Presentation on theme: "PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center of origin near Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay Four market types –Virginia (VA, NC, SC) –Runner (GA, AL, FL, MS) –Spanish (TX, OK) –Valencia (NM)
Two subspecies hypogaea –Do not flower on main stem –Mature later –Have higher water requirement –Alternate branching pattern –Larger seed fastigiata –Produce flowers on main stem –Have sequential branching –Mature earlier –Lower water requirement –Smaller seed
PEANUT MARKET TYPES Runner (hypogaea subspecies) –grown primarily in Southeast Virginia (hypogaea subspecies) –grown primarily in Virginia and North Carolina Spanish (fastigiata subspecies) –grown primarily in Texas and Oklahoma Valencia (fastigiata subspecies) –grown in primarily in New Mexico
Planted Acres of Selected U.S. Crops Crops 20052006 Corn81,759,00078,561,000 Soybean72,032,00075,565,000 Wheat57,229,00057,344,000 Cotton14,245,40015,281,000 Sunflower2,709,0001,984,000 Peanut1,657,0001,242,000 Source: USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service
Planted Acres 20052006 Georgia755,000580,000 Texas265,000155,000 Alabama225,000160,000 Florida160,000130,000 North Carolina97,00085,000 South Carolina63,00060,000 Oklahoma35,00023,000 Virginia23,00017,000 New Mexico19,00016,000 Mississippi15,00016,000 USA total1,657,0001,242,000
PEANUT SEED Made up of two cotyledons & embryo Embryo –plumule –hypocotyl –primary root
Peanut plants will begin to lap about mid season providing complete canopy coverage
About 35 days after planting, the peanut plant begins its reproductive stage with the onset of blooms. The peanut flower is a perfect flower, with both male and female parts present in the same flower.
At the base of the peanut flower are the ovaries. Pollen grains shed in the petals and attach to the stigma. The first pollen grains that mature and travel down the pollen tube, fertilize the ovaries.
a The fertilized ovary is referred to as a peg. The peg grows toward the soil surface and pushes 1 to 3 into the soil. The tip of the peg takes in water and nutrients, and swells to become the peanut pod.
Hull-Scrape Maturity Profile Based on color change of mesocarp Exocarp can be removed by knife or pod blaster Color change goes from lighter (immature) to darker (mature): white, light yellow, dark yellow, orange, brown, black
Properly Dug and Inverted Pods should be up off the ground Allow about 3 days for windrow curing DO NOT dig just ahead of rain event Ideal conditions for curing include: low humidity, clear days, slight breezes
Post Harvest Practices to Reduce Risk of Aflatoxin in Farmer Stock Peanuts Level peanuts in trailerDry to 10% moisture or less immediately following harvest Follow proper curing and storage recommendations Maintain safe moisture levels during and handling and storage