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Smelling of roses: Issues surrounding mature female consumers decision-making in the fragrance industry Dr Lindsey Carey Dr Barbara Jenkinson Susan Walkinshaw.

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Presentation on theme: "Smelling of roses: Issues surrounding mature female consumers decision-making in the fragrance industry Dr Lindsey Carey Dr Barbara Jenkinson Susan Walkinshaw."— Presentation transcript:

1 Smelling of roses: Issues surrounding mature female consumers decision-making in the fragrance industry Dr Lindsey Carey Dr Barbara Jenkinson Susan Walkinshaw

2 Perfume A fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils extracted from flowers and spices used to give a pleasant smell to ones body. Oxford English Dictionary When a woman buys perfume, she buys much, much more than simply fluids. The perfume image, its promises, its scent, its name and package, the company that makes it, the stores that sell it – all become a part of the total perfume product. Cant et al., 2006:192 Glasgow Caledonian University2

3 UK market Market worth £1.1bn (worldwide £16bn) Growth rate of market is estimated at 16.5% 68% of fragrances are geared towards women 85% of women use perfume daily Profitable yr old female consumer segment is in decline Mature segment (over 44) is growing Glasgow Caledonian University3

4 UK Market New product introductions are a regular occurrence Often led by celebrities Characterised by gift purchases (mainly by women) Spend has not reduced even in times of economic recession Glasgow Caledonian University4

5 Market segmentation According to the % of concentrated oils the fragrance includes (Perfume, Eau de Parfum, Eau de Toilette, Eau de Cologne) By fragrance categories (Floral/Oriental/Woody and Fresh) By manufacturer (4 multinationals own 45% of brands) By category of fragrance premium and mass market Glasgow Caledonian University5

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7 Theoretical framework Mature consumer behaviour (Fox et al., 1984; Lunsford & Burnett, 1992; Gilly & Zeithhaml, 1985; Moschis & Mathur, 2006; Uncles & Lee, 2006; Lambert-Pandraud & Laurent, 2010) Innovativeness (Laukkanen et al., 2007; Manning et al., 1995; Wang & Zhou, 2008) Relationship theory (Fournier, 1998; Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001; Thomson et al., 2005; Park et al., 2010; Grisaffe & Nguyen, 2011) Attachment (Ball & Tasaki, 1992; Kleine & Baker, 2004; Mugge et al., 2006; Belaid & Behi, 2011; Patwardhan & Balasubramanian; 2011) Nostalgia/heritage (Belk, 1990; Holbrook & Schindler, 1991; Holbrook, 1993; Divard & Robert-Demontrond, 1997) Glasgow Caledonian University7

8 Research Problem Previous research Nostalgia has little influence Strong brands facilitate attachment Innovation intense in the perfume market Investigate issues surrounding the purchasing of fragrance brands by mature women with particular reference to nostalgia and attachment within the UK market Glasgow Caledonian University8

9 Methods Qualitative interviews with fragrance consultants (n=10) Qualitative interviews with industry experts (n=4) Survey distributed to women (age 44+) at point of sale of a specialist fragrance retailer (n =117) Glasgow Caledonian University9

10 Descriptive results 3 age groups (61%) Mature (31%) Old Mature 76+ (8%) Grand Mature Ownership of 3 bottles (as age increases number of bottles owned decreases) High users of fragrance (84% use it daily) Glasgow Caledonian University10

11 Glasgow Caledonian University11

12 Attachment Fragrance/brand builds a significant emotional relationship with customer passion, happiness, love, completely love vs upset, very upset, distraught, quite gutted, great disappointment, totally disappointed, devastated Enhances and helps create self concept and identity/ through brand engagement, scent (inc. signature scent), personality and association because perfume is a personal thing, I could walk into a room and know someone through the perfume they are wearing you can associate characteristics with fragrances, for example, I would associate a stronger more pungent smell with a confident person and sweeter fragrances with someone who is more bubbly Glasgow Caledonian University12

13 Association I think its an image thing so they wont be embarrassed if someone asks what fragrance they are wearing, they wouldnt want to say something like Kylie Minogue, they would rather say YSL or Dior Glasgow Caledonian University13

14 Nostalgia Memories of events and emotional attachments create nostalgia (including displaced or removed attachments) I wouldnt show someone at twenty years old LInstant de Guerlain but she might come in and ask for it because her grandmother wore it and I just adore my grandmother and I want to wear it and I love it. Im not going to say she cant they say that reminds me of blah, blah, blah times, they are emotionally attached and they start telling you stories about the times they have worn the fragrance The older the consumer the preference for long established heritage brands increases Glasgow Caledonian University14

15 Other determinants related to fragrance purchasing Age related when associated with gift/occasion purchases if someone came in looking for a gift the question of the age of the recipient would be one of the first questions I would ask Incentives are important in this market (price promotions/free gifts) Celebrity endorsement is dominating for new launch of fragrances Heritage/luxury/classic brands are being re- launched Glasgow Caledonian University15

16 Conclusion Perfume is in a product category of its own Consumers purchase on association, emotional connection and self-image construction Ambivalence of segmentation of consumer market related to age Glasgow Caledonian University16


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