2 THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION UNITY AND VARIETYBALANCEWEIGHT AND GRAVITYEMPHASISSPACEThe Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design. Again, the way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work.Unity and Variety areUNITY is compositional similarity, oneness, togetherness, or cohesiveVARIETY is the differences which give a design or image visual and conceptual interestUnity can be defined as similarity, oneness, togetherness or cohesionVariety can be defined as difference - You create variety when the elements are changed.
3 THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF DESIGN Line, Shape, Texture, Value, and ColorIN COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE PARTS TO CREATE A HARMONIOUS WHOLETHE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITIONUNITY AND VARIETYWEIGHT AND GRAVITYBALANCEEMPHASISSPACEIt is the process of arranging the forms of two- and three-dimensional visual art into a unified whole for the purpose of formal clarity and artistic expression.One element becomes dominant and another element becomes a subordinate.A dialogue is created between positive and negative shapes and opposing forces add vitality rather than creation confusion.
4 COMPOSITION IS AN ART AND NOT A SCIENCE UNITY AND VARIETYUNITYUnity can be defined as similarity, oneness, togetherness or cohesionVARIETYVariety can be defined as difference. You create variety when elements are changed.Learning to find the right balance between unity and variety is the key to a visually successful work.COMPOSITION IS AN ART AND NOT A SCIENCEUnity can be defined as similarity, oneness, togetherness or cohesionVariety can be defined as difference - You create variety when the elements are changed..Repeating a similar shape but changing the size can give variety and unity at the same time. Keeping the same size, but changing the color can also give variety and unity at the same time. In visual composition, there are many ways you can change something while simultaneously keeping it the same.
5 Unity/VarietyUnity/Variety We face a new compositional challenge with each design we make. There is no simple formulas; each idea has its own expressive requirements.Andy Warhol, 16 jackies, 1964 same image but different, each image is slightly different due to the printing styleHannah Hoch, Cut with a Kitchen Knife, 1919, Collage, 44 x 35” is crowded with conflicting images and fragmentary words. Created shortly after the end of World War I, reflects the tumultuous economic and political conditions in postwar Germany. She uses a collection of conflicting images to suggest chaos.Hannah HochCut with a Kitchen Knife, 1919Collage, 44 x 35”Andy Warhol16 Jackies1964 slikscreen
6 Unity/VarietyDevorah SperbeAfter The Last Supper″h x 29′w.20,763 spools of threadDevorah Sperber, Virtual Environment I , 220,000 spools of threadoptical allusion, after the last supper 2005, viewing glass on a stick reflects the image upside downDevorah Sperber built this life-sized replica of Leonardo da Vinciﾕs The Last Supper from 20,763 thread spools strung onto aluminum ball chain. As if thatﾕs not awesome enough, when seen through the sphere, the familiar image of Jesus and his disciples come into focusDaniel BurenThe Two Plateaus1985 – 6Unity and variety are the cornerstones of composition, combined effectively the composition is both cohesive and active.
7 GESTALT PRINCIPLES of DESIGN The visual perceptionthat emphasizes the importance ofthe whole composition through thecombination and use of :grouping,containment, repetition,proximity,continuity and closureto create visual unity
8 GESTALTGestalt Psychology emphasizes the importance of unity, connection and completion.THEORY:VISUAL INFORMATION IS UNDERSTOOD AS A WHOLE BEFORE IT IS EXAMINED SEPARATELY.Eaxmlpe:Msot peolpe can raed any snetnace as lnog as the frsit and lsat lteters of ecah wrod are crroect.
9 Grouping Repetition Proximity Continuity Closure Therefore, you can create deliberate relationships among different visual elementsUSING:ContainmentGrouping Repetition Proximity Continuity Closure
10 CONTAINMENT TO FRAME OR CREATE A BOUNDARY Frances BaconThree Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion 1, 2, 3
19 CONTINUITY The fluid connection among compositional parts. Skillful use of continuity can add visual movement to a design.
20 CLOSURE: THE HUMAN MIND WILL AUTOMATICALLY CONNECT VISUAL FRAGMENTS Closure makes it possible to communicate using implication
21 CLOSURE Chuck Close, Self-Portrait , 2004-2005 oil on canvas 102 x 86”David Hockney David Graves , 1982Photos
22 COMBINING GESTALT PRINCIPLES MANY ARTISTS AND DESIGNERS COMBINE SOME OR ALL THE PRINCIPLES OF GESTALT IN A SINGLE COMPOSITIONMichael Anderson Portrait of David Lynch, Poster 60'' x 60'', 2002
23 PATTERNS AND GRIDSPattern is created when any visual element is systematically repeated over an extended area.Grid is created through a series of intersecting lines.
24 PATTERN AND GRIDSFaith Ringgold Who’s Bad 1988, Acrylic on canvas, fabric border, 74 x 69”
25 PATTERNS AND GRIDSFelix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Death by Gun), 1990, Offset print on paper, 44 x 32 inches
26 WEIGHT AND GRAVITYThe orientation of objects within an image can influence the visual weight of the piece.Bernice Abbot, Exchange Place,New York, 1934, Photograph
27 Ansel Adams Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico 1941
28 Refers to the equal distribution of weight or force among visual units BALANCERefers to the equal distribution of weight or force among visual units
29 BALANCE fulcrum fulcrum ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE The more common method is toplace objects of equal mass orweight on each side of thebalancing fulcrum-pointCALLED FORMAL BALANCEASYMMETRICAL BALANCELooks for unique relationships that appear at first glance as though it ought not to work, yet it through variety creates interest.CALLED INFORMAL BALANCE
30 This is also referred to as SYMMETRICAL BALANCE Symmetrical balance, shapes or volumes are mirrored on either side of their vertical or horizontal axisThis is also referred to asformal balance
31 Downtown - Reflections, 1991 APPROXIMATE SYMMETRYApproximate Symmetry is created when similar imagery appears on either side of a central axisRichard EstesDowntown - Reflections, 1991Color woodcut16 1/4 x 10 "
32 creates equilibrium between visual elements that are different in ASYMMETRICAL BALANCEcreates equilibrium between visual elements that are different insize,number,weight, colorortextureThis is also referred to as informal balance
33 RADIAL SYMMETRYThis is a simple diagram and example of radial balance.