2Achieving Student Success in the Community College
3Student Diversity in America’s Community Colleges There are 13 million students currently enrolled in approximately 1,150 community colleges in the United States; they account for almost half of all first-year college students in America today.More than 630,000 community college students will earn an associate degree this year, and more than 425,000 will earn a certificate.Most first-year community college students are employed either part or full time and attend college part time.The average age of the American community college student is 28.Almost 42 percent of all community college students are the first in their family to attend college.More than 37 percent of community college students are members of minority racial or ethnic groups.Close to 6 percent of international students attend America’s community collegesSource: American Association of Community Colleges (2012).
5college degree or certificate learning commitment As educators we need to inform students of the importance of the benefits of a:college experiencecollege degree or certificatelearning commitment
6Why College Is Worth It Career Benefits Economic Advantages Advanced Intellectual SkillsBetter Physical HealthSocial BenefitsEmotional BenefitsEffective CitizenshipHigher Quality of Life for Their Children
8Career Benefits Security and stability—lower rates of unemployment Versatility and mobility—more flexibility to move out of a position and into other positionsAdvancement—more opportunity to move up to higher professional positionsInterest—more likely to find their work stimulating and challengingAutonomy—greater independence and opportunity to be their own bossSatisfaction—more enjoyment of their work and the feel that it allows them to use their special talentsPrestige—higher-status positions (i.e., careers that more socially desirable and respected)
10Economic Advantages Make better consumer choices and decisions Make wiser long-term investmentsReceive greater pension benefitsEarn higher income
11Advanced Intellectual Skills Greater knowledgeMore effective problem-solving skillsBetter ability to deal with complex and ambiguous (uncertain) problemsGreater openness to new ideasMore advanced levels of moral reasoningClearer sense of self-identity and greater awareness and knowledge of personal talents, interests, values, and needsGreater likelihood to continue learning throughout life
13Better Physical Health Better health insurance—more comprehensive coverage and greater likelihood of being coveredBetter dietary habitsMore regular exerciseLower rates of obesityLonger and healthier life
15Social Benefits Higher social self-confidence Better understanding and more effective communication with othersGreater popularityMore effective leadership skillsGreater marital satisfaction
16Emotional Benefits Lower levels of anxiety Higher levels of self-esteemGreater sense of self-efficacy and belief that they have more influence and control over their lifeHigher levels of psychological well-beingHigher levels of personal happiness
18Effective Citizenship Greater interest in national issues, both social and politicalGreater knowledge of current affairsHigher voting participation ratesHigher rates of participation in civic affairs and community service
19Higher Quality of Life for Their Children Less likelihood of smoking during pregnancyBetter health care for their childrenMore time spent with their childrenMore likely to involve their children in educational activities that stimulate their mental developmentMore likely to save money for their children to go to collegeMore likely that their children will graduate from collegeMore likely that their children will attain high-status and higher-paying careers
20Why Do Students Leave? Academic Reasons Personal Reasons Financial Reasons
22Academic Reasons Not challenged academically Not academically prepared (underprepared students graduate about half the rate a prepared student does in 6 years)Lack of academic focusDesired major unavailable
23Personal Reasons Institution isn’t a good personal fit Medical issues (personal, parent, spouse, child)Relationship issues (parents, significant other)Poor social adjustment (lacking friends)No sense of belongingLack of clear goals and purpose of collegeLack of disciplineHomesick
24Financial ReasonsUnrealized expectations (thought they were getting something else, wasn’t worth the cost)Had to go to work for family or other reasons (especially true for adult learners)Insufficient financial aid (ran out of money)
26Creating an Environment for Student Learning and Student Success
27Principles of College Success Research on human learning and student development indicates four powerful principles of college success:Active InvolvementUse of Campus ResourcesInterpersonal Interaction and CollaborationPersonal Reflection and Self-Awareness (Astin, 1993; Kuh, 2000; Light, 2001; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, 2005; Tinto, 1993).Thriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
29Active InvolvementResearch indicates active involvement may be the most powerful principle of human learning and college success. The principle of active involvement includes the following pair of processes:The amount of personal time a student devotes to learning during the college experienceThe degree of personal effort or energy (mental and physical) students put into the learning processThriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
30Student Success and Interpersonal Interaction Four particular forms of interpersonal interaction have been found to be strongly associated with student learning and motivation in college:Student-Faculty InteractionStudent-Advisor InteractionStudent-Mentor InteractionStudent-Student InteractionThriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
31Student-Faculty Interaction Studies repeatedly show that college success is influenced heavily by the quality and quantity of student-faculty interaction outside the classroom. Such contact is positively associated with the following positive outcomes for college students:Improved academic performanceIncreased critical thinking skillsGreater satisfaction with the college experienceIncreased likelihood of completing a college degreeStronger desire to seek education beyond college (Astin, 1993; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, 2005).Thriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
33Student-Faculty Interaction Further, research studies demonstrate that students’ success is heavily influenced by the quality and quantity of their interaction with faculty members outside of the classroom. More specifically, student-faculty contact outside of class is positively associated with the following student developments:Improved academic performanceIncreased critical thinking skillsGreater satisfaction with the educational experienceStronger desire to further education beyond high schoolInvolvement in own academic and personal successHow students interpret messages received from family, school, and communityMaking choices that are in the best interest of their success
34Student-Student Interaction Studies of college students repeatedly point to the power of the peer group as a source of social and academic support (Pascarella, 2005).Peer interaction is especially important during the first term of college. At this stage of the college experience, new students have a strong need for belongingness and social acceptance.
35Student-Student Interaction A study conducted by Light (2001) found that students who formed or participated in small groups was a strong determinant in their college success.Students who participated in study groups once weekly were more engaged, showed increased class preparation, and learned significantly more than students who worked alone.
36Interaction with an Advisor Can be an effective referral agent who can direct students to, and connect students with, campus support services that best meet their needsAn individual students should meet with more regularly than course instructors
37Interaction with a Mentor Research in higher education demonstrates that a mentor can make first-year students feel significant and enable them to stay on track until they complete their college degree (Campbell & Campbell, 1997; Knox, 2008).
38Self-Reflection Important step in achieving success in college Involves self-assessment, self-monitoring, reflecting on feedback, and reflecting on the futureThriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
39Self-AssessmentProcess of evaluating personal characteristics, traits, habits, and their relative strengths and weaknessesInclude personal interests, personal values, personal abilities or aptitudes, learning habits, learning styles, personality traits, and academic self-concept (personal beliefs about what kind of student he/she is are and how they perceive him/herself as a learner)Thriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
41Self-MonitoringMaintaining an awareness of how effectively you are learning, if you are learning what you are attempting to learn, and what you are attempting to learnGood habits mean periodically having students ask themselves the following questions:Thriving in College & Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development (Cuseo, Thompson, & Fecas, 2010)
42The Future of AmericaAlthough minorities now make up approximately 1/3 of the population, they are expected to be the majority by 2042 and projected to be 54% of the population by 2050.By 2023, minorities will comprise more than half of all children.
43The Future of AmericaThe population of non-Hispanic whites is expected to be only slightly larger by 2050 than in 2008.This group is projected to lose population in the 2030s and 2040s and comprise 46% of the population by 2050, down from 66% in 2008.
44The Future of AmericaIn contrast, the Hispanic population is expected to triple from 46.7 million to million during the time period.The black population is expected to increase from 14% in 2008 to 15% inThe Asian population is expected to increase from 5.1% in 2008 to 9.2% in
45Community Colleges Will be the Access and Success Venues for Many of These Students
46Diversity Strengthens Development of Learning & Thinking Skills Research on first-year college students shows that students who experience the highest level of exposure to different dimensions of diversity (e.g. interactions and friendships with peers of different races, or participating in multicultural courses and events on campus) report the greatest gains in:thinking complexity – the ability to think about all parts and all sides of an issue (Gurin, 1999),reflective thinking – the ability to think deeply (Kitchener et al., 2000), andcritical thinking – the ability to think logically (Pascarella et al., 2001).
48Diversity Increases the Power of a Liberal Arts Education There is no way to gain a global perspective without understanding human diversity.Another perspective that should be developed as part of a liberal arts education is a national perspective, which involves understanding and appreciating your own nation.Because of the increasing diversity of the U.S., “multicultural competence” – the ability to understand cultural differences and to interact effectively with people from different cultural backgrounds – has become an important liberal art skill that is critical for success in today's’ world (Pope et. al., 2005).
49Diversity Promotes Creative Thinking Experiencing diversity can enhance your ability to think creatively.Diversity experiences supply us with different thinking styles that can help us to be aware of our own cultural framework.These experiences also help us to be aware of our perceptual “blind spots” and avoid the dangers of group think – the tendency for tight, like-minded groups of people to think so much alike that they overlook the flaws in their own thinking – which can lead to poor choices and faulty decisions (Janis, 1982).
51Diversity Enhances Career Preparation & Success Whatever career you may choose to enter, you will likely find yourself working with employers, employees, co-workers, customers, and clients from diverse cultural backgrounds.Successful career performance in today's’ diverse workforce requires sensitivity to human differences and the ability to relate to people from different cultural backgrounds who work in the U.S. and across different nations (National Association of Colleges & Employers, 2003; Smith, 1997).
52Diversity Stimulates Social Development Interacting with people from a variety of groups widens one’s social circle by expanding the pool of people with whom one can associate and develop relationships.
54DiversityA major goal of appreciating diversity is to promote more equitable and treatment of all people and reduce prejudice or discrimination toward particular groups of people.Diversity is also a learning experience that strengthens the quality of an individual’s education, career preparation, citizenship, and leadership in a democracy.
56Use: Regular and formative feedback Getting students involved first day of class (know their names)Peer support (tutoring, mentoring)Content related to student’s experiencesAttendanceHigh expectations
58Faculty Influences on Student Success The relationship between students and faculty members is more important in predicting the social-emotional functioning of students than their academic performance (Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007).
59Faculty Influences on Student Success Informal interactions that take place outside of the classroom between students and faculty members have been found to have an effect on the motivation of students beyond the usual predictors of academic performance including performance in secondary school or academic aptitude (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005; Pascarella, Terenzini, & Hibel, 1978).
60Faculty Influences on Student Success The first interactions with faculty members have a significant influence on the value placed on high academic achievement and can counteract the general student culture that does not typically value such achievement (Komarraju, Musulkin, & Bhattacharya, 2007).
62Faculty Influences on Student Success A recent study by Komarraju, Musulkin, and Bhattacharya (2007) found that students who viewed faculty as approachable, respectful, and available to them outside of class time as being more confident in their academic skills and being motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically.
63Interaction with Students Research has shown that students are more likely to interact with faculty members they consider to be:SociableIntelligentDemonstrated leadersSupportiveObjective (Babad, Avni-Babad, & Rosenthal, 2003; Furnham & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2005).
65Interaction with Students Students who feel comfortable in speaking informally with faculty are more likely to:Consider the learning process an enjoyable experienceGain a deeper understanding of how a college education prepares them for future employment (Komarraju, Musulkin, & Bhattacharya, 2007).
66Reflecting on Feedback Learning and decision-making are enhanced when you reflect on, and make use of, information received from others on how to correct or improve performance.
67Reflecting on their Future Self-projection which involves futuristic thinking and the tasks of goal-setting and long-range planningFocusing on the big pictureLong-term dreams and goals inspire motivation and “little details” such as deadlines and short-term commitments that require perseverance.
70Academic AdvisingIntrusive advising that focuses on students’ strengths, values, and beliefs when establishing goalsThere are several indications that advising can have a significant impact on retention through a number of variables strongly associated with student persistence:Student satisfaction with the college experience;Effective educational and career planning;Utilization of available support services;Student contact with faculty and staff outside of the classroom; andStudent mentoring.
71Academic AdvisingResearch has concluded that undergraduates think most highly of advisors who function as mentors or counselors and who are:Available/accessibleKnowledgeable/helpfulPersonable/approachable
72Financial AidMore and more data are indicating that financial aid and Bursar’s offices have an influence on access and success of colleges students. In addition, need based aid received after the first year can have a large impact on student persistence.
73The Importance of the First Year for Student Success The first year of college is undoubtedly the most important year of the college experience because it’s a stage of transitionStudents report the most change, the most learning, and the most development (Doyle, Edison, & Pascarella, 1998; Flowers, Osterlind, Pascarella, & Pierson, 2001; Light, 2001).The academic habits students establish in their first year of college are likely to persist throughout their remaining years of college (Schilling, 2001)When graduating seniors look back at their college experience, many of them say that the first year was the time of greatest change and the time during which they made the most significant improvements in their approach to learning.
75Underprepared Students August 9, 2010Graduation Rate GapsUnderprepared StudentsSystem completion rates of full-time, first-time associate and baccalaureate students who entered a KY public or independent university and completed a degree at any in-state public or independent institution, by college readiness at entry.4Source: CPE Comprehensive Database675
76August 9, 2010Source: March 2012 Current Population Supplement, Current Population Survey (CPS)6Source: CPE Comprehensive Database6
78Kentucky Leads the Nation in the Rate of Improvement Between 2000-2009 #1Adults (25-64) with a college degree (associate and higher)#16-year graduation rates at 4-year institutions (public and private)#1Undergraduate credentials awarded per 1, to 44 year olds with no college degree
79Kentucky Leads the Nation in the Rate of Improvement Between 2000-2009 #2Young adults (25-44) with a college degree (associate and higher)#33-year graduation rates at 2-year institutions (public and private)#5Undergraduate credentials 1 year or more in length
81Kentucky’s College and Career Readiness Success The number of high school graduates ready for college has steadily been increasingSource: Dodd, Karen. “Stocktake Summary for College and Career Readiness Delivery Plan.” Kentucky Department of Education. Oct 2012.