Presentation on theme: "THE PEDAGOGICAL VALUE OF ART SONGS BY FRENCH-CANADIAN COMPOSERS."— Presentation transcript:
1THE PEDAGOGICAL VALUE OF ART SONGS BY FRENCH-CANADIAN COMPOSERS. A Selection of Vocal Music by Calixa Lavallée, Lionel Daunais and André Mathieu.Music playing: Été canadien (Canadian Summer) by André Mathieu.
2MUSIC IN CANADAFrench-Canadian mélodies are a valuable addition to the repertoire of all studentsWorks by 3 composers are featured:Calixa Lavallée ( )Lionel Daunais ( )André Mathieu ( )I believe that Canadian art songs should be included in every singer’s repertoire as a complement and balance to the works of the French composers such as Ernest Chausson, Claude Debussy, Gabriel Fauré, Reynaldo Hahn, Vincent d’Indy, Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie and others.I have therefore made a selection of mélodies by French-Canadian composers and I will demonstrate that they have as much pedagogical value as the mélodies by French composers.
3MUSIC IN CANADA Pedagogical Value French-Canadian mélodies have a lot to offer voice students. The pedagogical value of these songs will help them learn French diction, vowel modification in the French language, breath management, unifying registers, adding more space, energy and depth for ascending pitches, as well as singing legato and with various articulations.There are many pedagogical aspects which students need to learn when they take voice lessons. Some of these techniques are: singing legato, breath management, blending registers, vowel modification, and learning to add more space while singing ascending pitches.In French songs, students need to learn French diction and French pronunciation rules.While each song in this presentation may be used to teach several different technical aspects, I will focus on one or two of them per song.
4MUSIC IN CANADA Cultural poverty in Canada before 1867. Canadian composers were mostly amateursEuropean influences could not be transplanted into Canada’s “musical wilderness”The clergy prevented the rise of secular musicI would like to begin with a quick historical overview of Canada:Canada was culturally poor before the 1880s1- Canadian composers of the 18th century = amateurs.2- it was almost impossible to transplant Europe’s musical attainments to the “Musical wilderness” of New France as Canada it was called at the time.3- Also the ground was sterile for secular music, as imposed by the watchful eye of the clergy.
5Historical ContextConfederation united the country politically, culturally and economically.18671867 = Confederation. Confederation refers to the unification of 4 provinces and marks the beginning of Canada as we know it.After confederation, Canada witnessed a growth of native professional musicians (composers and performers), instrument makers and publishers. But composition was still not a field of study by itself.
6MUSIC IN CANADA 19th century The coffee house: a musical tradition that did not exist in France: amateurs as well as professionals performed ballads, opera arias, and instrumental music.An interesting development was new places to play music which did not exist in France: one of these being the coffee house.
7MUSIC IN CANADA From Confederation 1867 to 1920 Rise of a sense of professionalism in music education, performance and compositionLarge growth of number of native performers and composersDevelopment of a Canadian musical styleRise of Canadian subjects as sources of inspiration.Canada began to export excellent musicians to other countriesThere were many great composers born during this period:Healey Willan ( ),Nathaniel Dett ( ) (I’ll never turn back),Claude Champagne Oskar MorawetzAnd women:Jean Coulthard, Barbara Pentland and Violet ArcherA separate Canadian style of music began to emerge along with a rise of Canadian subjects as sources of inspiration.
8CALIXA LAVALLÉE ( )Learned to play the organ when he was 11 years oldStudied piano with Antoine Marmontel in ParisElected President of MTNA in 1886Played in many concerts with Belgian violinist Frantz Jehin PruneThe first of the three composers is Calixa Lavallée.He learned to play the organ when he was young,studied in Paris,lived in Boston and was elected president of the MTNA, the Music Teachers National Association
9CALIXA LAVALLÉE Important figure in Canadian music His works constitute the root of Canadian tradition in musical compositionProduced more works in various genres than any other Canadian composer of the periodDedicated his life to the musical life in CanadaOrganized the first opera performance in CanadaIn addition to Lavallée’s knowledge of musical instruments, his many travels and performances, it was also his dedication to the musical life in Canada in general that made him such an important figure in the Canada’s history.Lavallée’s compositional styles were many and varied:3 works for the stage (light operas),9 works for orchestra or concert band,2 works for a cappella chorus (O Canada for SATB and Raillons-nous canadiens for TTBB),6 works for chorus and orchestra,5 works for chamber ensemble,23 works for solo piano,19 songs for solo voice and piano, and8 arrangements of other composers’ works.He organised the 1st opera performance in Canada: 1878.
10CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE First written for SATB chorusText by Judge Adolphe-Basile RouthierWas first played on 24 June 1880Gained immediate popularity among French CanadiansWas not widely accepted throughout Canada until 1908, with the English text by Robert Stanley WeirOfficially approved as national anthem by the Canadian Parliament in 1967.The composition was premiered – it was played, not sung – on the evening of 24 June 1880 for five hundred people (through it was to have been sung earlier that day for forty thousand people).While the original title of the anthem is Chant National (National Song), it has, over the years, become more widely known as O Canada.The original text was in French. While more than twenty-five different English versions were written between 1901 and 1933, only Stanley Weir’s became widely accepted.It was only in 1967 that the National Anthem was only officially approved by Parliament.
11CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE Original key: G MajorCan be sung a cappellaFluid melody that often moves by stepsSoprano Range: G4 to G5French, English or a bilingual versionVowel modification might be requiredExcellent for learning French diction and rulesO Canada has no musical introduction, prelude or postlude and can easily be sung a cappella SATB, or solo with or without a piano accompaniment.One of the major pedagogical tools of O Canada is that the melody is easy to learn, if not already known, and students can begin to learn French diction rules on an easy melody.
12CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE Liaisons and Elisions:French liaison:Examples: ton histoire, brillants exploitsFrench elision:Example: ton histoire est2 important diction rules in French are:French liaison: the sounding of a normally silent final consonant before a word beginning with a vowel or unaspirated hDescribe examples on slidesFrench elision: when a mute e ends a word and the next word begins with a vowel or h, in which case the e is never sounded in speech or in singing.As seen in the example here, where “histoire est” is pronounced “histoir…est”.
13CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE Diphthong versus monophthong vowels:French monophthong vowel: /e/Examples: épée, porterEnglish diphthong vowel: /ɛ:I/Example: sayFrench does not have as many Diphthongs as in the English language.A diphthong is a vowel sound in which the tongue changes position to produce the sound of two vowels.English diphthong: say,It is important to teach students not to add diphthongs to French vowels. Example épée is not épay. Porter is pronounced porter not portay.
14SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE Composed in 1886Published the same year by White-SmithText by Gertrude Hall ( ) nicknamed KittieComfortable song for beginnersGentle swaying piece meant to be sung in salonsMelodic line is gentle and flowing,Only English song in this selectionSpring Flowers, which was composed in 1886, is the only song in English in this selection of French-Canadian music. It is of interest because it demonstrates Lavallée’s true national outlook, which was not limited to French-speaking Canada alone.Lavallée, who worked and traveled extensively on tours throughout the United States, was comfortable in both languages.And of the songs written by Lavallée, 9 of them composed to English texts and 10 to French texts. He was one of the rare French Canadian composers to write songs in both languages.Spring Flowers is a nice swaying piece which compares springtime to the loved one.
15SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE Original key: D flat Major (key analyzed: B flat Major)The tempo is waltz-like in 3/4 meterRange from D4 to F5Tessitura F4 to D5, good for lower voicesMelody moves by step or small intervals of (3rds or 4ths)Pedagogical values: ascending leaps, unification of registers, singing legato phrases, breath control, and vowel modificationSpring Flowers is a simple but melodious strophic song with two verses.It has a waltz tempo which gives the effect of the warm wind circulating among the flowers.While this piece has many pedagogical values, I will mention two here: 1) keeping the registers unified, and 2) singing legato phrases.
16SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE Keeping Timbre ConsistentHere we have an example of an ascending line with small leaps: students will need to learn how to add space, depth and energy in the ascending pitches.They can also learn how to keep height in the lower pitch (here a G) so as to not add too much weight when singing that G, thereby ensuring that the timbre remains consistent with the previous higher pitch.
17SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE Learning to sing legato phrases, especially in areas where there are ascending and descending intervals.Learning to sing legato is not easy for everyone. On this example, students will often want to jump or disconnect the notes from C to F.In order to learn to sing legato, students can be asked to:Connect the notes by exaggerating a slide from the lower to the upper note, then take the slide out.then we need to ensure that the high note does not stand out: in order to do this, singers can crescendo on the lower note before moving to the upper tone, thereby preventing the higher note from sounding too loudStudents can also learn to equalize registers upon returning to the lower A4 (at the word her) to keep a consistent timbre
18SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE Piano accompaniment helps the singer think legato:The swaying arpeggios of the piano accompaniment will help students think legato.It is usually harder to sing legato when the accompaniment is more march-like as in the 2 examples below.In comparison toor
19NUIT d’ÉTÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE Summer Night composed in 1880Published the same year by LavignePoem by Napoléon Legendre ( )Strophic formPiano accompaniment suggests the warmth of a summer night.Nuit d’ete (Summer night) was composed in 1880.The text is by Legendre: lawyer, public servant, and writer from Quebec City.This song has a strophic form with the same vocal line and accompaniment in both verses, which is similar to French lyrical songs as exemplified by Charles Gounod,the piano plays gestures that musically suggest the warmth of a summer night.
20NUIT d’ÉTÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE Original key: A Major (key analyzed: F Major)Range: C4 to E5Tessitura: between F4 and D5Melodic line is predominantly stepwise with a few leaps of 4ths or 6thsConsonant harmonies, though some chromaticisms appear in the melody.Pedagogical values: singing legato on repeated notes, messa di voce, elisions, and possibly vowel modification.Nuit d’ete is a nice song about the beauty of silence in the night which has consonant harmonies and a few chromatic passages in the melody. It has a recurring section which says:The night is hereSilence is everywhereAround us, the shadows growThe wave dies, without effortAnd in his nest, the bird falls asleepOf the many pedagogical values, I will focus here on the messa di voce technique, which is best taught to students who are at least at the intermediate level.
21NUIT d’ÉTÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE Messa di vocefor intermediate studentsmessa di voce adds expression and gives life to the phrasingIn order to develop this ability, singers must begin at, for example, piano level with a sustained tone, crescendoing to forte, then decrescendoing back to piano all the while maintaining a uniform timbre (Miller, Structure 173).
22Historical Context 1920 - 1945 After World War I Changed social conditionsWomen worked during the warSchools were developingInflux of immigrantsMove from rural to urban areasShift towards Francophone identity in Quebecwomen, having done men’s work during the war, refused to return to domestic life.schools were developing, offering more educational opportunities to a wider segment of the population.Cities had been steadily growing through the influx of over one thousand immigrants every year, and also by the move of local populations from rural to urban areas.
23MUSIC IN CANADAEuropean trends not widely spread in Canada before 1939Search for a Canadian identityCanadian League of Composers in Toronto in 1951.Creation of CBC radio (1930s) helped disseminate compositions by Canadian artists.Increase of art songs & song cyclesEuropean trends, as exemplified from Debussy to Schoenberg, were not widely spread in Canada before 1939Musical environment not welcoming to new trends from Europe -> more important focus was search for Canadian identitywhich eventually led to the creation of theCanadian League of Composers in Toronto in 1951 formed to raise awareness and acceptance of Canadian musicfounding of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (later the CBC/SRC) in the early 1930s, gave momentum to the dissemination of works by Canadian artists.Composition of art songs began to increase both in quantity and quality, and several song cycles or related groups of songs appeared.Texts were mainly lyrical rather than narrative and dwelt on the traditional themes of love, sadness, longing and contemplation.
24LIONEL DAUNAIS (1901-1982) Born into a family of musicians Began singing lessons at 19 years oldWon 1st prize in the Montreal Musical Festival 2 years laterWon the Prix d’Europe himself (in singing) at age 24Multi-faceted career as singer, composer, lyricist, stage director and producer, writer and broadcaster.Sang in a church choir as a young boy.Inspired to become a musician at the age of ten, when he read that the Canadian musician Léo-Pol Morin had won the prestigious Prix d’Europe, an annual study grant offered by the Quebec government.
25LIONEL DAUNAISWell-known baritone who won many prizes for his vocal performancesFounded the Trio Lyrique with whom he recorded 250 radio broadcastsComposed more than 200 songs for voice and piano, 30 songs for children, 18 choral pieces and arranged more than 70 folksongsDaunais was hired as 1st baritone at Opera of Algiers and sang 23 leading roles in just 1 season.Daunais won a multitude of prizes, among them, the Silver Medal from the St-Jean Baptist Society for his outstanding contributions to Quebec culture; a medal from the Canadian Music Council in 1972, the Calixa-Lavallée music prize in 1977, and the Order of Canada in 1978.Was asked to take over the leadership of the Trio Lyrique in 1932, for which Daunais wrote many original songs as well as folk song arrangements.The Trio Lyrique sang together for more than 30 yearsThe Trio recorded some 250 radio broadcasts for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC).As well as a retrospective of Lionel Daunais compositionsIn the 70s, the CBC presented 13 shows devoted entirely to Lionel Daunais’ compositions for voice.
26IL HABITE MON COEURDaunais wrote music and text to He Lives in My HeartWaltz reminiscent of Erik Satie’s Je te veuxComposed in 1941Pedagogical values: keeping consistent timbre throughout large range, chromatic harmonies, and vowel modification.Daunais would often write the words to his own songs. This piece composed in 1941 is a waltz that reminds us of Satie’s Je te veux.Among the may pedagogical values of this melodies, I will focus on two of them: keeping a consistent timbre and vowel modification.
27IL HABITE MON COEUR Original key: F Major Transposed key available in E flat MajorLarge range: from B3 to A5Tessitura is medium: from G4 to E5Song is in ABA1 form with a coda at the end.Chromatic harmonies in Section BThis pieces has quite a large range (B3 to A5) so is more suitable for late beginners or intermediate students.It is in ABA form, and the B section contains harmonies which change radically and chromaticism abounds: sharps or flats are found in almost every measure.
28IL HABITE MON COEUR Unifying Registers the melody spans an interval of a twelfth within the first three measures.Students will be able to work on keeping a stable larynx throughout these ascending leaps, especially as the student sings through two passaggios. “laryngeal stabilization is the only certain route for securing timbre consistency throughout an equalized scale”.McKinney: As you sing from the bottom of your voice to the top, there should be a continuum of carefully graduated changes in the amount of energy, space and depth being used.Laryngeal stabilization is required to keep timbre consistencyAdd space, energy and depth as pitch ascends
29VOCAL PEDAGOGY Passaggio Zones & Vowel Modification Vowel modification: As pitch ascends, the mouth gradually opens (that is, the mandible lowers) (Structure 91). Vowel modification needs to be done gradually so that there is a seemless transition.Miller states, for men:moderate vowel modification is initiated at the primo passaggio … and additional but gradual modification of the vowel takes place as the scale approaches the secondo passaggio.In relation to female voices, Miller writes that “gradual vowel modification must begin in the upper middle range.”While each voice will differ according to morphology, age, timbre, fach, and prior vocal training, general indicators can be given for each voice type. A compilation of the approximate male passaggios and female upper middle ranges is provided here.
30IL HABITE MON COEUR Vowel Modification Vowel modification will occur at different pitches for different singers.The suggestions for vowel modification need to be adapted according to each singer’s individual instrument.While there are many areas in the text that might require vowel modification, I will show two instances here as an illustration:ʊ = foot or Mutterʌ = cupMiller says: Avoiding vowel modification altogether is not recommended, as it will produce a shrill timbre.
31Refrains Courts-Vêtus 1973 Set of 12 light and comic songsCan be sung by older and younger singers alikeContain simple rhythms and diatonic harmoniesMost songs have ranges of less than one octaveArranged for SATB choir by Daunais in 1979Briefly adorned refrains are fun easy songs that can be sung be young beginners to more mature and advanced students.They can also be sung by SATB choir as Daunais arranged them himself 6 years after he wrote the songs for solo voice.Of the 12, I have selected 2 to give a glimpse into the comic songs.
324. Ce CHER ABBÉ BÉLUS Original key: G Major Range: from G4 to C5 Time signature is 2/4Rhythms are easy consisting of 8th, 1/4 & 1/2 notes.Pedagogical goals of this piece include: exaggerating the diction, singing legato lines and singing expressively.This song is about a priest who gets ‘scrunched’ by a bus. The endings of the words are all in us, producing a fake Latin sensation.This song has a very small range and is excellent for teaching students to focus on the last consonants (which are easily forgotten) and really exaggerate their pronunciation.
33Ce CHER ABBÉ BÉLUS Final Consonants Recurring final sound (fake Latin-sounding words): /ys/Tongue position of /i/ + lip position of /u/ = /y/According to McKinney, there is a wide-spread tendency among American singers to ignore or slight final consonants.Final consonants, i.e. finals, must be made just as quickly as initials or medials but with even more firmness.Here we learn the French pronunciation of the vowel /u/ … with a tongue position of /i/ + lip position of /u/.So, with this song, learning to have clear diction on final consonants can be done in a fun way.terminusangelustrolleybusescrabouilluséméritusorémuslaïustempus
346. LE BEL ALEXIS Original key: G minor Range: from G4 to E flat 5 Expression marking: very melodious, with tenderness.Pedagogical goals of this piece include: minor key, staccato-tenuto, singing legato and expressively.Le bel Alexis, is a song about a ballet dancer who lost his leotards. It is a comic song composed in a minor key, which makes it even more fun.It is useful to introduce young singers to the minor key.,
356. LE BEL ALEXIS Staccato-Tenuto Tenuto One of the pedagogical values of this piece is to teach singers to sing staccato and staccato-tenuto.Richard Miller exercises below can be used to learn to sing staccato and they can also be modified to alternate staccato and tenuto.
36LE VENT DES FORÊTS Original key: D minor Range: from B flat 3 to E flat 5Small tessitura: E4 and B4Original title of the poem: Vent du soirText by Paul Fort ( ) ( > 30 volumes of ballads)Pedagogical goals of this piece include: long legato phrases, vowel modification and French diction.Le vents des forets means the wind of the forests.The original title of the poem was acutally vent du soir, which means wind of the night.The range and tessitura are suitable for medium voices such as mezzo-sopranos, altos, baritones and basses.The text is by a French poet Paul Fort ( ) who wrote more than thirty volumes of balladsThis is a very expressive song about the wind in the forests that tear away at a person’s soul and make him shed many tears.
37LE VENT DES FORÊTS B r e a t h M a n a g e m e n t Good posture Low breathsPrevent rib cage from collapsingThe pedagogical value of this song is singing long legato phrases. The challenging aspect here is this particular ascending scale is singing the high note that is almost at the end of the phrase.In order to improve breath management, Clifton Ware, a vocal pegagogue says: “imagine that by the actions of your rib cage … you are able to keep the walls of the room from collapsing inward… imagine filling the space of the room with your expanding breath.Singers will need to have a mental concept of all phrases ahead and will need to plan appropriately measured breaths to complete each phrase.Students who have difficulty singing through extended phrases can take additional breaths at appropriate places as long as they concentrate on keeping the textual connection and carry the legato intention over to the second part of the phrase.
38ANDRÉ MATHIEU ( )At 6 years old, had already composed more than 9 works for pianoAt age 7, won a scholarship to study piano and composition in ParisParis critics compared him to Mozart for the quality of his compositionsThe third composer in this presentation is André Mathieu. He was born in 1929.When he was young, he won a scholarship and received a grant from the Government of the Province of Quebec and the whole family moved to Paris for three years, where André studied piano at the National Conservatory of Music with Yves Nat (a friend of Claude Debussy and Eugèbe Ysaye) and composition with Jacques de la Presle.
39ANDRÉ MATHIEU His Concertino No. 2 won 1st prize He performed it in Montreal with Sir Thomas Beecham conductingPlayed it at Carnegie Hall when he was only 13 years old.Before age 14, he performed a composition that won a $200 prize both in Montreal and at Carnegie Hall.
40ANDRÉ MATHIEUHere’s a photo of him as a young boy playing at another event in Carnegie Hall.André Mathieu representing Canada at an event in Carnegie Hall presided over by Eleanor Roosevelt, Fiorello La Guardia and supported by Thomas Mann and Albert Einstein.
41ANDRÉ MATHIEU Studied composition with Arthur Honegger Studied piano with Jules GentilPlayed for Alfred CortotComposed mainly for piano but also 11 songs for voiceHe died suddenly in 1968 at the age of 39.In 1946 (age 17) Paris - study composition with Arthur Honegger and piano with Jules Gentil. While in Paris, he played for Alfred Cortot, one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century.After hearing him, Cortot told Mathieu: Sir, you are one of the greatest pianists that I know, and believe me, I have heard them all.Mathieu finished approximately 85 compositions, including 35 for solo piano, 10 for orchestra, 9 for violin and piano, 1 for oboe, 1 for male chorus and piano (Chant du Bloc populaire), 1 for chorus and piano (Chant de la victoire), 9 pieces for voice and piano, and 2 for voice alone.
42Si tu crois… 1955 Original key: D flat Major Form is AA1BAA11 (Blues Tempo)Range: from C4 to A flat 5Medium Tessitura: F4 to D flat 5Text by Jean Laforest, a scriptwriter at Radio-Canada.Pedagogical goals of this piece include: triplets, French diction, vowel modification.This song is about a person who misses his loved one who has left him “to be free”. He is full of melancholy, anger, sadness and resignation.
43Si tu crois… Vowel Modification One of the pedagogical values of this song is working on vowel modification.Oe = coeur, fleurʌ = cupWe will pronounce creux de as “Croh duh” and Autrefois as “autrahfaois”
44Si tu crois…TripletsAnd for beginner students, this piece is useful for teaching about moving from triplets back to quarter notes.An example of an exercise is found below moving from triplets to 8th notes and 16th notes.
45LES CHÈRES MAINS 1946 Original key: F Major Range: from D flat 4 to to AMedium Tessitura: A4 to D5Text by Paul Verlaine ( )Only known musical setting of this poem.Pedagogical goals include: Changing time signatures & rhythmic patterns, chromatic harmonies, key modulation, ascending octave leaps and vowel modification.Paul-Marie Verlaine (1844 – 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement.He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the end of the century in international and French poetry.His poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking,Many composers set his poems to music: Gabriel Fauré (e.g. La bonne chanson), Claude Debussy (Fêtes galantes).The piece is particularly interesting because there does not seem to be any other musical setting of this particular poem by Verlaine.
46Octave leaps, changing time signatures & rhythmic patterns LES CHÈRES MAINSOctave leaps, changing time signatures & rhythmic patternsOne pedagogical value of Les Cheres mains is the ascending pitches. Here we have an octave leap that needs to stay connected at m18(Octave leap at m 20 can be detached).Throughout the song, there are varying rhythmic patterns going from triplets to 8th note duplets.We also find some syncopation an example of which can be found here at measure 20.Syncopation: A shift of accent stressing a weak beat.
47LES CHÈRES MAINS Chromatic harmonies & key modulation The time signature is predominantly 4/4 but contains changes to 3/4 throughout the piece.Students will learn about key modulation and singing non-diatonic notes in a song. The piece begins in F Major, and quickly modulates to DMajor before returning to F Major towards the end of the piece.The section from measures 27 to 34 is almost atonal (This resembles a method Debussy sometimes used within otherwise tonal pieces), and does not belong to any particular key.The melody in this section contains a few tritones. We can see one here at measure 32 between the A flat and the D.
48COLLOQUE SENTIMENTAL 1946 Original key: E flat Major Range: from C4 to F sharp 5Medium Tessitura: A flat 4 to E flat 5.Text by Paul Verlaine ( )Piece best suited for intermediate studentsPedagogical goals include: ascending octave leaps, chromatic variations, vowel modification, complex rhythms and changing time signatures.Other composers who set this poem include: Claude Debussy ( ), Henry Kimball Hadley ( ), Charles Bordes ( ), Jacques Guillaume de Sauville de la Presle ( ), and Hector (or Ettore) Panizza ( ).A recital could be prepared comparing various renditions of this poem.This piece has complex harmonies and non-diatonic tones which makes it better suited for intermediate students.
49COLLOQUE SENTIMENTAL Complex harmonies and non-diatonic tones We can see the chromatic harmonies here, not only in the melody but also in the piano,[Talk about chords…..]This piece wil therefore require an advanced pianist.
50Changing time signatures COLLOQUE SENTIMENTALChanging time signaturesThe piece contains varying time signatures; going from 2/4 to Common Time (4/4) to 3/4 within just four meaures.
51CONCLUSIONIn addition to French mélodies, French-Canadian Art Songs add more depth and variety to the repertoire.As we have seen, these songs provide excellent pedagogical examples to help students learn about various aspects of singing including: French diction; vowel modification in the French language; accurately singing a variety of rhythmic patterns; working with alternating time signatures; modulations and chromatic harmonies; register equalization, singing with articulation such as staccato, tenuto, and legato; breath management; and, adjustments to the vocal mechanism to provide more space, energy and depth to the sound. All of these technical aspects are fundamentals that must be mastered by serious voice students.Arts songs are valuable for different skill and age levels, be they young children, older beginners or intermediate singers. Many art songs exist by French- and English-Canadian composers that are suited for singers at an advanced level, but those works are beyond the scope of this paper.Hopefully, this recital will create interest in French-Canadian art songs, not only to increase awareness of French-Canadian music but also because these melodies possess great pedagogical value. Canadian art songs should be included in every singer’s repertoire as a complement and balance to the works of Chausson, Debussy, Fauré, Hahn, Vincent d’Indy, Ravel, Satie and others.
52RECITALA SELECTION OF MUSIC BY CALIXA LAVALLÉE, LIONEL DAUNAIS, & ANDRÉ MATHIEU
54CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE PleaseO Canada !Terre de nos aïeux,Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux !Car ton bras sait porter l’épée,Il sait porter la croix !Ton histoire est une épopéeDes plus brillants exploits.Et ta valeur, de foi trempée,Protègera nos foyers et nos droits (2x)SING!
68Music playing: Le Papillon (The Butterfly) by Calixa Lavallée. EH?THANKS,Thank you for coming. I hope you have enjoyed this brief survey of French-Canadian music.Please contact me if you would like to find out more about Canadian music or how to order sheet music of Canadian compositions.Music playing: Le Papillon (The Butterfly) by Calixa Lavallée.