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Heredity (B) -2014 Heredity (B) -2014 KAREN LANCOUR HEREDITY NATIONAL SUPERVISOR NATIONAL SUPERVISOR

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Presentation on theme: "Heredity (B) -2014 Heredity (B) -2014 KAREN LANCOUR HEREDITY NATIONAL SUPERVISOR NATIONAL SUPERVISOR"— Presentation transcript:

1 Heredity (B) Heredity (B) KAREN LANCOUR HEREDITY NATIONAL SUPERVISOR NATIONAL SUPERVISOR

2 Event Rules – 2014 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.

3 Event Rules – 2014 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

4 TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout - content information Training Handout - content information Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Internet Resource & Training CDs – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Information Internet Resource & Training CDs – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Informationwww.soinc.org Biology-Earth Science CD, Genetics CD (updated) for Heredity and Designer Genes as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packets are available from SO store at Biology-Earth Science CD, Genetics CD (updated) for Heredity and Designer Genes as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packets are available from SO store at

5 Heredity (B) Content Basic principles of genetics Some possible areas – dominant, recessive, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, monohybrid & dihybrid crosses, test cross, multiple alleles, sex-linkage, genotype, phenotype, epistasis, mutations, multifactorial traits, pedigrees, karyotypes, mitosis, meiosis, nondisjunction, genetic disorders, DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation, common genetic disorders Process Skills – data analysis, predictions, calculations, inferences, observations

6 Possible Topics for Various Levels Regional & State National (all topics) Monohybrid cross Dihybrid cross Pedigree construction and analysis Dominant and recessive alleles Sex-linked traits Production of gametes with Abnormal #s of chromosomes Genotype vs. phenotype Pedigree analysis Trihybrid cross (probability analysis) Human sex determination Multiple alleles Analysis of karyotypes for deletion, addition, translocation Gene: protein relationship DNA structure & replication Transcription and translation Mitosis Meiosis and gamete formation Multifactorial traits Human karyotypes analysis for nondisjunction disorders Co-dominance & Incomplete Dominance Epistasis

7 PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS GENES – come in pairs GENES – come in pairs Section of DNA – codes protein or part of protein Section of DNA – codes protein or part of protein One from each parent One from each parent ALLELE – different forms of a gene ALLELE – different forms of a gene MULTIPLE ALLELES – more than 2 forms of a gene MULTIPLE ALLELES – more than 2 forms of a gene HOMOZYGOUS – same alleles HOMOZYGOUS – same alleles HETEROZYGOUS – different alleles HETEROZYGOUS – different alleles

8 Dominant vs. Recessive Dominant – always expressed Dominant – always expressed Capital letters – N Capital letters – N Homozygous - NN Homozygous - NN Heterozygous - Nn Heterozygous - Nn Recessive – prevented by dominant Recessive – prevented by dominant Lower case letters – n Lower case letters – n Homozygous – nn Homozygous – nn Punnett Square – Box showing allele combinations

9 Dominant and Recessive Autosomal Dominant Autosomal Dominant Dominant gene on an autosome Autosomal Recessive Autosomal Recessive Recessive gene on an autosome Sex-linked Dominant Sex-linked Dominant Dominant gene on a sex chromosome Sex-linked Recessive Sex-linked Recessive Recessive gene on a sex chromosome

10 Monohybrid Cross Hybrid – Ss X Ss One Trait – Smooth vs wrinkled Two gametes per parent S and s Punnett Square with 4 boxes – 4 offspring

11 Genotype & Phenotype Genotype Phenotype SS or Ss Round SS or Ss Round ss Wrinkled ss Wrinkled Genotype frequency 1:2:1 Phenotype frequency 3:1 3:1

12 Dihybrid Cross Dihybrid – 2 traits Gametes per parent = 4 Punnett Square – 16 boxes Genotype ratio 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1 Phenotype ratio 9:3:3:1 9:3:3:1

13 Trihybrid Cross

14 Incomplete Dominance Hybrid is a blend of two traits Hybrid is a blend of two traits Genotype frequency Genotype frequency1:2:1 Phenotype frequency Phenotype frequency1:2:1 Examples: Examples: Flowers, Animal fur

15 Co-dominance More than one dominant allele More than one dominant allele Blood types – A,B,O alleles Blood types – A,B,O alleles Phenotypes Genotypes Phenotypes Genotypes A I A I A or I A i B I B I B or I B i AB I A I B O ii

16 Co-dominance co-dominance – both dominant alleles (genes) in an individual are expressed as blood types co-dominance – both dominant alleles (genes) in an individual are expressed as blood types A and B genes are co-dominant and both dominant over the O gene which is recessive A and B genes are co-dominant and both dominant over the O gene which is recessive

17 ABO Blood System

18 Independent Assortment vs. Linkage Independent Assortment – genes on different chromosomes separate independently during meiosis Independent Assortment – genes on different chromosomes separate independently during meiosis Linkage – genes on the same chromosome are inherited as a group Linkage – genes on the same chromosome are inherited as a group Autosomal linkage – on autosomes Autosomal linkage – on autosomes Sex-linked – on sex chromosomes Sex-linked – on sex chromosomes

19 Linkage – Sex Linkage Linkage – genes on the same chromosome inherited as a group Linkage – genes on the same chromosome inherited as a group Sex-linkage – genes on sex chromosomes (esp. X) Sex-linkage – genes on sex chromosomes (esp. X) Y-chromosome shorter – some genes from X missing Y-chromosome shorter – some genes from X missing X-linked traits more common in men X-linked traits more common in men Men get X-chromosome from mom Men get X-chromosome from mom Red-green colorblindness, hemophilia Red-green colorblindness, hemophilia

20 Environmental influence on genes expression Gene function is influenced by environment as with identical twins Gene function is influenced by environment as with identical twins Genes have blueprint for proteins or parts of proteins Genes have blueprint for proteins or parts of proteins Proteins can be structural proteins (parts of body) or functional proteins (hormones/enzymes) Proteins can be structural proteins (parts of body) or functional proteins (hormones/enzymes)

21 Epistasis and Multifactorial Inheritance Epistasis - the interaction between two or more genes to control a single phenotype Epistasis - the interaction between two or more genes to control a single phenotype Multifactorial inheritance - many factors (multifactorial) both genetic and environmental are involved in producing the trait or condition. Examples: height, weight, cleft palate, spina bifida Multifactorial inheritance - many factors (multifactorial) both genetic and environmental are involved in producing the trait or condition. Examples: height, weight, cleft palate, spina bifida

22 Pedigree Symbols Generations Generations = I – Original Parents, II- F1 (children), III – F2 (grandchildren)

23 Pedigree – Curly vs Straight Hair Types of Analysis Relationships Relationships Dominant Gene – H Dominant Gene – HCurly Recessive Gene – h Recessive Gene – hStraight Genotypes Genotypes Phenotypes Phenotypes

24 Karyotypes Pairs 1-22 =Autosomes Pairs 1-22 =Autosomes XY = Sex chromosomes XY = Sex chromosomes Male = X & Y Male = X & Y Female = only X Female = only X Nondisjunction Nondisjunction Extra chromosomes Extra chromosomes(Trisomy) Missing chromosomes Missing chromosomes(Monosomy)

25 Cell Cycle Interphase Interphase G1 G1 S – DNA replicates S – DNA replicates G2 G2 Mitosis Mitosis Prophase Prophase Metaphase Metaphase Anaphase Anaphase Telophase Telophase

26 Mitosis vs Meiosis Mitosis Mitosis Growth and Asexual Reproduction Growth and Asexual Reproduction One division – 2 diploid cells One division – 2 diploid cells Genetically same as original Genetically same as original Meiosis Meiosis Gametes for Sexual Reproduction Gametes for Sexual Reproduction 2 divisions – 4 haploid cells 2 divisions – 4 haploid cells

27

28 DNA Structure Double helix Double helix Antiparallel – 3 to 5 Antiparallel – 3 to 5 Nucleotide Nucleotide Deoxyribose sugar Deoxyribose sugar Phosphate Phosphate Nitrogen bases Nitrogen bases Adenine Adenine Thymine Thymine Guanine Guanine Cytosine Cytosine

29 DNA Replication Replication (in nucleus) Replication (in nucleus) DNA uncoils & splits DNA uncoils & splits Reads 3 to 5 Reads 3 to 5 Assembles 5 to 3 Assembles 5 to 3 4 types of nucleotides 4 types of nucleotides Okazaki fragments Okazaki fragments

30 Types of RNA Differences between DNA & RNA Differences between DNA & RNA Single strand Single strand Ribose instead of Deoxyribose Ribose instead of Deoxyribose Uracil instead of Thymine Uracil instead of Thymine Messenger RNA – carries blueprint Messenger RNA – carries blueprint Transfer RNA – brings amino acids Transfer RNA – brings amino acids Ribosomal RNA – reads code Ribosomal RNA – reads code

31 Transcription & Translation Transcription – makes RNA (in nucleus) Transcription – makes RNA (in nucleus) Translation (protein synthesis) -Reads blueprint and makes protein or part of protein (in cytoplasm at the Translation (protein synthesis) -Reads blueprint and makes protein or part of protein (in cytoplasm at theribosome)

32 Transcription of RNA from DNA Transcription: Synthesis of RNA from a DNA Template. Transcription: Synthesis of RNA from a DNA Template. Requires DNA-dependent RNA polymerase plus the four nucleotides (ATP, GTP. CTP and UTP). Requires DNA-dependent RNA polymerase plus the four nucleotides (ATP, GTP. CTP and UTP). Synthesis begins at a the initiation site on DNA Synthesis begins at a the initiation site on DNA The template strand is read 3' to 5' and the mRNA is synthesized 5' to 3' The template strand is read 3' to 5' and the mRNA is synthesized 5' to 3'

33 Translation – Protein Synthesis

34 Mutations Mutation – any change in the DNA Mutation – any change in the DNA Gene mutation Gene mutation Chromosomal mutation Chromosomal mutation Agents causing mutations – radiation, chemicals, excess heat Agents causing mutations – radiation, chemicals, excess heat


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