Presentation on theme: "Family Asteraceae (Asim Farooq)"— Presentation transcript:
1Family Asteraceae (Asim Farooq) More than 23,000 species across 1620 genera and 10 subfamilies and round about 17 tribes.Originated in period of Crataceous before separation of America and Antarctica .Numerous distribution in tropical, and subtropical regions.Form a monophyletic group and are easily recognizable.Mostly herbaceous but some shrubs , trees and climbers do exist.Branched taproot system, herbaceous or woody branched stems, leaves are simple, alternate or opposite, exstipulate, petiolate, hairy, reticulate venation, racemose inflorescence, unisexual, actinomorphic, heterochlamydeous, epigynous flower, sepals sometimes absent or scaly persistent, polypetalous, 5 stamens and 2 carpels, basal placentation, nut shaped fruit known as cypsela, in mature seeds the endosperm is scarce or non-existent .Adapted several methods of reproduction.Store energy in the form of inulin, synthesize other compounds like alkaloids, acetylenes and terpenoids etc.Family of much economic importance as:Food plants like Lactuca sativa, Helianthus tuberosus.Oil seeds like Helianthus annuus, Carthamus tinctorius, Osteospermum sp.Medicine like Chamaemelum nobile, Inula helenium, Santolina chamaecyparissus.Ornamentals like Dahlia imperialis and Chrysanthemum sp., Tanacetum vulgare.Economic loses due to Ambrosia artemisiifolia.
2MIMOSACEAE Ayesha Khan Nazir Acacia or mimosa family comprises of 56 genera and 2800species.Habitat: tropical and sub tropical shrubs, herbs and climbers.Vegetative characters: plants have tap roots with side branchesand nodules.Stem is erect and woody.Leaves are compound,bipinnate and stipules are modified into spines.Floral characters: Racemose inflorescence, bisexual, actinomorphic,perigynous, pentamerous, 5 sepals gamosepalous, 5 petalspolypetalous, numerous stamens, basifixed anthers, monocarpillary,placentation marginal (+ ,Q , K(5) , C(5) , Aα , G1)Economic importance:Timber yeild: e.g. albizzia, acacia and xyliaet species.Ornamental use: e.g. Mimosa pudica.Fooder: e.g. Acacia, Dicrostachys.Soap: e.g. Acacia concinna pods have sponium.Medicinal use: e.g. Katha, Acacia senegal and Entada.Gums and Dyes: e.g. Keekar.
3Family Rosaceae Basma Sarfraz World wide range:usually in northern temperate regions, well-represented in China… maybe deciduous or ever green…Classification ( sub-families & genera):3350 species and 122 genera.Habit: Perennial herbs ( rarely annuals ), shrubs and trees.Characteristics:Flowers: Actinomorphic, flat, hypanthium present, insertionperigynous, sepels and petals free, stamenswhorled, carpel simple, free, superior.Fruits: Follicles, achenes, drupes, nuts, pomes.Seeds: usually without endosperm.Leaves: Alternate, usually with stapules, simple or compound(pinnate or palmate).Floral formula:Economical importanceFragaria species (Malus domesticus )-source of food,Prunus serotina - wood, essential oils,Rosa damascena - perfumes,Eriobotrya japonica – medicinal purposes,Prunus species - ornamental plants…Floral formula explanation:flowers regular and usually perigynous (some epigynous).perianth of 5 united (at base) sepals and 5 separate petals.stamens usually numerous, anthers small.pistil usually with superior ovary of 1 to many separate carpels, or 2-5 fused carpels, or inferior ovary of 1-5 fused carpels.
4RanunculaceaeTaxa :Division: Magnoliophyta–Flowering plants , Class: Magnoliopsida– Dicotyledons , Order : RanunculalesNo. of members :Family comprises 62 genera and 2242 speciesDistribution :Occur worldwide but most abundantly in the temperate regions of Northern Hemisphere mainly at high altitudes. E. Asia ,Europe and E. North America are regions of most common occurrence. Adapted to moist- to wet habitats and occur in forests , grasslands and some can grow in water too.Vegetative characters :Almost all are annual or perennial herbs. Primary root is Taproot that becomes tuberous. Climbing under shrubs are also found. Alternately arranged leaves that are estipulate, lobed or palmately divided and sometimes radial or opposite. Flowers are usually numerous, spirally arranged, non-fused, bright, bisexual, actinomorphic, sometimes perianth is simply petaloid , Inflorescence is mostly of cymose type and mostly the flowers are insect pollinated. Fruit is a group of achenes, follicles, capsular or berry-Seeds are small without aril and have small embryo and oily endosperm.Economic Importance :Mostly used as ornaments (e.g. Dalphinium ajacis , Nigella sativa) and as drug plants e.g. Aconitum napillus (alkaloid aconite extracted from roots, used for blood pressure) Anemone Pulsatilla (Yields famous homeopathic medicine Pulsatilla) , Ranunculus ficaria (Used for pile)
5Family Lamiaceae (Hassan Ali) Mint Family; Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons, Order LamialesGenera 236; Species > 7000Habit : Tree, shrubs and herbs.Habitat: Rocky, woodland or grassland, forest margins and in fynbos.Distribution around Globe: Members found in Canary islands, Himalayas, subcontinent and middle Africa.Stem square in cross section and leaves are opposite without stipules, multicellular hair mostly present, Flower hermaphrodite, thyrsoid inflorescence. Calyx 5 united, corolla 5 sympatulous, Androecium 4 didynamous(anterior pair longer), style gynobasic, ovary superior 4 lobed, fruit consists of mericarps (nutlets).Economic Importance: Mentha spicata, Origanum vulgare,Ocimum basilicum are source of essential oils for flavoringand perfume industry. Salvia pratensis, Ajuga reptans areused as ornamental plants. Salvia divinorum is used asHallucinogen in surgery.Here is the floral formula for the Lamiaceae. Flowers are perfect, both the calyx and corolla are zygomorphic, there are 4 stamens and they are epipetalous, and the gynoecium is syncarpous, from 2 carpels, and the ovary is superior.
6Iridacae family (HAFSA IFTIKHAR) Genera 90 ,species 2,000 Worldwide distribution.rare in tropical lowlands,high altitudes,best represented in southern africa.Variety of habitats,do not grow in the sea itself.Floral formula:3 sepals(pataloid),3patals(showy),3stamens,gynoceum of 3 carpels,inferior overy.Flowers: perfect,actinomorphic or zygomorphic,Inflorescence:cymes,umbels,panicles, or flowers solitary on scapeFruits:loculicidal capsules.Leaves:alternate or basal,simple,entire,folded in half lengthwise,equitant,sheathing at base.Examples: Ixia Dubia,Crocus,Dietes Bicolour,Neomarica Northiana.Economic importance: food,ornamnal purposesuse as dye,leaves uses against skin diseases,fungal and viral diseases, Saffron obtain from stigma used in folk medicines.
7FABACEAE OR PAPILIONACEAE(Komal Jamim Shehzadi) Introduction:Family of about 400 genera 9000 species.Familiar plants:sweet pea ,Peanut,Chick pea,Shisham.Vegetative character:Trees,shrubs,herbs.Stem;woody or herbaceous.Leaves;compound rarely simple,alternate stipulate.Floral formula: +,Q,K(5),C 1+2+(2),A(9)+1,G1,Fruit;legume,podEconomic importance: source of high protein food and used as food and forage (Gram ,Pea,Alfalfa), furniture and building purpose (Butea,Dulbergia),Medicines (Glycrhiza glabra,clitoria ternatea),Ornamental Plants (Lathyrus,Lupinus,Butea),Abrus precatorius ,used as weights called ‘’ratti’’and oil (Arachis hypogae).
8SOLANACEAE 90 Genera, 2000 species.(Pak; 14 Genera & 52 Species) Dicotyledons-Asteridae-Solanales-SolanaceaeHabit-Herbs or shrubs rarely trees. Habitat-TropicalStem-hairy and mostly herbaceousLeaves- Simple, alternate, exstipulate, venation reticulate.Roots-Tap Root, branchedFloral Characters-Cymose inflorescence, Flower: Bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous. Calyx: United 5 Sepals. Corolla: United 5 Petals(epipetalous). Gynoecium: Pistil of 2 united Carpels. Placentation axileEdible-Potato(Solanum tuberosum), tomato, redchilli, tobacco.Medicinal-Datura stromanium, Atropa belladona.Ornamental-Petunia nicotiana, Cestum nocturnum(night queen)
9Plant family-Arecaceae It is also known as palmae family and comprises ofroughly 202 genera and 2600 species.Inhabit nearly every type of habitat. Most found throughout the tropics and subtropics.More than two-thirds of palm species live in tropical forests.Palms have large evergreen leaves that are either fan-leaved or feather-leaved.The flowers are usually small and white and can be either uni- or bi- sexual.Sepals and petals generally number three each . The fruit is usually single seeded.Commercially important palms include coconut, date and oil palm.
10Scrophulariaceae (Mohsin) Figwort or Snapdragon familyMany grow in the American NorthwestThe plants were used to treat hemorrhoids and scrofulaLarge family distributed throughout the world; Dicotyledons groupsWorldwide: 170 genera and 3,634 speciesIntroduced or native: 21 genera and 130 speciesPlant : Mostly autotrophic, Annual herbs mostly, few vines, shrubs or tress, some parasiticLeaves: Alternate, opposite, or whorled; simple or pinnate; no stipulesFlowers: bisexual, superior, perfect, regular or irregularFruit: 2-chambered capsule or berry with two to many seeds, sometime oily.Inflorescence in solitary, thyrses, cymes, often in dense verticelsCalyx: Fused or distinct, 5 lobedCorolla: Fused, 5 lobed, often 2 lippedStamens: 5, 4 fertile and 1 staminode (infertile)
11LILIACEAE (Rabia)Complex family of about 250 genera and 4,000 to 6,000 species.It belong to class monocotyledons(liliopsida), it’s division is spermatophyta( seed plants and flowering plants), order is liliales.3 sepals ,3 petals , 6 stamens, 3 united carpelsRaceme, actinomorphic, bisexual, superior ovary, axile placentation, fruit is either capsule or berry.Leaves alternate, simple, perennial, herbaceous, cosmopolitanOnion and garlic are used as food,asparagus are edible, true lily, tulip, daffodil are used as ornamental plants. Colchicum is used for the extraction of colchicine.smilax is used as a drug.Allium, asparagus, colchicum , tulipa( tulip), narcissus, true lily(lilium), smilax and ruscus.
12Characters of verbenaceae(Raffiya) The verbenaceae are herbs shrubs and trees comprising about 100 genera and 2600 species.It is temperate or subtropical.It is characterized by common occurrence of quadrangular twigs and aromatic herbage.Leaves are opposite or whorled, simple.Flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic,hypogynous.Inflorescence usually racemose, units – solitary.Calyx are tubular and campanulate ,toothed,.Corolla tubular, 4-5 lobed more or less zygomorphic.Stamens epipetalous 4 ,rarely 5 ,anthers 2 locular.Ovary superior, usually glabrous 2 locular-4 lobed.The fruit is usually drupe or nutlets, indehicent.Economic uses etc timber (Tectona grandis); some notable ornaments (callicarpa,vitex, verbena)
13Poaceae (Rubia)Scientific classification: Kingdom; Plantae Class ; Liliopsida ,Order; Cyperales ,Family; Poaceae, Genus; PoaDistrbution:present troughout the wold include;600 genera10,ooo specieVegetative chracter:Habit: annual or perennial herbsStem: stem is jointed usually hollow,at internode ,closed at node.Leaves: leaves are alternate, distichous, and parallel-veined.Inflorescence:Flower: usually hermaphroditic, arranged in spikelet having florets .A spikelet consists of two bracts at the base, called glumes. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts called the lemma and the palea.Fruit: grains or cryopsis.Pollination: it is is always anemophilous that is, by wind.Economic importance:Food productionOrnamental significanceBuilding materialBeverageFamiliar plants :Zea mayz(corn) ,oryza sativa(rice),triticum vulgare(wheat).Bambusa (bamboo).– Plants – Vascular plants – Seed plants – Flowering plants – Monocotyledons Distichous phyllotaxis, also called "two-ranked leaf arrangement" is a special case of either opposite or alternate leaf arrangement where the leaves on a stem are arranged in two vertical columns on opposite sides of the stem.
14Apocynaceae FamilyIntroduction 1.Dogbane family 2.trees herbs shrubs and lianasGenre in the family 424Distribution 1.tropical rain forest 2.xeric environment 3.temprate zonesCharacteristics1.leaves are opposite, simple and whorled2.Flowers are bisexuala. Stamen five petals unite to form 4 or 5 epipetalous stamenb. Style below stigmac. Ovary is superior3.Fruit is usually in three forms: a. drupe b. berry c. follicle d. capsuleUses1. venom2. ornaments3. drugs4. food source
15Brassicaceae Family (Safia Nisar) Includes about 300 genus and 3700 species.Centers around the Mediterranean and the Northern Hemisphere.Leaves are alternate up the stem, organized in basal rosettes.Flowers: Cruciform, made up of four petals in a cross shape. They are yellow or white mainly.Economic Importance: Used as medicinal purposes and as food crops.Examples: Rapeseed, cabbage, turnips, oil crops etc.
16MYRTACEAE FAMILY (shizza fatima) CLASSIFICATION: Class- MagnoliopsidaGENRA IN THE FAMILY: genraSPECIES PRESENT: All species are woody with essential oils. It includes 5650 speciesCHARACTERISTICSHABITAT: Inhabits tropical and warm temprate regionsLEAF ANATOMY: Evergreen or deciduous, small to large, opposite,alternate or whorled, herbaceous or leathery, reticulate venation or parallel venationSTEM STRUCTURE: Cork cambium present, vascular tissues, phloem,secondary thickenings develop from cork cambium.FLOWERS: Actinomorphic, 4-5 parted calyx and corolla, inconspicuous, gynoceium has 2-5carpels, a single style and stigma, epigenous ovary with 2-5 loculesPOLLINATION: Specialized or unspecializedSEEDLINGS: Germination cryptocotylarECONOMIC IMPORTANCESOURCE OF ESSENTIAL OILS: All members of the family yield oils exampleEucalyptus risdoni, Eucalyptus grandis yield oils which differ in composition.SOURCE OF SPICES: Clove comes from this family. It is obtained fromSzyguim aromaticum. Cloves are used for flavoring.HOTICULTURAL PLANTS: Many species ofthis family have glossy appearanceare used as horticultural plants example
17Family Maliaceae(Mahogany) Eudicots, Rosids, Sapnidales,50 Genera, 550 Species, 1217 sub speciesImportant Genra: Agalia, Menia, Cedrela, OweniaHabit: Trees and Shrubs, rarely Herbaceous( Mangroves)Stem: 7-12 meters, Leaves: Alternate, Petioled, Compund, Fruit: Drupe, Berry likeFloral Formula : , , Ca(4-5), Co(4-5), A(8-10),G(2-5)Favors Tropical and Humid EnvironmentDistributed in Tropical and Tropical Forests(Excellent timber: Sweitenia mahogany; most valuable wood, Cedrala odorata; Cigar boxes, Azadirachta indica, Carapa granum) ( Medicinal value: Azadirachta indica; estringent, source of margosa oil to treat skin diseases, its bark treats Malarial fever, Carapa granum treats Dysentry and stomach troubles) (Minor uses : Aglaia odorata: ornamental plants, Chukrasia flowers; source of red dye, Lansium domesticum; edible, Cedrela odorata; Cedar oil used in microscopy, Azadirachta indica; insecticide)
18Family Magnoliaceae Classification: Distribution and Habitat: Belongs to phylum Magnoliids and order MagnolialesDistribution and Habitat:Approximately 230 species and 12 generaPresent across temperate and tropical Asia , North America, South America, India, Japan2 genera with 3 species are cultivated in PakistanIncludes trees or shrubs that may be evergreen or deciduous (falling off at maturity)Vegetative and Floral Characteristics:Leaves alternate, simple or 2-10-lobedSepals from 6 to manyStamens numerous with short filamentsCarpals numerous and distinctFlowers bisexual, fragrant, terminal or axillaryOvary superior and unilocularFruit a group of folliclesEconomic Importance:Main use is of wood from certain timber species and the use of barkFlowers from several species possess medicinal qualities like buds of Magnolia liliiflora have been used to treat chronic respiratory infectionThe Chinese use the bark of Magnolia officinalis as a remedy for cramps, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and indigestionCompounds found in magnolia bark might have antibacterial and antifungal propertiesExamples include Magnolia sinica, Magnolia grandis, Magnolia sargentiana, Magnolia stellata etc.
19GENTIANACEAE GENTIANACEAE is a family of flowering plants of 87 genera and over 1500 species.TYPICAL CHARACTERSThis family belongs to the class Angiosperm and order Gentianales.Flowers solitary or aggregated in cymesFloral formula: K(5) C(5) A(5) G(2)Flowers are hermaphrodite (with both stamens and pistil in each flower)Chemical present(seco-iridoids and xanthones) and alkaloids are absent.ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCEUsed as ornamental plant and also medicinely and flavouringCarassi Macrocarpa (natal pulm) and C.Carandas used as edible fruitsHancornia Speciosia (mangabeira) used as a source of rubberEXAMPLES: BritishChloraperfoliata (yellow-wort) Menyanthes trifoliata (bog-bean), Limnanthemum TAHIRA KARIM(ASAB:28)