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THE PEDAGOGICAL VALUE OF ART SONGS BY FRENCH-CANADIAN COMPOSERS.

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1 THE PEDAGOGICAL VALUE OF ART SONGS BY FRENCH-CANADIAN COMPOSERS.
A Selection of Vocal Music by Calixa Lavallée, Lionel Daunais and André Mathieu. Music playing: Été canadien (Canadian Summer) by André Mathieu.

2 MUSIC IN CANADA French-Canadian mélodies are a valuable addition to the repertoire of all students Works by 3 composers are featured: Calixa Lavallée ( ) Lionel Daunais ( ) André Mathieu ( ) I believe that Canadian art songs should be included in every singer’s repertoire as a complement and balance to the works of the French composers such as Ernest Chausson, Claude Debussy, Gabriel Fauré, Reynaldo Hahn, Vincent d’Indy, Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie and others. I have therefore made a selection of mélodies by French-Canadian composers and I will demonstrate that they have as much pedagogical value as the mélodies by French composers.

3 MUSIC IN CANADA Pedagogical Value
French-Canadian mélodies have a lot to offer voice students. The pedagogical value of these songs will help them learn French diction, vowel modification in the French language, breath management, unifying registers, adding more space, energy and depth for ascending pitches, as well as singing legato and with various articulations. There are many pedagogical aspects which students need to learn when they take voice lessons. Some of these techniques are: singing legato, breath management, blending registers, vowel modification, and learning to add more space while singing ascending pitches. In French songs, students need to learn French diction and French pronunciation rules. While each song in this presentation may be used to teach several different technical aspects, I will focus on one or two of them per song.

4 MUSIC IN CANADA Cultural poverty in Canada before 1867.
Canadian composers were mostly amateurs European influences could not be transplanted into Canada’s “musical wilderness” The clergy prevented the rise of secular music I would like to begin with a quick historical overview of Canada: Canada was culturally poor before the 1880s 1- Canadian composers of the 18th century = amateurs. 2- it was almost impossible to transplant Europe’s musical attainments to the “Musical wilderness” of New France as Canada it was called at the time. 3- Also the ground was sterile for secular music, as imposed by the watchful eye of the clergy.

5 Historical Context Confederation united the country politically, culturally and economically. 1867 1867 = Confederation. Confederation refers to the unification of 4 provinces and marks the beginning of Canada as we know it. After confederation, Canada witnessed a growth of native professional musicians (composers and performers), instrument makers and publishers. But composition was still not a field of study by itself.

6 MUSIC IN CANADA 19th century
The coffee house: a musical tradition that did not exist in France: amateurs as well as professionals performed ballads, opera arias, and instrumental music. An interesting development was new places to play music which did not exist in France: one of these being the coffee house.

7 MUSIC IN CANADA From Confederation 1867 to 1920
Rise of a sense of professionalism in music education, performance and composition Large growth of number of native performers and composers Development of a Canadian musical style Rise of Canadian subjects as sources of inspiration. Canada began to export excellent musicians to other countries There were many great composers born during this period: Healey Willan ( ), Nathaniel Dett ( ) (I’ll never turn back), Claude Champagne Oskar Morawetz And women: Jean Coulthard, Barbara Pentland and Violet Archer A separate Canadian style of music began to emerge along with a rise of Canadian subjects as sources of inspiration.

8 CALIXA LAVALLÉE ( ) Learned to play the organ when he was 11 years old Studied piano with Antoine Marmontel in Paris Elected President of MTNA in 1886 Played in many concerts with Belgian violinist Frantz Jehin Prune The first of the three composers is Calixa Lavallée. He learned to play the organ when he was young, studied in Paris, lived in Boston and was elected president of the MTNA, the Music Teachers National Association

9 CALIXA LAVALLÉE Important figure in Canadian music
His works constitute the root of Canadian tradition in musical composition Produced more works in various genres than any other Canadian composer of the period Dedicated his life to the musical life in Canada Organized the first opera performance in Canada In addition to Lavallée’s knowledge of musical instruments, his many travels and performances, it was also his dedication to the musical life in Canada in general that made him such an important figure in the Canada’s history. Lavallée’s compositional styles were many and varied: 3 works for the stage (light operas), 9 works for orchestra or concert band, 2 works for a cappella chorus (O Canada for SATB and Raillons-nous canadiens for TTBB), 6 works for chorus and orchestra, 5 works for chamber ensemble, 23 works for solo piano, 19 songs for solo voice and piano, and 8 arrangements of other composers’ works. He organised the 1st opera performance in Canada: 1878.

10 CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE
First written for SATB chorus Text by Judge Adolphe-Basile Routhier Was first played on 24 June 1880 Gained immediate popularity among French Canadians Was not widely accepted throughout Canada until 1908, with the English text by Robert Stanley Weir Officially approved as national anthem by the Canadian Parliament in 1967. The composition was premiered – it was played, not sung – on the evening of 24 June 1880 for five hundred people (through it was to have been sung earlier that day for forty thousand people). While the original title of the anthem is Chant National (National Song), it has, over the years, become more widely known as O Canada. The original text was in French. While more than twenty-five different English versions were written between 1901 and 1933, only Stanley Weir’s became widely accepted. It was only in 1967 that the National Anthem was only officially approved by Parliament.

11 CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Original key: G Major Can be sung a cappella Fluid melody that often moves by steps Soprano Range: G4 to G5 French, English or a bilingual version Vowel modification might be required Excellent for learning French diction and rules O Canada has no musical introduction, prelude or postlude and can easily be sung a cappella SATB, or solo with or without a piano accompaniment. One of the major pedagogical tools of O Canada is that the melody is easy to learn, if not already known, and students can begin to learn French diction rules on an easy melody.

12 CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Liaisons and Elisions: French liaison: Examples: ton histoire, brillants exploits French elision: Example: ton histoire est 2 important diction rules in French are: French liaison: the sounding of a normally silent final consonant before a word beginning with a vowel or unaspirated h Describe examples on slides French elision: when a mute e ends a word and the next word begins with a vowel or h, in which case the e is never sounded in speech or in singing. As seen in the example here, where “histoire est” is pronounced “histoir…est”.

13 CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Diphthong versus monophthong vowels: French monophthong vowel: /e/ Examples: épée, porter English diphthong vowel: /ɛ:I/ Example: say French does not have as many Diphthongs as in the English language. A diphthong is a vowel sound in which the tongue changes position to produce the sound of two vowels. English diphthong: say, It is important to teach students not to add diphthongs to French vowels. Example épée is not épay. Porter is pronounced porter not portay.

14 SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Composed in 1886 Published the same year by White-Smith Text by Gertrude Hall ( ) nicknamed Kittie Comfortable song for beginners Gentle swaying piece meant to be sung in salons Melodic line is gentle and flowing, Only English song in this selection Spring Flowers, which was composed in 1886, is the only song in English in this selection of French-Canadian music. It is of interest because it demonstrates Lavallée’s true national outlook, which was not limited to French-speaking Canada alone. Lavallée, who worked and traveled extensively on tours throughout the United States, was comfortable in both languages. And of the songs written by Lavallée, 9 of them composed to English texts and 10 to French texts. He was one of the rare French Canadian composers to write songs in both languages. Spring Flowers is a nice swaying piece which compares springtime to the loved one.

15 SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Original key: D flat Major (key analyzed: B flat Major) The tempo is waltz-like in 3/4 meter Range from D4 to F5 Tessitura F4 to D5, good for lower voices Melody moves by step or small intervals of (3rds or 4ths) Pedagogical values: ascending leaps, unification of registers, singing legato phrases, breath control, and vowel modification Spring Flowers is a simple but melodious strophic song with two verses. It has a waltz tempo which gives the effect of the warm wind circulating among the flowers. While this piece has many pedagogical values, I will mention two here: 1) keeping the registers unified, and 2) singing legato phrases.

16 SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Keeping Timbre Consistent Here we have an example of an ascending line with small leaps: students will need to learn how to add space, depth and energy in the ascending pitches. They can also learn how to keep height in the lower pitch (here a G) so as to not add too much weight when singing that G, thereby ensuring that the timbre remains consistent with the previous higher pitch.

17 SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Learning to sing legato phrases, especially in areas where there are ascending and descending intervals. Learning to sing legato is not easy for everyone. On this example, students will often want to jump or disconnect the notes from C to F. In order to learn to sing legato, students can be asked to: Connect the notes by exaggerating a slide from the lower to the upper note, then take the slide out. then we need to ensure that the high note does not stand out: in order to do this, singers can crescendo on the lower note before moving to the upper tone, thereby preventing the higher note from sounding too loud Students can also learn to equalize registers upon returning to the lower A4 (at the word her) to keep a consistent timbre

18 SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Piano accompaniment helps the singer think legato: The swaying arpeggios of the piano accompaniment will help students think legato. It is usually harder to sing legato when the accompaniment is more march-like as in the 2 examples below. In comparison to or

19 NUIT d’ÉTÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Summer Night composed in 1880 Published the same year by Lavigne Poem by Napoléon Legendre ( ) Strophic form Piano accompaniment suggests the warmth of a summer night. Nuit d’ete (Summer night) was composed in 1880. The text is by Legendre: lawyer, public servant, and writer from Quebec City. This song has a strophic form with the same vocal line and accompaniment in both verses, which is similar to French lyrical songs as exemplified by Charles Gounod, the piano plays gestures that musically suggest the warmth of a summer night.

20 NUIT d’ÉTÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Original key: A Major (key analyzed: F Major) Range: C4 to E5 Tessitura: between F4 and D5 Melodic line is predominantly stepwise with a few leaps of 4ths or 6ths Consonant harmonies, though some chromaticisms appear in the melody. Pedagogical values: singing legato on repeated notes, messa di voce, elisions, and possibly vowel modification. Nuit d’ete is a nice song about the beauty of silence in the night which has consonant harmonies and a few chromatic passages in the melody. It has a recurring section which says: The night is here Silence is everywhere Around us, the shadows grow The wave dies, without effort And in his nest, the bird falls asleep Of the many pedagogical values, I will focus here on the messa di voce technique, which is best taught to students who are at least at the intermediate level.

21 NUIT d’ÉTÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Messa di voce for intermediate students messa di voce adds expression and gives life to the phrasing In order to develop this ability, singers must begin at, for example, piano level with a sustained tone, crescendoing to forte, then decrescendoing back to piano all the while maintaining a uniform timbre (Miller, Structure 173).

22 Historical Context 1920 - 1945 After World War I
Changed social conditions Women worked during the war Schools were developing Influx of immigrants Move from rural to urban areas Shift towards Francophone identity in Quebec women, having done men’s work during the war, refused to return to domestic life. schools were developing, offering more educational opportunities to a wider segment of the population. Cities had been steadily growing through the influx of over one thousand immigrants every year, and also by the move of local populations from rural to urban areas.

23 MUSIC IN CANADA European trends not widely spread in Canada before 1939 Search for a Canadian identity Canadian League of Composers in Toronto in 1951. Creation of CBC radio (1930s) helped disseminate compositions by Canadian artists. Increase of art songs & song cycles European trends, as exemplified from Debussy to Schoenberg, were not widely spread in Canada before 1939 Musical environment not welcoming to new trends from Europe -> more important focus was search for Canadian identity which eventually led to the creation of the Canadian League of Composers in Toronto in 1951 formed to raise awareness and acceptance of Canadian music founding of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (later the CBC/SRC) in the early 1930s, gave momentum to the dissemination of works by Canadian artists. Composition of art songs began to increase both in quantity and quality, and several song cycles or related groups of songs appeared. Texts were mainly lyrical rather than narrative and dwelt on the traditional themes of love, sadness, longing and contemplation.

24 LIONEL DAUNAIS (1901-1982) Born into a family of musicians
Began singing lessons at 19 years old Won 1st prize in the Montreal Musical Festival 2 years later Won the Prix d’Europe himself (in singing) at age 24 Multi-faceted career as singer, composer, lyricist, stage director and producer, writer and broadcaster. Sang in a church choir as a young boy. Inspired to become a musician at the age of ten, when he read that the Canadian musician Léo-Pol Morin had won the prestigious Prix d’Europe, an annual study grant offered by the Quebec government.

25 LIONEL DAUNAIS Well-known baritone who won many prizes for his vocal performances Founded the Trio Lyrique with whom he recorded 250 radio broadcasts Composed more than 200 songs for voice and piano, 30 songs for children, 18 choral pieces and arranged more than 70 folksongs Daunais was hired as 1st baritone at Opera of Algiers and sang 23 leading roles in just 1 season. Daunais won a multitude of prizes, among them, the Silver Medal from the St-Jean Baptist Society for his outstanding contributions to Quebec culture; a medal from the Canadian Music Council in 1972, the Calixa-Lavallée music prize in 1977, and the Order of Canada in 1978. Was asked to take over the leadership of the Trio Lyrique in 1932, for which Daunais wrote many original songs as well as folk song arrangements. The Trio Lyrique sang together for more than 30 years The Trio recorded some 250 radio broadcasts for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). As well as a retrospective of Lionel Daunais compositions In the 70s, the CBC presented 13 shows devoted entirely to Lionel Daunais’ compositions for voice.

26 IL HABITE MON COEUR Daunais wrote music and text to He Lives in My Heart Waltz reminiscent of Erik Satie’s Je te veux Composed in 1941 Pedagogical values: keeping consistent timbre throughout large range, chromatic harmonies, and vowel modification. Daunais would often write the words to his own songs. This piece composed in 1941 is a waltz that reminds us of Satie’s Je te veux. Among the may pedagogical values of this melodies, I will focus on two of them: keeping a consistent timbre and vowel modification. 

27 IL HABITE MON COEUR Original key: F Major
Transposed key available in E flat Major Large range: from B3 to A5 Tessitura is medium: from G4 to E5 Song is in ABA1 form with a coda at the end. Chromatic harmonies in Section B This pieces has quite a large range (B3 to A5) so is more suitable for late beginners or intermediate students. It is in ABA form, and the B section contains harmonies which change radically and chromaticism abounds: sharps or flats are found in almost every measure.

28 IL HABITE MON COEUR Unifying Registers
the melody spans an interval of a twelfth within the first three measures. Students will be able to work on keeping a stable larynx throughout these ascending leaps, especially as the student sings through two passaggios. “laryngeal stabilization is the only certain route for securing timbre consistency throughout an equalized scale”. McKinney: As you sing from the bottom of your voice to the top, there should be a continuum of carefully graduated changes in the amount of energy, space and depth being used. Laryngeal stabilization is required to keep timbre consistency Add space, energy and depth as pitch ascends

29 VOCAL PEDAGOGY Passaggio Zones & Vowel Modification
Vowel modification: As pitch ascends, the mouth gradually opens (that is, the mandible lowers) (Structure 91). Vowel modification needs to be done gradually so that there is a seemless transition. Miller states, for men: moderate vowel modification is initiated at the primo passaggio … and additional but gradual modification of the vowel takes place as the scale approaches the secondo passaggio. In relation to female voices, Miller writes that “gradual vowel modification must begin in the upper middle range.” While each voice will differ according to morphology, age, timbre, fach, and prior vocal training, general indicators can be given for each voice type. A compilation of the approximate male passaggios and female upper middle ranges is provided here.

30 IL HABITE MON COEUR Vowel Modification
Vowel modification will occur at different pitches for different singers. The suggestions for vowel modification need to be adapted according to each singer’s individual instrument. While there are many areas in the text that might require vowel modification, I will show two instances here as an illustration: ʊ = foot or Mutter ʌ = cup Miller says: Avoiding vowel modification altogether is not recommended, as it will produce a shrill timbre.

31 Refrains Courts-Vêtus 1973
Set of 12 light and comic songs Can be sung by older and younger singers alike Contain simple rhythms and diatonic harmonies Most songs have ranges of less than one octave Arranged for SATB choir by Daunais in 1979 Briefly adorned refrains are fun easy songs that can be sung be young beginners to more mature and advanced students. They can also be sung by SATB choir as Daunais arranged them himself 6 years after he wrote the songs for solo voice. Of the 12, I have selected 2 to give a glimpse into the comic songs.

32 4. Ce CHER ABBÉ BÉLUS Original key: G Major Range: from G4 to C5
Time signature is 2/4 Rhythms are easy consisting of 8th, 1/4 & 1/2 notes. Pedagogical goals of this piece include: exaggerating the diction, singing legato lines and singing expressively. This song is about a priest who gets ‘scrunched’ by a bus. The endings of the words are all in us, producing a fake Latin sensation. This song has a very small range and is excellent for teaching students to focus on the last consonants (which are easily forgotten) and really exaggerate their pronunciation.

33 Ce CHER ABBÉ BÉLUS Final Consonants
Recurring final sound (fake Latin-sounding words): /ys/ Tongue position of /i/ + lip position of /u/ = /y/ According to McKinney, there is a wide-spread tendency among American singers to ignore or slight final consonants. Final consonants, i.e. finals, must be made just as quickly as initials or medials but with even more firmness. Here we learn the French pronunciation of the vowel /u/ … with a tongue position of /i/ + lip position of /u/. So, with this song, learning to have clear diction on final consonants can be done in a fun way. termin us angel us trolleyb us escrabouill us émérit us orém us laï us temp us

34 6. LE BEL ALEXIS Original key: G minor Range: from G4 to E flat 5
Expression marking: very melodious, with tenderness. Pedagogical goals of this piece include: minor key, staccato-tenuto, singing legato and expressively. Le bel Alexis, is a song about a ballet dancer who lost his leotards. It is a comic song composed in a minor key, which makes it even more fun. It is useful to introduce young singers to the minor key.,

35 6. LE BEL ALEXIS Staccato-Tenuto Tenuto
One of the pedagogical values of this piece is to teach singers to sing staccato and staccato-tenuto. Richard Miller exercises below can be used to learn to sing staccato and they can also be modified to alternate staccato and tenuto.

36 LE VENT DES FORÊTS Original key: D minor
Range: from B flat 3 to E flat 5 Small tessitura: E4 and B4 Original title of the poem: Vent du soir Text by Paul Fort ( ) ( > 30 volumes of ballads) Pedagogical goals of this piece include: long legato phrases, vowel modification and French diction. Le vents des forets means the wind of the forests. The original title of the poem was acutally vent du soir, which means wind of the night. The range and tessitura are suitable for medium voices such as mezzo-sopranos, altos, baritones and basses. The text is by a French poet Paul Fort ( ) who wrote more than thirty volumes of ballads This is a very expressive song about the wind in the forests that tear away at a person’s soul and make him shed many tears.

37 LE VENT DES FORÊTS B r e a t h M a n a g e m e n t Good posture
Low breaths Prevent rib cage from collapsing The pedagogical value of this song is singing long legato phrases. The challenging aspect here is this particular ascending scale is singing the high note that is almost at the end of the phrase. In order to improve breath management, Clifton Ware, a vocal pegagogue says: “imagine that by the actions of your rib cage … you are able to keep the walls of the room from collapsing inward… imagine filling the space of the room with your expanding breath. Singers will need to have a mental concept of all phrases ahead and will need to plan appropriately measured breaths to complete each phrase. Students who have difficulty singing through extended phrases can take additional breaths at appropriate places as long as they concentrate on keeping the textual connection and carry the legato intention over to the second part of the phrase.

38 ANDRÉ MATHIEU ( ) At 6 years old, had already composed more than 9 works for piano At age 7, won a scholarship to study piano and composition in Paris Paris critics compared him to Mozart for the quality of his compositions The third composer in this presentation is André Mathieu. He was born in 1929. When he was young, he won a scholarship and received a grant from the Government of the Province of Quebec and the whole family moved to Paris for three years, where André studied piano at the National Conservatory of Music with Yves Nat (a friend of Claude Debussy and Eugèbe Ysaye) and composition with Jacques de la Presle.

39 ANDRÉ MATHIEU His Concertino No. 2 won 1st prize
He performed it in Montreal with Sir Thomas Beecham conducting Played it at Carnegie Hall when he was only 13 years old. Before age 14, he performed a composition that won a $200 prize both in Montreal and at Carnegie Hall.

40 ANDRÉ MATHIEU Here’s a photo of him as a young boy playing at another event in Carnegie Hall. André Mathieu representing Canada at an event in Carnegie Hall presided over by Eleanor Roosevelt, Fiorello La Guardia and supported by Thomas Mann and Albert Einstein.

41 ANDRÉ MATHIEU Studied composition with Arthur Honegger
Studied piano with Jules Gentil Played for Alfred Cortot Composed mainly for piano but also 11 songs for voice He died suddenly in 1968 at the age of 39. In 1946 (age 17) Paris - study composition with Arthur Honegger and piano with Jules Gentil. While in Paris, he played for Alfred Cortot, one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century. After hearing him, Cortot told Mathieu: Sir, you are one of the greatest pianists that I know, and believe me, I have heard them all. Mathieu finished approximately 85 compositions, including 35 for solo piano, 10 for orchestra, 9 for violin and piano, 1 for oboe, 1 for male chorus and piano (Chant du Bloc populaire), 1 for chorus and piano (Chant de la victoire), 9 pieces for voice and piano, and 2 for voice alone.

42 Si tu crois… 1955 Original key: D flat Major
Form is AA1BAA11 (Blues Tempo) Range: from C4 to A flat 5 Medium Tessitura: F4 to D flat 5 Text by Jean Laforest, a scriptwriter at Radio-Canada. Pedagogical goals of this piece include: triplets, French diction, vowel modification. This song is about a person who misses his loved one who has left him “to be free”. He is full of melancholy, anger, sadness and resignation.

43 Si tu crois… Vowel Modification
One of the pedagogical values of this song is working on vowel modification. Oe = coeur, fleur ʌ = cup We will pronounce creux de as “Croh duh” and Autrefois as “autrahfaois”

44 Si tu crois… Triplets And for beginner students, this piece is useful for teaching about moving from triplets back to quarter notes. An example of an exercise is found below moving from triplets to 8th notes and 16th notes.

45 LES CHÈRES MAINS 1946 Original key: F Major
Range: from D flat 4 to to A Medium Tessitura: A4 to D5 Text by Paul Verlaine ( ) Only known musical setting of this poem. Pedagogical goals include: Changing time signatures & rhythmic patterns, chromatic harmonies, key modulation, ascending octave leaps and vowel modification. Paul-Marie Verlaine (1844 – 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the end of the century in international and French poetry. His poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, Many composers set his poems to music: Gabriel Fauré (e.g. La bonne chanson), Claude Debussy (Fêtes galantes). The piece is particularly interesting because there does not seem to be any other musical setting of this particular poem by Verlaine.

46 Octave leaps, changing time signatures & rhythmic patterns
LES CHÈRES MAINS Octave leaps, changing time signatures & rhythmic patterns One pedagogical value of Les Cheres mains is the ascending pitches. Here we have an octave leap that needs to stay connected at m18 (Octave leap at m 20 can be detached). Throughout the song, there are varying rhythmic patterns going from triplets to 8th note duplets. We also find some syncopation an example of which can be found here at measure 20. Syncopation: A shift of accent stressing a weak beat.

47 LES CHÈRES MAINS Chromatic harmonies & key modulation
The time signature is predominantly 4/4 but contains changes to 3/4 throughout the piece. Students will learn about key modulation and singing non-diatonic notes in a song. The piece begins in F Major, and quickly modulates to DMajor before returning to F Major towards the end of the piece. The section from measures 27 to 34 is almost atonal (This resembles a method Debussy sometimes used within otherwise tonal pieces), and does not belong to any particular key. The melody in this section contains a few tritones. We can see one here at measure 32 between the A flat and the D.

48 COLLOQUE SENTIMENTAL 1946 Original key: E flat Major
Range: from C4 to F sharp 5 Medium Tessitura: A flat 4 to E flat 5. Text by Paul Verlaine ( ) Piece best suited for intermediate students Pedagogical goals include: ascending octave leaps, chromatic variations, vowel modification, complex rhythms and changing time signatures. Other composers who set this poem include: Claude Debussy ( ), Henry Kimball Hadley ( ), Charles Bordes ( ), Jacques Guillaume de Sauville de la Presle ( ), and Hector (or Ettore) Panizza ( ). A recital could be prepared comparing various renditions of this poem. This piece has complex harmonies and non-diatonic tones which makes it better suited for intermediate students.

49 COLLOQUE SENTIMENTAL Complex harmonies and non-diatonic tones
We can see the chromatic harmonies here, not only in the melody but also in the piano, [Talk about chords…..] This piece wil therefore require an advanced pianist.

50 Changing time signatures
COLLOQUE SENTIMENTAL Changing time signatures The piece contains varying time signatures; going from 2/4 to Common Time (4/4) to 3/4 within just four meaures.

51 CONCLUSION In addition to French mélodies, French-Canadian Art Songs add more depth and variety to the repertoire. As we have seen, these songs provide excellent pedagogical examples to help students learn about various aspects of singing including: French diction; vowel modification in the French language; accurately singing a variety of rhythmic patterns; working with alternating time signatures; modulations and chromatic harmonies; register equalization, singing with articulation such as staccato, tenuto, and legato; breath management; and, adjustments to the vocal mechanism to provide more space, energy and depth to the sound. All of these technical aspects are fundamentals that must be mastered by serious voice students. Arts songs are valuable for different skill and age levels, be they young children, older beginners or intermediate singers. Many art songs exist by French- and English-Canadian composers that are suited for singers at an advanced level, but those works are beyond the scope of this paper. Hopefully, this recital will create interest in French-Canadian art songs, not only to increase awareness of French-Canadian music but also because these melodies possess great pedagogical value. Canadian art songs should be included in every singer’s repertoire as a complement and balance to the works of Chausson, Debussy, Fauré, Hahn, Vincent d’Indy, Ravel, Satie and others.

52 RECITAL A SELECTION OF MUSIC BY CALIXA LAVALLÉE, LIONEL DAUNAIS, & ANDRÉ MATHIEU

53 CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Please Stand

54 CHANT NATIONAL CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Please O Canada ! Terre de nos aïeux, Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux ! Car ton bras sait porter l’épée, Il sait porter la croix ! Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. Et ta valeur, de foi trempée, Protègera nos foyers et nos droits (2x) SING!

55 SPRING FLOWERS CALIXA LAVALLÉE

56 NUIT D’ÉtÉ CALIXA LAVALLÉE
Title Page from the Morning Chronicle, 24 June 1880. Title Page from the Morning Chronicle, 24 June 1880.

57 IL HABITE MON COEUR LIONEL DAUNAIS

58 REFRAINS COURTS-VêTUS LIONEL DAUNAIS
Ce cher abbé Bélus

59 REFRAINS COURTS-VêTUS LIONEL DAUNAIS
Le bel Alexis

60 LE VENT DES FORÊTS LIONEL DAUNAIS

61 SI TU CROIS ANDRÉ MATHIEU

62 LES CHÈRES MAINS ANDRÉ MATHIEU
Prestigious Windsor Hotel Where The song was Premiered in 1950

63 COLLOQUE SENTIMENTAL ANDRÉ MATHIEU

64 LA TOURTIÈRE Lionel Daunais

65 LA CABANE À SUCRE Albert LARRIEU

66 LA SOUPE AUX POIS ALBERT LARRIEU

67 THE END Ted Harrison, O Canada

68 Music playing: Le Papillon (The Butterfly) by Calixa Lavallée.
EH? THANKS, Thank you for coming. I hope you have enjoyed this brief survey of French-Canadian music. Please contact me if you would like to find out more about Canadian music or how to order sheet music of Canadian compositions. Music playing: Le Papillon (The Butterfly) by Calixa Lavallée.


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