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Adaptasi Tumbuhan pada Lingkungan Habitat Lahan Kering Bahan Kajian MK. Agroekologi Smno.jurstnh.fpub.2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Adaptasi Tumbuhan pada Lingkungan Habitat Lahan Kering Bahan Kajian MK. Agroekologi Smno.jurstnh.fpub.2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adaptasi Tumbuhan pada Lingkungan Habitat Lahan Kering Bahan Kajian MK. Agroekologi Smno.jurstnh.fpub.2013

2 Apakah Tumbuhan itu? Multicellular organism that performs photosynthesis and develops from an embryo Almost all live on land Descendants of protists Land invasion depended on evolution of different structures Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

3 Adaptasi Lahan-Darat Waxy cuticle reduces water loss Ability to absorb water from a variety of sources Enclosed reproductive organs, called gametangia, in which gametes form Enclosed sporangia in which spores form

4 Identifikasi beragam Tipe Tumbuhan Identify as many different plants as you can. How are they different from one another?

5 Vaskuler vs. Non-vaskuler Vascular or tracheophytes Have pipelike tissues that conduct water Grow large Examples: fir trees, ferns Nonvascular or bryophytes Lack a vascular system Much smaller Less diverse

6 Divisio Tumbuhan Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

7 Evolusi Tumbuhan Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

8 1.Evidence comes from fossils and comparisons with living species 2.First plants evolved from a common ancestor that resembled a green alga 3.Vascular plants predate nonvascular plants 4.First seedless plants Carboniferous Period Evolusi Tumbuhan

9 Kingdom Plantae Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

10 Evolusi Angiospermae Angiosperms flowering plants First fossils about 125 million years ago Evolved from gymnosperms plants that have no fruits or flowers Many adaptations

11 Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts Nonvascular Plants or bryophytes Depend on free standing water for photosynthesis and fertilization Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

12 Karakteristik Bryophyta All parts of their bodies are adapted to absorb water This gives them a spongy feel Exhibit alternation of generations a sexual life cycle in which haploid and diploid phases are both multicellular

13 Siklus Hidup Lumut (Moss) Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

14 Tumbuhan Berpembuluh (Vaskuler) Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

15 Called tracheophytes Have division of labor with separate transport systems for water (xylem) and sugars (phloem) Diploid Phase dominates the life of the plant Seeds are protected by coat, and food is stored inside for germination Tumbuhan Berpembuluh (Vaskuler)

16 Seed-Lacking Tracheophytes 4 divisions that lack seeds: – Pterophytes (ferns) – Psilotophytes – Lycophytes – Equisetophytes

17 Siklus Hidup Paku-pakuan Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

18 A fern releases haploid spores Spores mature into haploid gametophytes Gametophytes make sperm and egg Fusion of sperm and egg Zygotes grow right out of the gametophyte for a new fern Siklus Hidup Paku-pakuan

19 Lycophytes Have true roots, stems and simple leaves Also called lycopods Example: club mosses Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

20 Equisetophytes Referred to as horsetails Have true roots, stems and complex leaves Stems are jointed Outer cell walls are reinforced with silica Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

21 Reproduksi Tumbuhan Berbiji Manage fertilization without water Use a form of internal fertilization Sperm and ovum fused, and develop within the female gametophyte Seeds consist of a diploid zygote and a source of food encased in a seed coat

22 Gymnosperms 1.Seed plants without flowers 2.Evergreen 3.Conifers produce male and female gametophytes in cone-shaped strobili (the cones) 4.Male and female cones on same tree

23 Siklus Hidup Pinus Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

24 Cycads 1.Large-leafed plants that look like palms 2.No flowers or fruits 3.Bear naked seeds 4.Produce male and female strobili Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

25 Kegunaan Bunga dan Buah Flowers ensure distribution of pollen through a variety of methods Fruits are mature ovaries that enclose and protect seeds Fruits usually enhance dispersal of seeds

26 Siklus Hidup Tumbuhan Berbunga Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

27 Reproduksi Angiospermae Flowers reproduce by means of double fertilization 2 sperm nuclei from the pollen grain fertilize 2 ova from the ovary A diploid zygote is formed and a triploid cell forms the endosperm

28 Bagian-bagian Bunga Stamen anther and filament (male) Carpel style and ovary (female) A corolla or petals and a calyx of sepals surround stamens and carpels Not all flowers have all parts

29 Konsep-konsep Kunci A plant is a multicellular organism that photosynthesizes and develops an embryo Nonvascular plants lack vascular tissues The vascular system enables plants to transport water and nutrients, to grow large, and to diversify Seeds allow plant to withstand dry environments


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