Lienhard LegenhausenWorkshop Venice 2011 Münster University
Analysing research data on the use of grammatical forms Tables 1 – 4 contain some statistical results of the LAALE project. The data derive from peer-to-peer talks after 18 months of learning English (grade 6). How would you explain the figures, i.e. the differences between the two classes?
do-support questions in peer-to-peer talks (18 months of learning English) Table 1
do-support questions (without the verbs to like and to live) Table 2
Questions with contracted what's in peer-to-peer talks (18 months of learning English) Class AClass B f%f% Well-formed structures: Totals with NPs name / address / telephone number670 with other NPs187 Deviant structures Totals Table 3
Questions with contracted what's without the NPs name, address, telephone number Class AClass B f%f% Well-formed structures: Deviant structures: Totals Deviant structures: *What's your hobbies? *What's is your best friend? *What's are your hobbies? etc. Table 4
Concordancers – the teacher's and the learners' tool Have a look at the excerpts from MA- exams (German students' ) 1. Every learner has own needs and learning preferences. 2. This can easily be solved by bringing along own meaningful material. 3. Pidgins lack an own morphology. 4. The most important thing to be mentioned about both pidgins and creoles is that they both language in the own right.
Noticing tasks ('odd-man-out') Would you make use of such a task? Is the task compatible with principles of autonomous learning? Why / Why not? A1the baby's bottle 2the nation's struggle 3the teacher's sick 4the nurse's pay 5the government's defeat B1The ship sank. 2A door opened. 3Lots of people drowned. 4A dog barked. 5My glasses broke From: S. Thornbury (2001). Uncovering Grammar. Oxford: Macmillan/ Heinemann
Noticing Activities (1) 1. Here are some answerphone messages. Could they lead to some noticing? Would you make use of them. Discuss! a. Hi, Joe. How are you? Great holiday! We've been to the Louvre and the Eiffel Tower, but we haven't been to Versailles yet. We'll phone you back. Bye. b. Joe, it's Barry. Fantastic holiday! We went everywhere – the Colisseum, St Peters, - and we had great Italian food. Speak to you soon. Bye. c. Hi Joe, Cathy here. How was your holiday? I went sightseeing and shopping and spent a fortune. Didn't have time to see Big Ben. d. Joe, baby! Donald speaking. Amazing holiday. Taj Mahal, Rajahstan. I've travelled thousands of miles, all by train...
Noticing Activity (2) Patrick Süskind's English translation of Das Parfüm (cf. Perfume) The most renowned shops were to be found here: here were the goldsmiths, the cabinet-makers, the best wigmakers and purse-makers, the manufacturers of the finest lingerie and stockings, the picture framers … And here as well stood the business and residence of the perfumer and glover Giuseppe Baldini. Above his display window was stretched a sumptuous green-lacquered baldachin, next to which hung Baldini's coat of arms, all in gold: a golden flacon, from which grew a bouquet of golden flowers. And before the door lay a red carpet, also bearing the Baldini coat of arms embroidered in gold.
Use of deviant structures in StE? (why / why not) Pussy cat, pussy cat, where have you been? I've been to London to visit the Queen. Pussy cat, pussy cat, what did you there? I frightened a little mouse under her chair. There was a monkey climbed a tree, When he fell down, down fell he. There was a horse going to the mill, When he went on, he stood not still.
Use of non-standard texts (why / why not) To grow up decent, our children need new clothing to present themself in school in proper neat!! The sun have to shine for our childrens too. Amen. (New York Times )
Use of non-standard texts (why / why not) Text for advanced learners. Do you think they can work out the 'regularity' of the deviant structure below? "I watched a program last night on television – 'Larger Than Life – Eating theirselves to Death'. I didn't see it all as I missed the first half hour. …" CD / pop song: Dr John – all by hisself.
Gap noticing: Compare your text with the original Task for young learners (after Thornbury 2001): What are the gains / what are the weaknesses of this production task? Rewrite the limerick after listening to it once. Compare your version with the versions of other group members. Agree on a text in your group. 'There was a young woman of Riga, who went for a ride on a tiger, she returned from the ride with the woman inside and the smile on the face of the tiger.' Example of a student text: => "There was a young woman from Riga who go for ride on a tiger. The tiger come back with the woman inside and a smile on the tiger." Instruction: Compare your texts with the original.
Non-standard texts – how could they be made use of? Now is time for communicate for everybody!!!! Everybody like make new friend!!! Now is time for communicate for everybody. If you like communicate, is very easy in modern world. You can make smartgroup and join with old or new friend in many country. Or even for club or work. For share of ideas and information! For some discussion! For free this what internet really is about. Everything is for peace, friendship, humanity and love.
Alice in Wonderland Working with a nonsense text For intermediate learners: Can you identify any parts of speech in the nonsense poem? Why can you identify most of them? Can you rewrite the first stanza of the poem using 'real' words? 'Twas brillig and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. "Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!"
Collaborative Writing (grade 7) P: When he […] opened the door to her bedroom, she was sitting at the bed with the snake in her arms. S:Mmh (shaking her head). She was sitting on the bed, in or on? P:Sitting on the bed. S:Mmh. P: Or what? S:In the bed or on the bed? P:I don't know. In the bed. S:It depends on if she's got the leg out of bed, she's sitting on, if she's got the leg in the bed, she's sitting in the bed, in the bed.
Awareness-Raising Activities Which ones would you make use of and why? Noticing tasks & activities Input enhancement techniques Appreciating and defining non-standard forms & varieties Inducing learners to gap noticing (when analysing their own texts) Collaborative writing and enforced focus on form Rewriting deviant texts / nonsense texts (cf. Jabberwocky) Creative writing
References Legenhausen, L. (2011). "The place of grammar in an autonomous classroom - issues and research results." In: Gardner, D. (ed.). Fostering Autonomy in Language Learning, Zirve University, Gaziantep, Turkey, pp Thornbury, S. (2001). Uncovering Grammar. Oxford: Macmillan/ Heineman. Thornbury, S. (2004). Natural Grammar. Oxford: OUP. Corpora and Concordancing: O'Keeffe, A. / McCarthy, M. / Carter, R. (2007). From Corpus to Classroom. Cambridge: CUP. Tribble, Ch. / Jones, G. (1997). Concordances in the Classroom. Using Corpora in Language Education. Houston: Athelstan. Internet Corpus: The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA).