structures in otherwise dissimilar crea- tures -- e.g., four limbs in many land verte- brates. If these similarities show evolution from common ancestors, then homo- logous structures should be pro- duced by homologous genes. THEY ARE NOT! Genes that produce similar structures seldom -- if ever -- occur at corresponding locations on the DNA of the affected animals or plants. Source: M. Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis

35 2007 by David A. Prentice MORE HOMOLOGY PROBLEMS Not only do similar structures in the adults of different types come from dissimilar genes, they often come from different body segments in the embryo. Not only do similar structures in the adults of different types come from dissimilar genes, they often come from different body segments in the embryo. A FEW EXAMPLES: INSECTS: Adult organs that are similar in different species are produced in bewilderingly diverse ways during meta- morphosis. For example, in the larvae of one of the most common categories of insects, the beetle (Coeloptera), the foregut and hindgut develop without any cell destruction. However, in butterflies (Lepidoptera), flies (Diptera), ants and bees (Hymenoptera) new structures devel- op only as old ones are replaced. -- R.F. Chapman, The Insects. PLANT SEEDS: Most biologists consider conifer seeds (pine cones, etc.) homologous to those of angiosperms (flowering plants). However, key parts of the seed such as the ovule and endosperm form in a way that profoundly differs in the two groups in a number of important respects. - M. Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis

36 2007 by David A. Prentice MORE HOMOLOGY PROBLEMS VERTEBRATE EMBRYOS VERTEBRATE EMBRYOS The gastrula stage occurs when the fertilized egg has reproduced enough times to form a hollow sphere one cell thick. DEVELOPMENT TO THESE STAGES occurs in radically different ways in different vertebrates. The blastula de- velops later, when there are three layers: endoderm, meso- derm, and ectoderm. The alimentary canal (digestive tract) is formed from different embryonic sites in different groups. The forelimbs in different types develop from different embryonic seg- ments, ranging from 2-5 in newts, 6-9 in lizards, and in humans. The kidney, ureter, amniotic and allantoic membranes develop differently in different species. Image from Wikimedia Commons: Courtesy of Scott, Foresman, & Co. U.S. Government public domain image from Wikimedia Commons

37 2007 by David A. Prentice Biogeography – The Third Pillar of Evolution The same species or genera of animals and plants are sometimes found in different places throughout the world, but with variations. This phenomenon arises because of distance or natural barriers. It has nothing to do with new features evolving. Creation is able to account for biogeography just as well as evolution

38 2007 by David A. Prentice HOW GENES BECOME SORTED OUT Suppose beak shape is determined by two alleles, B (dominant, straight beak) and b (recessive, curved beak). If both parents have both alleles, they will both have straight beaks. Suppose beak shape is determined by two alleles, B (dominant, straight beak) and b (recessive, curved beak). If both parents have both alleles, they will both have straight beaks. POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS DURING BREEDING Allele from Allele from Visible Result Father Mother B BBB - straight beak BbBb - straight beak bBbB - straight beak bbbb - curved beak Bb On average, about one in four babies will have a curved beak.

39 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups Imagine an island 50 miles long and one mile wide, with a dormant volcano in the middle. It contains curve-beak and straight-beak birds, and trees suitable for feeding both varieties. W W E E

40 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups Imagine an island 50 miles long and one mile wide, with a dormant volcano in the middle. It contains curve-beak and straight-beak birds, and trees suitable for feeding both varieties. W W E E One day the volcano erupts. Its poison gases blow to the east, killing all the birds and all the trees capable of feeding straight-beak birds. (The other trees on the eastern half are more resistant to the gases, and survive.)

41 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups Imagine an island 50 miles long and one mile wide, with a dormant volcano in the middle. It contains curve-beak and straight-beak birds, and trees suitable for feeding both varieties. W W E E One day the volcano erupts. Its poison gases blow to the east, killing all the birds and all the trees capable of feeding straight-beak birds. (The other trees on the eastern half are more resistant to the gases, and survive.) After a while, the volcano becomes dormant again. The birds on the west begin to spread to the east again. Those with straight beaks find no food and either go back or die.

42 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups Imagine an island 50 miles long and one mile wide, with a dormant volcano in the middle. It contains curve-beak and straight-beak birds, and trees suitable for feeding both varieties. W W E E One day the volcano erupts. Its poison gases blow to the east, killing all the birds and all the trees capable of feeding straight-beak birds. (The other trees on the eastern half are more resistant to the gases, and survive.) After a while, the volcano becomes dormant again. The birds on the west begin to spread to the east again. Those with straight beaks find no food and either go back or die. Those with curved beaks thrive. Since they no longer have the gene for straight beaks, before long the eastern half of the island is populated only by curved-beak birds. Those with curved beaks thrive. Since they no longer have the gene for straight beaks, before long the eastern half of the island is populated only by curved-beak birds.

43 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups One day a great windstorm blows many of the birds to another island that is too far away for them to fly back. The trees on the other island are only suitable for feeding straight-beaks. W W E E

44 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups One day a great windstorm blows many of the birds to another island that is too far away for them to fly back. The trees on the other island are only suitable for feeding straight-beaks. W W E E Since there is no food on the new island suit- able for curve-beaks, Since there is no food on the new island suit- able for curve-beaks, they all starve. Soon the island is popu- lated only by straight-beaks.

45 2007 by David A. Prentice How Specialization Produces Distinct Groups One day a great windstorm blows many of the birds to another island that is too far away for them to fly back. The trees on the other island are only suitable for feeding straight-beaks. W W E E Since there is no food on the new island suit- able for curve-beaks, Since there is no food on the new island suit- able for curve-beaks, they all starve. Soon the island is popu- lated only by straight-beaks. founder population, curve-beaks straight-beaks There are now three distinct groups: the founder population, the curve-beaks in the east, and the straight-beaks on the new island. NOTHING NEW HAS EVOLVED. The groups became specialized as genes were ELIMINATED.

46 2007 by David A. Prentice BIOGEOGRAPHY: Specialization, not Evolution! The patterns of biogeography we see are nothing more than specialization. The patterns of biogeography we see are nothing more than specialization. As a kind radiates outward from a founder population, different genes are filtered out in different areas by environmental condi- tions. The farther the kind moves from the founder group, the more specialized the subgroups become. No new genes are added, but many are lost. Biogeography offers no explanation for where the founder population came from in the first place. Biogeography offers no explanation for where the founder population came from in the first place.

47 2007 by David A. Prentice Unusual Animals and Plants of the Galapagos The Galapagos are an isolated chain of islands 600 miles off the Pacific coast of Ecuador. When Darwin went there as naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle in 1835, he no- ticed many highly specialized groups including marine iguanas, tortoises, penguins, and finches. He cited these as evidence for evolution. However, evolutionists believe the islands, which are volcanic, are only a few million years old. Since the genes for each type of animal would have taken far longer to evolve, each must have come from a founder pop- ulation which migrated from some- where else. The Galapagos animals and plants are excellent examples of specialization, but they have nothing to do with the evolution of new types

48 2007 by David A. Prentice THE GALAPAGOS FINCHES Some have classified Galapagos finches into 13 different species based on beak shapes. This is incorrect. At least a few types are able to interbreed. All 13 species may be variants within a single species. Each beak shape matches well with a specific food source, such as certain types of seeds. If a food type increases due to weather and other environmental circumstances, finches with matching beaks prosper. If the food supply diminishes, they tend to die off. When the circumstances return to normal, so do the percentages of each beak type. There is no evolution going on within the finch population

49 2007 by David A. Prentice Natural Selection: Insufficient for Evolution. Suppose an insane dictator was sensitive about his height and ordered that everyone taller than him be killed. The average height in his country would immediately decrease. However, as soon as he died or was de- posed, the tall children would no longer be eliminated. Within a few years the average height in his nation would return to its former level. Likewise, the change in average beak size during droughts on the Galapagos islands occurred only because the finches with larger beaks died off. When the droughts ended the large-beak finches began to thrive again and the average beak size returned to its original level EVOLUTION REQUIRES THE APPEARANCE OF NEW GENES, NOT THE ELIMINATION OF OLD ONES.

50 2007 by David A. Prentice AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS MONOTREMES: The only known egg-laying mammals. No living or fossil transitions lead up to them. MARSUPIALS: Give birth to partially developed young, who crawl into the mothers pouch and then nurse until fully developed. Though some Australian environments are unique to that continent, others occur at various places around the world. There are marsupial equivalents of mice, cats, deer, wolves, badgers, moles, flying squirrels, rabbits, etc. The opossum is the only living marsupial found native to areas outside Australia, but many fossil marsupials are found around the world

51 2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT DETERMINES SKIN COLOR? All humans except albinos have the same skin pigment, melanin. Its concentra- tion is believed to be determined by three gene sites. More dominant genes mean more melanin and darker skin. Across: mothers contribution. Vertical: fathers. Number of dominant genes shown in blue. All humans except albinos have the same skin pigment, melanin. Its concentra- tion is believed to be determined by three gene sites. More dominant genes mean more melanin and darker skin. Across: mothers contribution. Vertical: fathers. Number of dominant genes shown in blue. One pair of parents with all the alleles could have children with up to seven dominant genes. Skin shades would range from very light to very dark. They would all be brothers and sisters. One pair of parents with all the alleles could have children with up to seven dominant genes. Skin shades would range from very light to very dark. They would all be brothers and sisters. Gametes ABC ABc AbC Abc aBC aBc abC abc ABC AABBCC AABBCc AABbCC AABbCc AaBBCC AaBBCc AaBbCC AaBbCc ABc AABBCc AABBcc AABbCc AABbcc AaBBCc AaBBcc AaBbCc AaBbcc AbC AABbCC AABbCc AAbbCC AAbbCc AaBbCC AaBbCc AabbCC AabbCc Abc AABbCc AABbcc AAbbCc Aabbcc AaBbCc AaBbcc AabbCc Aabbcc aBC AaBBCC AaBBCc AaBbCC AaBbCc aaBBCC aaBBCc aaBbCC aaBbCc aBc AaBBCc AaBBcc AaBbCc AaBbcc aaBBCc aaBBcc aaBbCc aaBbcc abC AaBbCC AaBbCc AabbCC AabbCc aaBbCC aaBbCc aabbCC aabbCc abc AaBbCc AaBbcc AabbCc Aabbcc aaBbCc aaBbcc aabbCc aabbcc Source:

52 2007 by David A. Prentice ORIGIN OF RACES ACCORDING TO GENESIS 1. All of us came from Noahs sons and their wives. 2. Until Babel people were freely inter- breeding so their genes were not sorted out. There would have been no sharply defined groups. 3. At Babel God decided which people would speak which languages, perhaps according to their genes. From then on they were no longer interbreeding. Clearly defined groups could develop quickly. 4. Natural selection did not cause the group- ing, but would have reinforced it. 5. The races are just large extended families within the human race. They are a visual reminder that God will not allow mankind to unite in rebellion against Him

53 2007 by David A. Prentice BASIC PREMISES OF EVOLUTION AND CREATION EVOLUTION: 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature. EVOLUTION: 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature. CREATION: 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natual processes, some things may not be. CREATION: 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natual processes, some things may not be. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old

54 2007 by David A. Prentice NO POSSIBILITY BUT EVOLUTION! In other words, Our minds are made up. Dont try to confuse us with the facts. In other words, Our minds are made up. Dont try to confuse us with the facts. Biologists must constantly keep in mind that what they see was not designed, but rather evolved. "What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery," by Francis Crick (Nobel Prize winner for co-discovery of the structure of DNA) 10-53

55 2007 by David A. Prentice WHO NEEDS FACTS WHEN YOU CAN MAKE UP STORIES? Darwin said, To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of Spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree... Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imper- fect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certain the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case; and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, should not be considered as subversive of the theory. So did he give up? NO! He made up a story! So did he give up? NO! He made up a story! SINCE WE CAN MAKE UP A STORY, THEREFORE OUR STORY MUST BE TRUE! SINCE WE CAN MAKE UP A STORY, THEREFORE OUR STORY MUST BE TRUE!

56 2007 by David A. Prentice SOME OF THE MADE-UP STORIES OF EVOLUTION: Origin of matter and energy How a Big Bang could have worked Origin of the chemical elements Development of an orderly universe from a disorderly explosion Origin of stars Origin of the solar system Origin of life Origin of RNA/DNA/genetic code Origin of homochirality Development of increased genetic information by copying mistakes Development of irreducibly complex structures & systems throughout nature Origin of every major type of living thing Origin of sex Origin of humans Origin of consciousness, morality, humor etc., etc. And since evolutionists make up good stories, we are supposed to shut up and believe the stories are true! And since evolutionists make up good stories, we are supposed to shut up and believe the stories are true!

57 2007 by David A. Prentice IS INTELLIGENT DESIGN UNSCIENTIFIC? Intelligent Design (I.D.) is a broad concept that allows for the possibility of either direct creation or theistic evolution. Judges nationwide have bought into the atheistic claim that since the presence of a designer cannot be tested, therefore I.D. is unscientific. True, we cannot scientifically prove the EXISTENCE of a designer. But the judges have overlooked an ob- vious question: what sort of scientific test could you perform to prove the NON-EXISTENCE of a designer? In what way is teaching the IMPOSSIBILITY of intel- ligent design any more scientific than teaching the POSSIBILITY of intelligent design?

58 2007 by David A. Prentice Look at many phenomena and try to discover a pattern that points to a general principle. Inductive logic tries to determine the most reasonable (most likely) conclusion. This is how the scientific method works! 2. DEDUCTIVE. THE TWO TYPES OF LOGIC 1. INDUCTIVE. Start with general principles (a priori assumptions) accepted as true without proof and apply them to specific cases. Deductive logic tries to establish absolute truth, i.e., assuming that the premises are true, then the conclusion MUST be true

59 2007 by David A. Prentice The conclusions of inductive logic result from examination of observable phenomena (a posteriori). They are testable. The premises of deductive logic may come from inductive conclusions, or they may just be statements accepted as self-evident (a priori). They are not necessarily the result of testing. CONTRASTING LOGIC Whether you believe I.D. is possible or impossible, its not scientific. Its a question of deductive logic based on the unprovable a priori assumption that there could or could not be a God. Whether you believe I.D. is possible or impossible, its not scientific. Its a question of deductive logic based on the unprovable a priori assumption that there could or could not be a God.

60 2007 by David A. Prentice BASIC PREMISES OF EVOLUTION AND CREATION EVOLUTION: 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature. EVOLUTION: 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature. CREATION: 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natual processes, some things may not be. CREATION: 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natual processes, some things may not be. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old

61 2007 by David A. Prentice ARGUMENTS FOR DESIGN 1. OPINION (e.g. beauty in nature implies a designer with a sense of beauty). Not very persuasive to someone who thinks nature is ugly. 2. EXTREME IMPROBABILITY in a specific pattern. No theoretical barrier says its impossible for an armadillo or ground-hog to make it across a busy 1000 lane superhighway - he just doesnt

62 2007 by David A. Prentice SPECIFIED IMPROBABILITY In any collection of matter, no one arrangement is more or less improbable than any other. (Somebody is probably going to win the lottery.) However, this is not what the search for design is about. We are looking not just for improbability, but improba- bility in a specif- ic direction. (Is Mt. Rushmore an accident? If the same person wins the lottery week after week, arent you going to get suspicious?) In nature, most arrangements produce meaningless junk. Only a few produce life. The question is, how improbable is it that those specific arrangements could arise by chance? 10-61

63 2007 by David A. Prentice OCCAMS RAZOR: Not a hard and fast rule, but a good guideline. The fewer stories you have to make up, the better. Entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity. A principle of logic that can be paraphrased as, The simplest explanation that fits all the facts is usually the best

64 2007 by David A. Prentice SOME OF THE MADE-UP STORIES OF EVOLUTION: Origin of matter and energy How a Big Bang could have worked Origin of the chemical elements Development of an orderly universe from a disorderly explosion Origin of stars Origin of the solar system Origin of life Origin of RNA/DNA/genetic code Origin of homochirality Development of increased genetic information by copying mistakes Development of irreducibly complex structures & systems throughout nature Origin of every major type of living thing Origin of sex Origin of humans Origin of consciousness, morality, humor etc., etc. And since evolutionists make up good stories, we are supposed to shut up and believe the stories are true! And since evolutionists make up good stories, we are supposed to shut up and believe the stories are true!

65 2007 by David A. Prentice CONVERGENCE OF PROBABILITIES Evolutionists make up story after story about how random chance could have produced the appearance of design. Even if an event is highly probable, you can still make up a story to explain how the opposite could be true. It is possible that your story could be right. There is no limit to the number of stories you can make up to explain away high probability. Any one of them could also be true. However, the more stories you have to make up, the less likely it is that ALL of them are true. The fewer stories you have to make up, the more likely it is that your basic idea is true. Since evolution requires everything to be explainable by natural processes, if even ONE evolutionary story is wrong then all of evolution is falsified! 10-64

66 2007 by David A. Prentice ARGUMENTS FOR DESIGN 1. OPINION (e.g. beauty in nature implies a designer with a sense of beauty). Not very persuasive to someone who thinks nature is ugly. 2. EXTREME IMPROBABILITY in a specific pattern. No theoretical barrier says its impossible for an armadillo or ground-hog to make it across a busy 1000 lane superhighway - he just doesnt

67 2007 by David A. Prentice ARGUMENTS FOR DESIGN 3. IRREDUCIBLE COMPLEXITY. A mousetrap is a good example of an irreducibly complex machine. It must have a base, hammer, spring, latch, and trigger. If any one of them is missing or not working properly, it is not a mouse- trap but a pile of junk. If any part of an irreducibly complex machine is missing or not working right, the whole thing is a useless waste of materials. hammer trigger base spring latch 10-66

68 2007 by David A. Prentice Irreducible Complexity of Cell Reproduction The first living cell would have needed: 1. Enough functioning proteins, enzymes, etc. to be alive in the first place. 2. Some way to hold the information needed to make a fairly accurate copy of all these parts so that it could reproduce -- either DNA or something like it. 3. A way to move the stored information somewhere that it could be used to make copies of all the needed parts -- messenger RNA or something like it. 4. A place for the copying to happen, and a mechanism to bring the parts together -- something like ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and transfer RNA. But the instructions to make all these are stored in the DNA! All the parts had to be present at the same time or the cell would have died and life would have become extinct

69 2007 by David A. Prentice UNIVERSAL GENETIC CODE The first living things are supposed to have had no DNA at all. It is supposed to have evolved later, by accident. As it evolved, DNA is supposed to have experienced so many accidental copying errors that some types of organisms acquired over a hundred billion base pairs. The error-correcting mechanisms are supposed to have evolved by accidental errors that were not corrected. Every type of organism, no matter how primitive or advanced, uses the same genetic code and the same protein manufacturing mechanism of messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, ribosomes, and endoplas- mic reticulum. OOPS – THAT PART FORGOT TO EVOLVE! OOPS – THAT PART FORGOT TO EVOLVE! Does it seem reasonable to you that DNA could have mutated billions of steps from nothing to its present condition, while the genetic code and manufacturing apparatus it uses DID NOT CHANGE EVEN THE SLIGHTEST BIT? Does it seem reasonable to you that DNA could have mutated billions of steps from nothing to its present condition, while the genetic code and manufacturing apparatus it uses DID NOT CHANGE EVEN THE SLIGHTEST BIT?

70 2007 by David A. Prentice The Blood Coagulation Cascade Proteins in normal type promote clot formation. Proteins followed by an asterisk are activated forms. Proteins in normal type promote clot formation. Proteins followed by an asterisk are activated forms. Names in italics and arrows ending in bars indicate proteins acting to prevent, localize, or remove blood clots. (Source: Michael Behe, Darwins Black Box) If any part is missing or not working right, you either bleed to death or die of blood clots

71 2007 by David A. Prentice ANTIBODIES Antibodies can bind to over 10 billion different shapes because of the billions of possible combinations of amino acids in the heavy and light chains. light chain heavy chain binding sites Small part of DNA strand (not continuous) Antibody gene cluster #1 (250 gene segments) #2 (10 seg.) #3 (6 seg.) #4 (8 seg.) One piece of the gene that will produce the heavy chain is randomly selected from the 250 segments in cluster 1. This is added to one from the 10 in clus- ter 2 plus one of the 6 from cluster 3 and one of the 8 from cluster 4. This gives over 100,000 possible heavy chains. The light chain is formed using three segments instead of four, but not neces- sarily the same parts of the segments. When light and heavy chains are com- bined, this amazingly efficient system uses fewer than 300 gene segments to produce over 10 billion distinct types of antibodies. (Source: Michael Behe, Darwins Black Box) 10-70

72 2007 by David A. Prentice Irreducible Complexity of the Antibody System It would be wasteful to have billions of unneeded antibodies of all types floating around in the bloodstream. It would be wasteful to have billions of unneeded antibodies of all types floating around in the bloodstream. Antibodies are produced in large quantities only when needed. This occurs because some of them stay fastened to the outside of their cells and send messages to the manufacturing apparatus only when they capture a matching invader. The new mass- produced antibodies then move freely throughout the body to mark the invaders for destruction. Not only is the vertebrate system irreducibly complex - there is nothing in invertebrates from which it could have evolved! Source: Michael Behe, Darwins Black Box Antibody (size exaggerated) cell oily attachment patch multistage messenger system manufacturing apparatus All the components are needed for at least minimal function. All the components are needed for at least minimal function

73 2007 by David A. Prentice VACUOLES AND LYSOSOMES Cells often float in a watery environment. Since they contain many chemicals, the surrounding water tries to equalize the chemical concentration through the process of osmosis. This steadily increases the pressure inside the cell. It would eventually burst and die, except for the presence of safety chambers called vacuoles which periodically release the excess pressure. Vacuoles exist because DNA codes for them. There would have been no DNA at the beginning, so early cells would have exploded before they had time to reproduce. Once a cell dies, it just wastes space. A multicelled organism would quickly became a bag of garbage, except that tiny suicide sacs called lysosomes rupture at death, releasing enzymes which digest the dead cell from the inside out and allow its remnants to be flushed out or recycled. Lysosomes, too, are present because DNA codes for them. Lysosomes, too, are present because DNA codes for them. Since there would have been no DNA at the beginning, life would have quickly drowned in garbage.

74 2007 by David A. Prentice BACTERIAL MOTORS Certain bacteria swim by means of rotary flagella. These are driven by reversible electric motors! Certain bacteria swim by means of rotary flagella. These are driven by reversible electric motors! one direction - stationary opposite direction – forward motion Courtesy of Dr. Richard Lumsden Detail of motor/coupler/ flagellum complex flagellum universal joint/speed reducer Outer cell membrane Bushings Inner plasma membrane Stator studs C ring Rod (drive shaft) S ring M ring Rotor (After Behe, Darwins Black Box)

75 2007 by David A. Prentice CAMOUFLAGE Many animals (Walking Sticks, Leafhoppers, Oyster Fish, et al.) blend in with their surroundings, because they look like the surroundings. They blend perfectly with their environment not because they need camouflage but because it is programmed into their DNA. This is hard enough to explain when they look like inanimate objects such as rocks, but even harder when many of them look like surrounding plants whose features are also determined by their DNA. Either the two kinds of DNA evolved independently and just happen to fit together or else they were designed that way. from photospot-stickinsects.htm

76 2007 by David A. Prentice Active Transport in Plants Nature tends toward equilibrium, e.g., energy flows from greater to lesser concentration (2nd Law of Thermodynamics), water flows across a membrane in osmosis to try to equalize the concentration of chemicals, etc. Plants do exactly the opposite. Their roots contain enzymes that allow them to seek out specific elements (iron, manganese, etc.) from the surrounding soil, allowing them to reach up to 10,000 times as high a concentration of those elements as the soil. This is exactly the opposite of what nat- ural processes produce. It only happens because the plants DNA contains the coding to produce those specific enzymes.

77 2007 by David A. Prentice THE BOMBARDIER BEETLE Image courtesy of Patrick Coin – from wikimedia.org An ordinary looking beetle with an extraordinary defense mechanism The whole sys- tem is pro- grammed in the beetles DNA. If any of the parts are missing, the mechanism is useless. Even if all the parts were present, if any one of them did not work right, the beetles ancestors might have exploded! The whole sys- tem is pro- grammed in the beetles DNA. If any of the parts are missing, the mechanism is useless. Even if all the parts were present, if any one of them did not work right, the beetles ancestors might have exploded! INTERNAL STRUCTURE: Glands secreting concentrated hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone Collecting vesicles Sphincter muscles Reaction chambers Ectodermal glands secreting the activating enzymes catalase and peroxidase Someone could make up a story about how this mechanism could evolve one step at a time. But would you believe them? Someone could make up a story about how this mechanism could evolve one step at a time. But would you believe them? Source: Michael Behe, Darwins Black Box

78 2007 by David A. Prentice MIGRATORY BIRDS Though most migratory birds fly over land, a few travel thousands of miles over open ocean with no landmarks. If their navigation were off by a tenth of a degree, they would fall into the ocean and drown. Birds are supposed to have evolved over 225 million years ago. Whatever method they use to navigate would also be hundreds of millions of years old. THE PROBLEM: Evolutionists believe the continents and ocean islands were arranged much differently just 100 million years ago. Until the birds migratory sense evolved to match the moving continents, they would have fallen into the ocean and drowned! THE PROBLEM: Evolutionists believe the continents and ocean islands were arranged much differently just 100 million years ago. Until the birds migratory sense evolved to match the moving continents, they would have fallen into the ocean and drowned! 10-77

79 2007 by David A. Prentice Sap Transport in Tall Trees Water goes up a straw not because of suction, but because of atmospheric pressure. The highest column of water the atmo- sphere can support is about 32 feet. This means that natural processes would limit trees to about 32 feet tall - yet some grow to over a hundred feet. How does the water get to the top? Rather than rely on atmospheric pressure, tall trees have built-in pumps! The pumps are present because the trees DNA codes for them, not because natural selection forces them to evolve. Nature goes exactly the opposite way!

80 2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT IF THERE IS EVEN ONE THING IN NATURE THAT REQUIRES GOD? If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species 10-79

81 2007 by David A. Prentice WHO NEEDS FACTS WHEN YOU CAN MAKE UP STORIES? Darwin said, To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of Spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree... Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imper- fect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certain the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case; and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, should not be considered as subversive of the theory. So did he give up? NO! He made up a story! SINCE WE CAN MAKE UP A STORY, THEREFORE OUR STORY MUST BE TRUE!

82 2007 by David A. Prentice DESIGN IN THE EYE Before the eye sends the image to the brain, each nerve cell does so much pre- processing that it would take even the fastest computers months to process the information that your eye does many times each second! Ciliary Body Ciliary Processes Suspensory Ligament Iris Aqueous Humor Anterior Chamber Aqueous Humor Posterior Chamber Pupil Lens Cornea Conjunctiva Vitreous Body Eyelid Bone The retina lining the back of each eye is a multi-megapixel receiver 10 million times better able to deal with changing light conditions than the best camera. Levator Palpabrae Superioris Muscles of the Eyeball Sclera Choroid Retina Dura Mater Retinal Arteries Optic Nerve Optic Disc Periorbital Fat Muscles of the Eyeball IMSI clipart 10-81

83 2007 by David A. Prentice IS THE EYE WIRED BACKWARDS? Light must travel through the retina to reach the rods and cones on its back side. Skeptics say this shows randomness rather than design because it would cut down on the light that can get through. HOWEVER: Light 1.The components are so small that they are opt- ically transparent. There is practically no loss of light. 2. If the rods and cones were in front of the retina they might take months to re- cover from a bright light. Because they are behind it they are in constant contact with nutrients and are able to continually repair themselves. 3. Recent discoveries have shown that light passes through the retina without loss via fiber optics – something humans only invented in the last hun- dred years. Public domain WIKIMedia image of 1918 illustration in Grays Anatomy Rather than poor design, the arrangement of the retina, rods, and cones shows fantastic intelligence.

84 2007 by David A. Prentice CLEANING SYMBIOSIS When certain species of small birds, fish, or shrimp walk or swim up to certain vicious types of predators (crocodiles, sharks, barracudas, etc.), the predator opens its mouth and allows them to enter, pick off debris, and leave safely. Any other species get eaten. If this behavior is the result of mutations, then multiple species of cleaners must have acquired mutations making them want to enter a predators mouth at the same time those predators acquired mutations that made them decide not to eat the cleaners. It sure is lucky for the cleaners that the predators mutations happened at the same time!

85 2007 by David A. Prentice HUNTING AND PROTECTION The skunk clown fish hides among poisonous sea anemones. It is not immune to their poison. They do not sting it because it brings them scraps of food.

86 2007 by David A. Prentice IS INTELLIGENT DESIGN UNSCIENTIFIC? Intelligent Design (I.D.) is a broad concept that allows for the possibility of either direct creation or theistic evolution. Judges nationwide have bought into the atheistic claim that since the presence of a designer cannot be tested, therefore I.D. is unscientific. True, we cannot scientifically prove the existence of a designer. But the judges have overlooked an obvious question: what sort of scientific test could you perform to prove there is NOT a designer? In what way is teaching the IMPOSSIBILITY of intel- ligent design any more scientific than teaching the POSSIBILITY of intelligent design? Either one is philosophy, not science.


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