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Virus What am I?. Virus What am I? Virus What am I?

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Presentation on theme: "Virus What am I?. Virus What am I? Virus What am I?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Virus What am I?

2 Virus What am I?

3 Virus What am I?

4 Virus What am I?

5 Virus What am I?

6 Virus How do I spread?

7 Virus How do I spread?

8 Virus How do I spread?

9 Virus How do I spread?

10 Virus How do I spread?

11 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

12 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

13 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

14 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

15 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

16 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

17 Virus What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

18 What do you know about viruses? Think –About the questions Pair –Talk to your partner about the answers. Share Share with the class What is a virus? How do I spread? What is my relationship between human behavior and me?

19 Video Identify three new ideas about viruses 161_300k.mov

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22 New Questions you need answered. As you read, open to address below and add your questions to Web Response Or –Add your questions to post it notes.

23 QAR Strategy Right There: –What is vomito Negro? Think and Search: –What is the pattern of the viruss effect on the body? Author and you: –How does Monets experience in the emergency room relate to your own experiences in an emergency room or some other time when you needed swift attention? On Your Own: –If you were seated next to a passenger with these symptoms, what would you do?

24 E.coli and T4 phage

25 Virusbook Taking advantage of our social network

26 Waiting for a flight

27 Procedures You must wear goggles at all times. Day 1: –Find a person from a different table. 1.Ask each other a question about the story. 2.Exchange 1 ml of water, if they did not know the answer, and ½ of ml of water if they did know the answer. 3.Find another person and ask another question. 4.Return to your desks and write down the names of the people you met.

28 Procedures You must wear goggles at all times. Day 2: –Find a person from a different table. 1.Ask each other a question about the story. 2.Exchange 1 ml of water, if they did not know the answer, and ½ of ml of water if they did know the answer. 3.Find another person and ask another question. 4.Return to your desks and write down the names of the people you met.

29 Infection

30 Did you contract the virus One person in the Waiting room had the filovirus. –Who had it? –Did you have contact with that person? –Did you have contact with that person indirectly? –How can we be sure who has the virus?

31 Classify the questions Right ThereThink and SearchAuthor and YouOn Your Own

32 Search Pg 37-38; 62-67; 83-86; ; ; ; es/dispages/ebola.htmhttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpag es/dispages/ebola.htm orials/pev/page4.htmlhttp://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tut orials/pev/page4.html 82-84; ; ; ; ; ;

33 Home me tonight your answers 1. What is a virus? 2. How do they spread? 3. How does human behavior affect the spread of viruses. 4. one question from the Classify QAR

34 Read & Right There –What other ways can filovirus spread? As you read… – Develop questions: Think and Search Author and you On Your Own Read &

35 EBOLA POSTER You will make a Ebola virus prevention poster. –It must include. Very few words, Pictures showing how to prevent the spread of the virus. –It should not scare people, but be informative.

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37 Structure 20 nm Genomes –Ds DNA (Papo, adeno, herpes, pox) –Ss DNA (Parvo) –Ds RNA (reovirus) –Ss+ RNA (pico and toga) –SS- RNA (Rhabdo,Paramyxo, Ortho) –Retrorivus ss RNA

38 Structure Capsids –Protein coats –Phages

39 Some viruses have structures have membranous envelopes that help them infect hosts These viral envelopes surround the capsids of influenza viruses and many other viruses found in animals Viral envelopes, which are derived from the host cells membrane, contain a combination of viral and host cell molecules Structure

40 LE 18-4c Glycoprotein 80–200 nm (diameter) RNA Capsid Influenza viruses 50 nm Membranous envelope

41 Bacteriophages, also called phages, are viruses that infect bacteria They have the most complex capsids found among viruses Phages have an elongated capsid head that encloses their DNA A protein tailpiece attaches the phage to the host and injects the phage DNA inside

42 LE 18-4d nm DNA Head Tail sheath Tail fiber Bacteriophage T4 50 nm

43 LE 18-5 DNA VIRUS Capsid HOST CELL Viral DNA Replication Entry into cell and uncoating of DNA Transcription Viral DNA mRNA Capsid proteins Self-assembly of new virus particles and their exit from cell

44 Reproduction

45 Class/FamilyEnvelopeExamples/Disease I. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) AdenovirusNo Respiratory diseases, animal tumors PapovavirusNo Papillomavirus (warts, cervical cancer): polyomavirus (animal tumors) HerpesvirusYes Herpes simplex I and II (cold sores, genital sores); varicella zoster (shingles, chicken pox); Epstein-Barr virus (mononucleosis, Burkitt s lymphoma) PoxvirusYes Smallpox virus, cowpox virus

46 Class/FamilyEnvelopeExamples/Disease II. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) ParvovirusNoB19 parvovirus (mild rash) III. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ReovirusNoRotavirus (diarrhea), Colorado tick fever virus

47 Class/FamilyEnvelopeExamples/Disease IV. Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA); serves as mRNA PicornavirusNoRhinovirus (common cold); poliovirus, hepatitis A virus, and other enteric (intestinal) viruses CoronavirusYesSevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) FlavivirusYesYellow fever virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis C virus TogavirusYesRubella virus, equine encephalitis viruses

48 Class/FamilyEnvelopeExamples/Disease V. ssRNA; template for mRNA synthesis FilovirusYes Ebola virus (hemorrhagic fever) OrthomyxovirusYes Influenza virus ParamyxovirusYes Measles virus; mumps virus RhabdovirusYes Rabies virus VI. ssRNA; template for DNA synthesis RetrovirusYes HIV (AIDS); RNA tumor viruses (leukemia)

49 Other Issues HIV and AIDS Viruses and Cancer Vaccines Plant Viruses Whats New

50 LE 18-9 Capsid Viral envelope Glycoprotein Reverse transcriptase RNA (two identical strands)

51 The viral DNA that is integrated into the host genome is called a provirus Unlike a prophage, a provirus remains a permanent resident of the host cell The hosts RNA polymerase transcribes the proviral DNA into RNA molecules The RNA molecules function both as mRNA for synthesis of viral proteins and as genomes for new virus particles released from the cell

52 LE HOST CELL Reverse transcription Viral RNA RNA-DNA hybrid DNA NUCLEUS Chromosomal DNA Provirus RNA genome for the next viral generation mRNA New HIV leaving a cell HIV entering a cell 0.25 µm HIV Membrane of white blood cell

53 Viral Diseases in Plants More than 2,000 types of viral diseases of plants are known Some symptoms are spots on leaves and fruits, stunted growth, and damaged flowers or roots

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55 Plant viruses spread disease in two major modes: –Horizontal transmission, entering through damaged cell walls –Vertical transmission, inheriting the virus from a parent

56 Viroids and Prions: The Simplest Infectious Agents Viroids are circular RNA molecules that infect plants and disrupt their growth Prions are slow-acting, virtually indestructible infectious proteins that cause brain diseases in mammals Prions propagate by converting normal proteins into the prion version Normal prion protein are water soluble. –Prions not water soluble. –CJD and Mad cow Diseases

57 LE Normal protein New prion Prion Original prion Many prions

58 Evolution Evolution of viruses –After first cells Fragments of cellular nucleic acids –Similar genomes to hosts oncoviruses –Plasmids or Transposons Selfreplicating genetic material in bacteria and fungi

59 Whats new? Prions can evolve: Scripps Research Institute in 2010… Each time the protein replicates theyre minor changes and errors. –Any changes in the environment results in the best suited shapes multiplying faster.

60 Whats new? Prions found in Yeast and are a part of epigenetics MIT 2011 –Yeast prions affect RNA transcription that causes changes in the protein. –Found in 255 of the 700 different species of yeast. –May only be a yeast issue.

61 Whats new with viruses 8% of our DNA sequence has viral genomes 2000 –Syncytin a viral protein part of the evolution of placental mammals. –This protein fuses cells together; required in development of the placenta and fetus

62 The Story of Syncytin grows Chimps gorillas and primates all have the same protein. –found syncytin 1 and 2 part of pre-eclampsia Dangerous high blood pressure if synctin 1 or 2 not working. Syncytin 2 slows mothers immunes system down so it does not attack the fetus. –2005 found syncytin in mice, and it is required for survival of the fetus. –Mouse and primate syncytin different sequences, different virus.

63 The Story of Syncytin grows Rabbits have an additional different syncytin sequence. This sequence not in their closely related cousins: the Pika. –Conclusion: new Syncytin infected rabbits 30mya.

64 The Story of Syncytin grows Syncytin in Carnivores


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