Presentation on theme: "PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center."— Presentation transcript:
PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center of origin near Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay Four market types –Virginia (VA, NC, SC) –Runner (GA, AL, FL, MS) –Spanish (TX, OK) –Valencia (NM)
Two subspecies hypogaea –Do not flower on main stem –Mature later –Have higher water requirement –Alternate branching pattern –Larger seed fastigiata –Produce flowers on main stem –Have sequential branching –Mature earlier –Lower water requirement –Smaller seed
PEANUT MARKET TYPES Runner (hypogaea subspecies) –grown primarily in Southeast Virginia (hypogaea subspecies) –grown primarily in Virginia and North Carolina Spanish (fastigiata subspecies) –grown primarily in Texas and Oklahoma Valencia (fastigiata subspecies) –grown in primarily in New Mexico
Planted Acres of Selected U.S. Crops Crops Corn81,759,00078,561,000 Soybean72,032,00075,565,000 Wheat57,229,00057,344,000 Cotton14,245,40015,281,000 Sunflower2,709,0001,984,000 Peanut1,657,0001,242,000 Source: USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service
Planted Acres Georgia755,000580,000 Texas265,000155,000 Alabama225,000160,000 Florida160,000130,000 North Carolina97,00085,000 South Carolina63,00060,000 Oklahoma35,00023,000 Virginia23,00017,000 New Mexico19,00016,000 Mississippi15,00016,000 USA total1,657,0001,242,000
PEANUT SEED Made up of two cotyledons & embryo Embryo –plumule –hypocotyl –primary root
Planting Depth – of Moisture Place Seed into Good Moisture
At germination and emergence, the hypocotyl and primary root are known collectively as the radicle.
Peanut plants are in a vegetative growth stage for the first days after planting.
The peanut plant is very deep rooted. Roots can be found several feet deep.
Nitrogen fixing nodules on peanut root – This is NOT nematode damage!
A peanut leaf is made up of four leaflets.
Peanut plants will begin to lap about mid season providing complete canopy coverage
About 35 days after planting, the peanut plant begins its reproductive stage with the onset of blooms. The peanut flower is a perfect flower, with both male and female parts present in the same flower.
At the base of the peanut flower are the ovaries. Pollen grains shed in the petals and attach to the stigma. The first pollen grains that mature and travel down the pollen tube, fertilize the ovaries.
a The fertilized ovary is referred to as a peg. The peg grows toward the soil surface and pushes 1 to 3 into the soil. The tip of the peg takes in water and nutrients, and swells to become the peanut pod.
Pegs entering the soil
Peanut blooms Peanut pegs and pods below ground
Reproductive Growth Stages of Peanut Growth stages of peanut K. J. Boote, Peanut Science 9:35-40 Beginning podBeginning peg R2R3R1 Beginning bloom R4 R7 R5R6 Beginning seed Beginning maturity Full podFull seed
Heat or pests can damage pegs
The basal kernel develops first and faster than the apical kernel. Basal kernel Apical kernel Cross section of peanut pod at maturity. The embryo is visible.
Affect of Seed Calcium on Percent Germination of Peanut Seed Source: D.L. Hartzog and J.F. Adams, Auburn University Y = x – 8.06 x x 2 Plateau = 95% R 2 = 0.68
Irrigated Peanut Acres in Georgia* *Based on survey by UGA Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department
Weekly Water Use by Peanut Peak ET =.30 inches/day Plant Peanuts May 1 Bloom Initiation 13 weeks June - August Total Water = 18.85
Irrigation Management Critical water stage is 40 –110 DAP DO NOT allow stress in last 30 days Use scheduling system, i.e., Irrigator Pro
The seed is attached to the inner hull layer by the funiculus. The funiculus functions as an umbilical cord, transporting water and nutrients to the kernel.
University of Georgia PEANUT Research and Extension
PEANUT Maturity Determination And Harvest Maturity Determination And Harvest
The Good Ol Days???
Factors Affecting Peanut Maturity Weather Too hot – hastens Too cool – slows Too cold – shuts down Pest pressure Diseases – defoliation by leaf spot, weakened vines, weak peg stems Insects – defoliation by foliage feeders, chew peg stems Fertility N def Mn def
Hull-Scrape Maturity Profile Based on color change of mesocarp Exocarp can be removed by knife or pod blaster Color change goes from lighter (immature) to darker (mature): white, light yellow, dark yellow, orange, brown, black
Hull Scrape Maturity Profile
Peanut Wet Pod Blaster
Improper Digging Causes Yield Loss
Properly Dug and Inverted Pods should be up off the ground Allow about 3 days for windrow curing DO NOT dig just ahead of rain event Ideal conditions for curing include: low humidity, clear days, slight breezes
Combining Pickin Peanuts
Farmers Stock Peanut Transportation & Handling
Post Harvest Practices to Reduce Risk of Aflatoxin in Farmer Stock Peanuts Level peanuts in trailerDry to 10% moisture or less immediately following harvest Follow proper curing and storage recommendations Maintain safe moisture levels during and handling and storage