3Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family is in the pea family, is not a nutNative of South Americacenter of origin near Bolivia, Uruguay, and ParaguayFour market typesVirginia (VA, NC, SC)Runner (GA, AL, FL, MS)Spanish (TX, OK)Valencia (NM)
4Two subspecies hypogaea fastigiata Do not flower on main stem Mature laterHave higher water requirementAlternate branching patternLarger seedfastigiataProduce flowers on main stemHave sequential branchingMature earlierLower water requirementSmaller seed
5PEANUT MARKET TYPES Runner (hypogaea subspecies) grown primarily in SoutheastVirginia (hypogaea subspecies)grown primarily in Virginia and North CarolinaSpanish (fastigiata subspecies)grown primarily in Texas and OklahomaValencia (fastigiata subspecies)grown in primarily in New Mexico
7Planted Acres of Selected U.S. Crops 20052006Corn81,759,00078,561,000Soybean72,032,00075,565,000Wheat57,229,00057,344,000Cotton14,245,40015,281,000Sunflower2,709,0001,984,000Peanut1,657,0001,242,000Source: USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service
19Peanut plants will begin to “lap” about mid season providing complete canopy coverage
20About 35 days after planting, the peanut plant begins its reproductive stage with the onset ofblooms.The peanut flower is a perfect flower, with bothmale and female parts present in the sameflower.
21At the base of thepeanut flower are theovaries.Pollen grains shed inthe petals and attach tothe stigma. The firstpollen grains thatmature and travel downthe pollen tube,fertilize the ovaries.
22a The fertilized ovary is referred to as a peg. The peg grows toward the soil surface and pushes 1 to 3 “ into the soil.The tip of the peg takes in water and nutrients, and swells to become the peanut pod.a
45Hull-Scrape Maturity Profile Based on color change of mesocarpExocarp can be removed by knife or pod blasterColor change goes from lighter (immature) to darker (mature): white, light yellow, dark yellow, orange, brown, black
56Properly Dug and Inverted Pods should be up off the groundAllow about 3 days for windrow curingDO NOT dig just ahead of rain eventIdeal conditions for curing include: low humidity, clear days, slight breezes
60Post Harvest Practices to Reduce Risk of Aflatoxin in Farmer Stock Peanuts Level peanuts in trailerDry to 10% moisture or less immediately following harvestFollow proper curing and storage recommendationsMaintain safe moisture levels during and handling and storage