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Dr. Yona Siderer, Interdisciplinary Centre for Technological analysis and Forecasting, At Tel-Aviv University, Israel and Food Product Unit, Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Yona Siderer, Interdisciplinary Centre for Technological analysis and Forecasting, At Tel-Aviv University, Israel and Food Product Unit, Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Yona Siderer, Interdisciplinary Centre for Technological analysis and Forecasting, At Tel-Aviv University, Israel and Food Product Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy 1 Agro-Food Sector: Israeli Facts and Figures 2001

2 This presentation of the Israeli Agro-Food Sector is aimed to serve as a part of the Compilation of the Thematic Network on Food Production and Processing in the Mediterranean Countries Dr. Yona Siderer is with the Interdisciplinary Centre for Technological Analysis and Forecasting at Tel-Aviv University, Israel 2

3 LAND USE The Negev Desert, located in the southern part of Israel accounts for some 50% of Israels national area and dominates its land use. See Table 1. 3

4 Table 1: Land Use in Israel Thousands Hectares % of total Total area of Israel 2,245100.0 Built-up area 200 8.9 Open Area and other uses 1,146 51.0 Naturals Parks and Forests 347 15.5 Pasture 141 6.3 Arable Land 411 18.3 4 T

5 Two additional main features of the land use structure characterizes its impact on agriculture development: The very limited area of pastures, and The high dependence on Water in order to use the arable land 5

6 Table 2 : Agricultural Use of Land by Crops Thousands Hectares % Total 328.2100.0 Thereof irrigated 192.3 58.6 un-irrigated 135.9 41.4 Orchards 84.8 25.8 Thereof citrus 25.3 7.7 Vegetables, potatoes & melons 55.1 16.8 Flowers and ornamental plants 5.2 1.6 Field Crops 183.0 55.8 Thereof cotton 29.0 8.8 wheat 86.0 26.2

7 A comparison of Tables 1 and 2 shows that large areas of arable land were not cultivated in 1999: Fallow Land = 83,000 Hectares 7

8 Employment The employment structure of those engaged in agriculture reflects two basic trends: A decreasing number of self- employed farmers, mostly members of cooperatives who have been substituted by hired workers and the increase of hired workers as additional manpower in the sector. 8

9 Table 3 : Employment in Agriculture Thousands 1996199719981999 Total72.474.478.479.6 Self employed Farmers 26.024.422.8 Hired Workers 46.450.055.656.8 % of hired workers of total 9

10 Employment (Cont.) About 36,000 hired workers of the total of 56,800 come from outside of Israel, this represents 64% of hired employees and 46% of total agricultural manpower. 10

11 Agricultural Production During the last decade the total value of agricultural production decreased by almost 15% at real prices. However, this development represents different changes: declining prices of agricultural product prices and increasing quantities of production. The quantity index of agricultural production during the same period increased by 30%. 11

12 Agricultural Production (continued) Some export crops, in particular citrus and cotton, suffered from a drastic reduction of prices and exported volume. In livestock products the price received by producers were far behind the cost of living index. 12

13 Table 4: Agricultural Production of Israel by Branch, 1989-1999 (US$ Millions, at 1999 Prices) 19891999 US$ Millions % US$ Millions % Total Value of Production 3844100.3279100. Horticulture & Field Crops total 217756.6181355.3 Vegetables 52413.658517.8 Flowers and Ornamental Plants 2306.021517.8 Citrus 38710.12206.7 Other Fruits 42911.245213.8 Field Crops 50613.22246.8 Other Crops 1012.61173.6 13

14 Table 4: Agricultural Production of Israel by Branch, 1989-1999 (US$ Millions, at 1999 Prices) (CONT.) 1989 1999 US$ Millions % % Total Value of Products 38441003279100 Horticulture and Field crops- Total 217756181355.3 Vegetables52413.658517.8 Flowers & ornamentals 2306.02156.6 Citrus38710.12206.7 Other fruits42911.245213.8 Field Crops50613.22246.8 Other Crops1012.61173.6 Livestock Total 166743.4146644.7 Poultry79020.664819.8 Dairy and Beef 62216.254516.6 Sheep and Goats 1012.6972.9 Fish+Other Livestock 103 + 512.7 + 1.3114 + 623.5 + 1.9


16 Main Horticulture and Field Crops, 1999 Most horticulture crops are based on subtropical and deciduous fruits, and large selection of vegetables are grown under plastic cover or in greenhouses as well as in open areas but mainly under irrigation. However, due to water shortage, most basic grains for human and livestock consumptions are imported. 16

17 Table 6: Main Livestock Products, 1999

18 Livestock Products Production of livestock products is characterized by very intensive use of technology. As a result, very high yields are obtained in many products. For example, average milk production has increased two and a half times since the 1950s – from 3900 liters annually to an average close to 11000 liters per dairy cow in 1999. Poultry farming which is the major supplier of meat for domestic demand has developed under extreme variations of climate. This fact necessitated the development of poultry breeds that are highly diseases resistant. 18

19 Table 7: Selected Livestock Inventory, 1999 (Thousands, end of 1999) 1999 Cattle388 Thereof milk cows 122 Poultry Laying eggs7190 Broilers 20150 Turkeys4900 Sheep and goats Sheep 350 Goats 70 Beehives 72 Source: Central Bureau of Statistics 19

20 Table 8: Food Consumption by Main Commodities (Per capita) Commodity Kg per year Commodity Kg per year CerealsMeat Wheat 104.9Beef, fresh and frozen, carcass weight 16.1 Rice, millet 9.6 Sheep and goats 1.2 Potatoes/Flour 43.4Poultry, slaughtered 56.7 Sugar 43.0Eggs 14.6 Vegetables 186.8Fish 13.4 Fresh Fruit 102.5Milk and Dairy Products Oils and FatsCows milk 61.9 Butter 0.8Cheese 15.9 Margarine 5.2 20

21 Table 9: Annual Outlay of Food 1999 (At 1999 prices, per capita) CommodityUS$% of total Total1658100.0 Processed Fruits and Vegetables 157 9.4 Tea, Coffee and Cocoa 79 4.7 Sugar and sugar products 187 11.3 Fresh Vegetables 122 7.3 Fresh Fruits 147 8.9 Edible Oils 39 2.3 Milk and Milk Products 241 14.5 Eggs 34 2.0 Fish 78 4.7 Meat and Meat Products 288 17.4 Flours and Cereals Products 287 17.3 21

22 Food Quality: trends and policy According to systems introduced by FAO, a worldwide food balance is calculated in order to follow the changes in composition of the main nutrients consumed by various populations as well as to evaluate the total calorie intake. The World Health Organization has recommended minimum quantities of proteins, fat and calories required for the human body. 22

23 Food Quality: trends and policy (Continued ) Figures collected in Israel during the period 1960-1999 show a continuous increase in the daily intake of major nutrients per capita, placing Israel among the most developed countries These changes represent also the structure of the Israeli food basket, which is similar in many aspects to those of other Mediterranean countries. The main features of the food consumption in this region are a high intake of fresh fruits and vegetables 23

24 24 Table 10: Food Balance-Calories and nutrients, 1960-1999 (per capita per day) YearCalori es IndexProtein (grams) Inde x Fat (grams) Of ani mal orig. in Index Total fat Index Anim al Origi n 1960277210085.110086.727.9100 1970298810891.5108104.338.3120137 1980297910792.2108111.538.7129139 1990308911197.4114117.642.6136153 19993543128105.3124133.744.3154159

25 25 Table 11: Main Horticulture and Fiels Crops, 1999 CommmodityValue *US$ Millions, at 1999 prices % of Total Production Quantity** Thousands of tons Vegetables2107 Potatoes122.93.7364 Edible Tomatoes94.42.9242 Peppers61.11.9102 Cucumbers33.11.0108 Strawberries25.80.816 Flowers & Ornamental plants*** Millions of Export unit only 1435 Roses38.41.2469 Carnations9.40.3117 Gypsophila22.70.7155 Fruits1299 Citrus723 Oranges58.71.8204 Grapefruits92.52.8372 Easy Peelers43.51.397

26 Table 11: Main Horticulture and Field Crops, 1999 (continued) CommmodityValue, US$ millions, at 1999 pricess % of Total Production Quantity, Thousands of tons Other Fruits575 Apples82.12.5128 Apricots44.91.446 Table Grapes48.61.549 Bananas52.41.6118 Avocado49.01.556 Field Crops Cotton Fiber34.11.025 Spices and Medicinal Plants 30.20.9 Groundnuts27.30.823 26

27 Table 12: Main Livestock CommodityValue, US$ Millions, 1999 price % of Total Production Quantity, Thousands tons 1.Livestock for meat 657.020.0 Cattle143.74.488 Sheep and Goats 79.52.422 Poultry406.312.4391 Thereof Broilers258.9 7.9260 Turkeys130.9 4.0125 2. Milk418.812.8 Dairy (Millions liters, (ML)) 401.712.31157 Sheep and Goats (ML) 17.1 0.5 29 3. Eggs (Millions units) 112.13.41640 4. Aquaculture114.33.5 30 27

28 FOOD INDUSTRY LEGISLATION Two ministries are in charge of food: The Ministry of Agriculture – Raw agricultural material. The Ministry of Health – The public health, foodstuffs. A special attention is given to Food – Chemical and Physical Testing Methods. I.e.: 1) Methods of Identification of colour in food: Water soluble synthetic colour additives (TI 1412) of 1989. re-approved 1995. 2) Analytical methods of nutritional labelling verification (TI 1978) of 1997. 28

29 FOOD INDUSTRY LEGISLATION (cont.) This standard includes the following testing methods: Principles; protein content; fats content; saturated fat content; cholesterol content; moisture content; ash content; sugars and polysaccharides content; starch content; available carbohydrates content; content of all nutritional fibers; sodium content; other minerals content; vitamins content; ethanol content; determining caloric value. The methods refer to AOAC – Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists – Methods of Analysis for Nutrition Labelling. 29

30 FOOD INDUSTRY LEGISLATION (cont.) There appears in Rashumot an announcement that an Israeli standard was issued. The standard is a technical document, according to the rules of standards. The standards are prepared by public committees that have members of the manufacturers and consumers sectors, and members representing the state authorities, with a balance between those. The drafts of the standards are presented to the public for the public critics. Most of the food regulations are prepared as secondary legislation. Laws concerning product quality and authenticity are derived from the law of the consumer protection. 30

31 References Israel Agriculture Facts and Figures; Dr. Arieh Sheskin, Dr. Arie Regev, July 2001; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Foreign Trade Center, Foreign Relations Department Central Bureau of Statistics (Cited in Ref. 1) Free Income, Private Consumption and Food Consumption in 1986- 1999; by Raphael Shternlicht, December 2000; State of Israel, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and The Jewish Agency, Department of Rural Development. 31

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