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PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

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Presentation on theme: "PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:

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2 PEANUT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

3 Introduction Arachis hypogaea L. Fabaceae (Legume) family
is in the pea family, is not a nut Native of South America center of origin near Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay Four market types Virginia (VA, NC, SC) Runner (GA, AL, FL, MS) Spanish (TX, OK) Valencia (NM)

4 Two subspecies hypogaea fastigiata Do not flower on main stem
Mature later Have higher water requirement Alternate branching pattern Larger seed fastigiata Produce flowers on main stem Have sequential branching Mature earlier Lower water requirement Smaller seed

5 PEANUT MARKET TYPES Runner (hypogaea subspecies)
grown primarily in Southeast Virginia (hypogaea subspecies) grown primarily in Virginia and North Carolina Spanish (fastigiata subspecies) grown primarily in Texas and Oklahoma Valencia (fastigiata subspecies) grown in primarily in New Mexico

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7 Planted Acres of Selected U.S. Crops
2005 2006 Corn 81,759,000 78,561,000 Soybean 72,032,000 75,565,000 Wheat 57,229,000 57,344,000 Cotton 14,245,400 15,281,000 Sunflower 2,709,000 1,984,000 Peanut 1,657,000 1,242,000 Source: USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service

8 Planted Acres 2005 2006 Georgia 755,000 580,000 Texas 265,000 155,000
Alabama 225,000 160,000 Florida 130,000 North Carolina 97,000 85,000 South Carolina 63,000 60,000 Oklahoma 35,000 23,000 Virginia 17,000 New Mexico 19,000 16,000 Mississippi 15,000 USA total 1,657,000 1,242,000

9 PEANUT SEED Made up of two cotyledons & embryo Embryo plumule
hypocotyl primary root

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12 Place Seed into Good Moisture
Planting Depth – 2.5” 1.5” of Moisture

13 At germination and emergence, the hypocotyl
and primary root are known collectively as the radicle.

14 Peanut plants are in a vegetative growth stage for
the first days after planting.

15 The peanut plant is very deep rooted.
Roots can be found several feet deep.

16 Nitrogen fixing nodules on peanut root – This is NOT nematode damage!

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18 A peanut leaf is made up of four leaflets.

19 Peanut plants will begin to “lap” about mid season providing complete canopy coverage

20 About 35 days after planting, the peanut plant
begins its reproductive stage with the onset of blooms. The peanut flower is a perfect flower, with both male and female parts present in the same flower.

21 At the base of the peanut flower are the ovaries. Pollen grains shed in the petals and attach to the stigma. The first pollen grains that mature and travel down the pollen tube, fertilize the ovaries.

22 a The fertilized ovary is referred to as a peg.
The peg grows toward the soil surface and pushes 1 to 3 “ into the soil. The tip of the peg takes in water and nutrients, and swells to become the peanut pod. a

23 Pegs entering the soil

24 Peanut pegs and pods below ground
Peanut blooms Peanut pegs and pods below ground

25 Reproductive Growth Stages of Peanut
Beginning bloom Beginning peg Beginning pod R4 R5 R6 Full pod Beginning seed Full seed R7 Reproductive Growth Stages of Peanut Growth stages of peanut K. J. Boote, Peanut Science 9:35-40 Beginning maturity

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27 Heat or pests can damage pegs

28 The basal kernel develops first and faster than the apical kernel.
Cross section of peanut pod at maturity. The embryo is visible.

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31 Affect of Seed Calcium on Percent Germination of Peanut Seed
Y = x – 8.06 x 10-4x2 Plateau = 95% R2 = 0.68 Source: D.L. Hartzog and J.F. Adams, Auburn University

32 Irrigated Peanut Acres in Georgia*
56 54 54 56 53 58 58 51 36 17 7 *Based on survey by UGA Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department

33 Weekly Water Use by Peanut
Peak ET = .30 inches/day Plant Peanuts May 1 Bloom Initiation 13 weeks June - August Total Water = 18.85

34 Irrigation Management
Critical water stage is 40 –110 DAP DO NOT allow stress in last 30 days Use scheduling system, i.e., Irrigator Pro

35 The seed is attached to the inner hull layer by the funiculus.
The funiculus functions as an umbilical cord, transporting water and nutrients to the kernel.

36 University of Georgia PEANUT Research and Extension

37 Maturity Determination
PEANUT Maturity Determination And Harvest

38 PEANUT HARVEST

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42 The Good Ol’ Days???

43 Factors Affecting Peanut Maturity
Weather Too hot – hastens Too cool – slows Too cold – shuts down Pest pressure Diseases – defoliation by leaf spot, weakened vines, weak peg stems Insects – defoliation by foliage feeders, chew peg stems Fertility N def Mn def

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45 Hull-Scrape Maturity Profile
Based on color change of mesocarp Exocarp can be removed by knife or pod blaster Color change goes from lighter (immature) to darker (mature): white, light yellow, dark yellow, orange, brown, black

46 Hull Scrape Maturity Profile

47 Peanut Wet Pod Blaster

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53 Improper Digging Causes Yield Loss

54 Peanut Digger-Shaker-Inverter

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56 Properly Dug and Inverted
Pods should be up off the ground Allow about 3 days for windrow curing DO NOT dig just ahead of rain event Ideal conditions for curing include: low humidity, clear days, slight breezes

57 Combining “Pickin’ Peanuts”

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59 Farmers Stock Peanut Transportation & Handling

60 Post Harvest Practices to Reduce Risk of Aflatoxin in Farmer Stock Peanuts
Level peanuts in trailer Dry to 10% moisture or less immediately following harvest Follow proper curing and storage recommendations Maintain safe moisture levels during and handling and storage


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