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Family Asteraceae (Asim Farooq)

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1 Family Asteraceae (Asim Farooq)
More than 23,000 species across 1620 genera and 10 subfamilies and round about 17 tribes. Originated in period of Crataceous before separation of America and Antarctica . Numerous distribution in tropical, and subtropical regions. Form a monophyletic group and are easily recognizable. Mostly herbaceous but some shrubs , trees and climbers do exist. Branched taproot system, herbaceous or woody branched stems, leaves are simple, alternate or opposite, exstipulate, petiolate, hairy, reticulate venation, racemose inflorescence, unisexual, actinomorphic, heterochlamydeous, epigynous flower, sepals sometimes absent or scaly persistent, polypetalous, 5 stamens and 2 carpels, basal placentation, nut shaped fruit known as cypsela, in mature seeds the endosperm is scarce or non-existent . Adapted several methods of reproduction. Store energy in the form of inulin, synthesize other compounds like alkaloids, acetylenes and terpenoids etc. Family of much economic importance as: Food plants like Lactuca sativa, Helianthus tuberosus. Oil seeds like Helianthus annuus, Carthamus tinctorius, Osteospermum sp. Medicine like Chamaemelum nobile, Inula helenium, Santolina chamaecyparissus. Ornamentals like Dahlia imperialis and Chrysanthemum sp., Tanacetum vulgare. Economic loses due to Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

2 MIMOSACEAE Ayesha Khan Nazir
Acacia or mimosa family comprises of 56 genera and 2800 species. Habitat: tropical and sub tropical shrubs, herbs and climbers. Vegetative characters: plants have tap roots with side branches and nodules.Stem is erect and woody.Leaves are compound, bipinnate and stipules are modified into spines. Floral characters: Racemose inflorescence, bisexual, actinomorphic, perigynous, pentamerous, 5 sepals gamosepalous, 5 petals polypetalous, numerous stamens, basifixed anthers, monocarpillary, placentation marginal (+ ,Q , K(5) , C(5) , Aα , G1) Economic importance: Timber yeild: e.g. albizzia, acacia and xyliaet species. Ornamental use: e.g. Mimosa pudica. Fooder: e.g. Acacia, Dicrostachys. Soap: e.g. Acacia concinna pods have sponium. Medicinal use: e.g. Katha, Acacia senegal and Entada. Gums and Dyes: e.g. Keekar.

3 Family Rosaceae Basma Sarfraz
World wide range: usually in northern temperate regions, well-represented in China… may be deciduous or ever green… Classification ( sub-families & genera): 3350 species and 122 genera. Habit: Perennial herbs ( rarely annuals ), shrubs and trees. Characteristics: Flowers: Actinomorphic, flat, hypanthium present, insertion perigynous, sepels and petals free, stamens whorled, carpel simple, free, superior. Fruits: Follicles, achenes, drupes, nuts, pomes. Seeds: usually without endosperm. Leaves: Alternate, usually with stapules, simple or compound (pinnate or palmate). Floral formula: Economical importance Fragaria species (Malus domesticus )-source of food, Prunus serotina - wood, essential oils, Rosa damascena - perfumes, Eriobotrya japonica – medicinal purposes, Prunus species - ornamental plants… Floral formula explanation: flowers regular and usually perigynous (some epigynous). perianth of 5 united (at base) sepals and 5 separate petals. stamens usually numerous, anthers small. pistil usually with superior ovary of 1 to many separate carpels, or 2-5 fused carpels, or inferior ovary of 1-5 fused carpels.

4 Ranunculaceae Taxa :Division: Magnoliophyta–Flowering plants , Class: Magnoliopsida– Dicotyledons , Order : Ranunculales No. of members :Family comprises 62 genera and 2242 species Distribution :Occur worldwide but most abundantly in the temperate regions of Northern Hemisphere mainly at high altitudes. E. Asia ,Europe and E. North America are regions of most common occurrence. Adapted to moist- to wet habitats and occur in forests , grasslands and some can grow in water too. Vegetative characters :Almost all are annual or perennial herbs. Primary root is Taproot that becomes tuberous. Climbing under shrubs are also found. Alternately arranged leaves that are estipulate, lobed or palmately divided and sometimes radial or opposite. Flowers are usually numerous, spirally arranged, non-fused, bright, bisexual, actinomorphic, sometimes perianth is simply petaloid , Inflorescence is mostly of cymose type and mostly the flowers are insect pollinated. Fruit is a group of achenes, follicles, capsular or berry-Seeds are small without aril and have small embryo and oily endosperm. Economic Importance :Mostly used as ornaments (e.g. Dalphinium ajacis , Nigella sativa) and as drug plants e.g. Aconitum napillus (alkaloid aconite extracted from roots, used for blood pressure) Anemone Pulsatilla (Yields famous homeopathic medicine Pulsatilla) , Ranunculus ficaria (Used for pile)

5 Family Lamiaceae (Hassan Ali)
Mint Family; Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons, Order Lamiales Genera 236; Species > 7000 Habit : Tree, shrubs and herbs. Habitat: Rocky, woodland or grassland, forest margins and in fynbos. Distribution around Globe: Members found in Canary islands, Himalayas, subcontinent and middle Africa. Stem square in cross section and leaves are opposite without stipules, multicellular hair mostly present, Flower hermaphrodite, thyrsoid inflorescence. Calyx 5 united, corolla 5 sympatulous, Androecium 4 didynamous(anterior pair longer), style gynobasic, ovary superior 4 lobed, fruit consists of mericarps (nutlets). Economic Importance: Mentha spicata, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum basilicum are source of essential oils for flavoring and perfume industry. Salvia pratensis, Ajuga reptans are used as ornamental plants. Salvia divinorum is used as Hallucinogen in surgery. Here is the floral formula for the Lamiaceae. Flowers are perfect, both the calyx and corolla are zygomorphic, there are 4 stamens and they are epipetalous, and the gynoecium is syncarpous, from 2 carpels, and the ovary is superior.

6 Iridacae family (HAFSA IFTIKHAR) Genera 90 ,species 2,000
Worldwide distribution.rare in tropical lowlands,high altitudes,best represented in southern africa. Variety of habitats,do not grow in the sea itself. Floral formula:3 sepals(pataloid),3patals(showy),3stamens,gynoceum of 3 carpels,inferior overy. Flowers: perfect,actinomorphic or zygomorphic, Inflorescence:cymes,umbels,panicles, or flowers solitary on scape Fruits:loculicidal capsules. Leaves:alternate or basal,simple,entire,folded in half lengthwise,equitant,sheathing at base. Examples: Ixia Dubia,Crocus,Dietes Bicolour,Neomarica Northiana. Economic importance: food,ornamnal purposesuse as dye,leaves uses against skin diseases,fungal and viral diseases, Saffron obtain from stigma used in folk medicines.

7 FABACEAE OR PAPILIONACEAE(Komal Jamim Shehzadi)
Introduction:Family of about 400 genera 9000 species. Familiar plants:sweet pea ,Peanut,Chick pea,Shisham. Vegetative character:Trees,shrubs,herbs.Stem;woody or herbaceous.Leaves;compound rarely simple,alternate stipulate. Floral formula: +,Q,K(5),C 1+2+(2),A(9)+1,G1,Fruit;legume,pod Economic importance: source of high protein food and used as food and forage (Gram ,Pea,Alfalfa), furniture and building purpose (Butea,Dulbergia),Medicines (Glycrhiza glabra,clitoria ternatea),Ornamental Plants (Lathyrus,Lupinus,Butea),Abrus precatorius ,used as weights called ‘’ratti’’and oil (Arachis hypogae).

8 SOLANACEAE 90 Genera, 2000 species.(Pak; 14 Genera & 52 Species)
Dicotyledons-Asteridae-Solanales-Solanaceae Habit-Herbs or shrubs rarely trees. Habitat-Tropical Stem-hairy and mostly herbaceous Leaves- Simple, alternate, exstipulate, venation reticulate. Roots-Tap Root, branched Floral Characters-Cymose inflorescence, Flower: Bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous. Calyx: United 5 Sepals. Corolla: United 5 Petals(epipetalous). Gynoecium: Pistil of 2 united Carpels. Placentation axile Edible-Potato(Solanum tuberosum), tomato, redchilli, tobacco. Medicinal-Datura stromanium, Atropa belladona. Ornamental-Petunia nicotiana, Cestum nocturnum(night queen)

9 Plant family-Arecaceae
It is also known as palmae family and comprises of roughly 202 genera and 2600 species. Inhabit nearly every type of habitat. Most found throughout the tropics and subtropics. More than two-thirds of palm species live in tropical forests. Palms have large evergreen leaves that are either fan-leaved or feather-leaved. The flowers are usually small and white and can be either uni- or bi- sexual. Sepals and petals generally number three each . The fruit is usually single seeded. Commercially important palms include coconut, date and oil palm.

10 Scrophulariaceae (Mohsin)
Figwort or Snapdragon family Many grow in the American Northwest The plants were used to treat hemorrhoids and scrofula Large family distributed throughout the world; Dicotyledons groups Worldwide: 170 genera and 3,634 species Introduced or native: 21 genera and 130 species Plant : Mostly autotrophic, Annual herbs mostly, few vines, shrubs or tress, some parasitic Leaves: Alternate, opposite, or whorled; simple or pinnate; no stipules Flowers: bisexual, superior, perfect, regular or irregular Fruit: 2-chambered capsule or berry with two to many seeds, sometime oily. Inflorescence in solitary, thyrses, cymes, often in dense verticels Calyx: Fused or distinct, 5 lobed Corolla: Fused, 5 lobed, often 2 lipped Stamens: 5, 4 fertile and 1 staminode (infertile)

11 LILIACEAE (Rabia) Complex family of about 250 genera and 4,000 to 6,000 species. It belong to class monocotyledons(liliopsida), it’s division is spermatophyta( seed plants and flowering plants), order is liliales. 3 sepals ,3 petals , 6 stamens, 3 united carpels Raceme, actinomorphic, bisexual, superior ovary, axile placentation, fruit is either capsule or berry. Leaves alternate, simple, perennial, herbaceous, cosmopolitan Onion and garlic are used as food,asparagus are edible, true lily, tulip, daffodil are used as ornamental plants. Colchicum is used for the extraction of colchicine.smilax is used as a drug. Allium, asparagus, colchicum , tulipa( tulip), narcissus, true lily(lilium), smilax and ruscus.

12 Characters of verbenaceae(Raffiya)
The verbenaceae are herbs shrubs and trees comprising about 100 genera and 2600 species. It is temperate or subtropical. It is characterized by common occurrence of quadrangular twigs and aromatic herbage. Leaves are opposite or whorled, simple. Flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic,hypogynous. Inflorescence usually racemose, units – solitary. Calyx are tubular and campanulate ,toothed,. Corolla tubular, 4-5 lobed more or less zygomorphic. Stamens epipetalous 4 ,rarely 5 ,anthers 2 locular. Ovary superior, usually glabrous 2 locular-4 lobed. The fruit is usually drupe or nutlets, indehicent. Economic uses etc timber (Tectona grandis); some notable ornaments (callicarpa,vitex, verbena)

13 Poaceae (Rubia) Scientific classification: Kingdom;  Plantae Class ; Liliopsida ,Order;  Cyperales ,Family;  Poaceae, Genus; Poa Distrbution:present troughout the wold include; 600 genera 10,ooo specie Vegetative chracter: Habit: annual or perennial herbs Stem: stem is jointed usually hollow,at internode ,closed at node. Leaves: leaves are alternate, distichous, and parallel-veined. Inflorescence: Flower:  usually hermaphroditic, arranged in spikelet having florets .A spikelet consists of two bracts at the base, called glumes. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts called the lemma and the palea. Fruit: grains or cryopsis. Pollination: it is is always anemophilous that is, by wind. Economic importance: Food production Ornamental significance Building material Beverage Familiar plants :Zea mayz(corn) ,oryza sativa(rice),triticum vulgare(wheat).Bambusa (bamboo). – Plants – Vascular plants  – Seed plants – Flowering plants  – Monocotyledons Distichous phyllotaxis, also called "two-ranked leaf arrangement" is a special case of either opposite or alternate leaf arrangement where the leaves on a stem are arranged in two vertical columns on opposite sides of the stem.

14 Apocynaceae Family Introduction 1.Dogbane family 2.trees herbs shrubs and lianas Genre in the family 424 Distribution 1.tropical rain forest 2.xeric environment 3.temprate zones Characteristics 1.leaves are opposite, simple and whorled 2.Flowers are bisexual a. Stamen five petals unite to form 4 or 5 epipetalous stamen b. Style below stigma c. Ovary is superior 3.Fruit is usually in three forms: a. drupe b. berry c. follicle d. capsule Uses 1. venom 2. ornaments 3. drugs 4. food source

15 Brassicaceae Family (Safia Nisar)
Includes about 300 genus and 3700 species. Centers around the Mediterranean and the Northern Hemisphere. Leaves are alternate up the stem, organized in basal rosettes. Flowers: Cruciform, made up of four petals in a cross shape. They are yellow or white mainly. Economic Importance: Used as medicinal purposes and as food crops. Examples: Rapeseed, cabbage, turnips, oil crops etc.

16 MYRTACEAE FAMILY (shizza fatima)
CLASSIFICATION: Class- Magnoliopsida GENRA IN THE FAMILY: genra SPECIES PRESENT: All species are woody with essential oils. It includes 5650 species CHARACTERISTICS HABITAT: Inhabits tropical and warm temprate regions LEAF ANATOMY: Evergreen or deciduous, small to large, opposite, alternate or whorled, herbaceous or leathery, reticulate venation or parallel venation STEM STRUCTURE: Cork cambium present, vascular tissues, phloem, secondary thickenings develop from cork cambium. FLOWERS: Actinomorphic, 4-5 parted calyx and corolla, inconspicuous, gynoceium has 2-5 carpels, a single style and stigma, epigenous ovary with 2-5 locules POLLINATION: Specialized or unspecialized SEEDLINGS: Germination cryptocotylar ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE SOURCE OF ESSENTIAL OILS: All members of the family yield oils example Eucalyptus risdoni, Eucalyptus grandis yield oils which differ in composition. SOURCE OF SPICES: Clove comes from this family. It is obtained from Szyguim aromaticum. Cloves are used for flavoring. HOTICULTURAL PLANTS: Many species of this family have glossy appearance are used as horticultural plants example

17 Family Maliaceae(Mahogany)
Eudicots, Rosids, Sapnidales,50 Genera, 550 Species, 1217 sub species Important Genra: Agalia, Menia, Cedrela, Owenia Habit: Trees and Shrubs, rarely Herbaceous( Mangroves) Stem: 7-12 meters, Leaves: Alternate, Petioled, Compund, Fruit: Drupe, Berry like Floral Formula : , , Ca(4-5), Co(4-5), A(8-10),G(2-5) Favors Tropical and Humid Environment Distributed in Tropical and Tropical Forests (Excellent timber: Sweitenia mahogany; most valuable wood, Cedrala odorata; Cigar boxes, Azadirachta indica, Carapa granum) ( Medicinal value: Azadirachta indica; estringent, source of margosa oil to treat skin diseases, its bark treats Malarial fever, Carapa granum treats Dysentry and stomach troubles) (Minor uses : Aglaia odorata: ornamental plants, Chukrasia flowers; source of red dye, Lansium domesticum; edible, Cedrela odorata; Cedar oil used in microscopy, Azadirachta indica; insecticide)

18 Family Magnoliaceae Classification: Distribution and Habitat:
Belongs to phylum Magnoliids and order Magnoliales Distribution and Habitat: Approximately 230 species and 12 genera Present across temperate and tropical Asia , North America,  South America, India, Japan 2 genera with 3 species are cultivated in Pakistan Includes trees or shrubs that may be evergreen or deciduous (falling off at maturity) Vegetative and Floral Characteristics: Leaves alternate, simple or 2-10-lobed Sepals from 6 to many Stamens numerous with short filaments Carpals numerous and distinct Flowers bisexual, fragrant, terminal or axillary Ovary superior and unilocular Fruit a group of follicles Economic Importance: Main use is of wood from certain timber species and the use of bark Flowers from several species possess medicinal qualities like buds of Magnolia liliiflora have been used to treat chronic respiratory infection The Chinese use the bark of Magnolia officinalis as a remedy for cramps, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and indigestion Compounds found in magnolia bark might have antibacterial and antifungal properties Examples include Magnolia sinica, Magnolia grandis, Magnolia sargentiana, Magnolia stellata etc.

19 GENTIANACEAE GENTIANACEAE is a family of flowering plants of 87 genera
and over 1500 species. TYPICAL CHARACTERS This family belongs to the class Angiosperm and order Gentianales. Flowers solitary or aggregated in cymes Floral formula: K(5) C(5) A(5) G(2) Flowers are hermaphrodite (with both stamens and pistil in each flower) Chemical present(seco-iridoids and xanthones) and alkaloids are absent. ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE Used as ornamental plant and also medicinely and flavouring Carassi Macrocarpa (natal pulm) and C.Carandas used as edible fruits Hancornia Speciosia (mangabeira) used as a source of rubber EXAMPLES: BritishChloraperfoliata (yellow-wort) Menyanthes trifoliata (bog-bean), Limnanthemum TAHIRA KARIM(ASAB:28)


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