Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

3 Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center of origin near Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay Four market types –Virginia (VA, NC, SC) –Runner (GA, AL, FL, MS) –Spanish (TX, OK) –Valencia (NM)

4 Two subspecies hypogaea –Do not flower on main stem –Mature later –Have higher water requirement –Alternate branching pattern –Larger seed fastigiata –Produce flowers on main stem –Have sequential branching –Mature earlier –Lower water requirement –Smaller seed

5 PEANUT MARKET TYPES Runner (hypogaea subspecies) –grown primarily in Southeast Virginia (hypogaea subspecies) –grown primarily in Virginia and North Carolina Spanish (fastigiata subspecies) –grown primarily in Texas and Oklahoma Valencia (fastigiata subspecies) –grown in primarily in New Mexico

6

7 Planted Acres of Selected U.S. Crops Crops Corn81,759,00078,561,000 Soybean72,032,00075,565,000 Wheat57,229,00057,344,000 Cotton14,245,40015,281,000 Sunflower2,709,0001,984,000 Peanut1,657,0001,242,000 Source: USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service

8 Planted Acres Georgia755,000580,000 Texas265,000155,000 Alabama225,000160,000 Florida160,000130,000 North Carolina97,00085,000 South Carolina63,00060,000 Oklahoma35,00023,000 Virginia23,00017,000 New Mexico19,00016,000 Mississippi15,00016,000 USA total1,657,0001,242,000

9 PEANUT SEED Made up of two cotyledons & embryo Embryo –plumule –hypocotyl –primary root

10

11

12 Planting Depth – of Moisture Place Seed into Good Moisture

13 At germination and emergence, the hypocotyl and primary root are known collectively as the radicle.

14 Peanut plants are in a vegetative growth stage for the first days after planting.

15 The peanut plant is very deep rooted. Roots can be found several feet deep.

16 Nitrogen fixing nodules on peanut root – This is NOT nematode damage!

17

18 A peanut leaf is made up of four leaflets.

19 Peanut plants will begin to lap about mid season providing complete canopy coverage

20 About 35 days after planting, the peanut plant begins its reproductive stage with the onset of blooms. The peanut flower is a perfect flower, with both male and female parts present in the same flower.

21 At the base of the peanut flower are the ovaries. Pollen grains shed in the petals and attach to the stigma. The first pollen grains that mature and travel down the pollen tube, fertilize the ovaries.

22 a The fertilized ovary is referred to as a peg. The peg grows toward the soil surface and pushes 1 to 3 into the soil. The tip of the peg takes in water and nutrients, and swells to become the peanut pod.

23 Pegs entering the soil

24 Peanut blooms Peanut pegs and pods below ground

25 Reproductive Growth Stages of Peanut Growth stages of peanut K. J. Boote, Peanut Science 9:35-40 Beginning podBeginning peg R2R3R1 Beginning bloom R4 R7 R5R6 Beginning seed Beginning maturity Full podFull seed

26

27 Heat or pests can damage pegs

28 The basal kernel develops first and faster than the apical kernel. Basal kernel Apical kernel Cross section of peanut pod at maturity. The embryo is visible.

29

30

31 Affect of Seed Calcium on Percent Germination of Peanut Seed Source: D.L. Hartzog and J.F. Adams, Auburn University Y = x – 8.06 x x 2 Plateau = 95% R 2 = 0.68

32 Irrigated Peanut Acres in Georgia* *Based on survey by UGA Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department

33 Weekly Water Use by Peanut Peak ET =.30 inches/day Plant Peanuts May 1 Bloom Initiation 13 weeks June - August Total Water = 18.85

34 Irrigation Management Critical water stage is 40 –110 DAP DO NOT allow stress in last 30 days Use scheduling system, i.e., Irrigator Pro

35 The seed is attached to the inner hull layer by the funiculus. The funiculus functions as an umbilical cord, transporting water and nutrients to the kernel.

36 University of Georgia PEANUT Research and Extension

37 PEANUT Maturity Determination And Harvest Maturity Determination And Harvest

38 PEANUT HARVEST

39

40

41

42 The Good Ol Days???

43 Factors Affecting Peanut Maturity Weather Too hot – hastens Too cool – slows Too cold – shuts down Pest pressure Diseases – defoliation by leaf spot, weakened vines, weak peg stems Insects – defoliation by foliage feeders, chew peg stems Fertility N def Mn def

44

45 Hull-Scrape Maturity Profile Based on color change of mesocarp Exocarp can be removed by knife or pod blaster Color change goes from lighter (immature) to darker (mature): white, light yellow, dark yellow, orange, brown, black

46 Hull Scrape Maturity Profile

47 Peanut Wet Pod Blaster

48

49

50

51

52

53 Improper Digging Causes Yield Loss

54 Peanut Digger-Shaker-Inverter

55

56 Properly Dug and Inverted Pods should be up off the ground Allow about 3 days for windrow curing DO NOT dig just ahead of rain event Ideal conditions for curing include: low humidity, clear days, slight breezes

57 Combining Pickin Peanuts

58

59 Farmers Stock Peanut Transportation & Handling

60 Post Harvest Practices to Reduce Risk of Aflatoxin in Farmer Stock Peanuts Level peanuts in trailerDry to 10% moisture or less immediately following harvest Follow proper curing and storage recommendations Maintain safe moisture levels during and handling and storage


Download ppt "PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family –is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America –center."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google