2Volatile oils Are volatile in steam Differ entirely from fixed oils in both chemical and physical properties.Frequently associated with other substances such as gums and resins.Tend to resinify on exposure to air.They are secreted in:oil cells.secretion ducts or cavities.glandular hairs.
3USES OF ESSENTIAL OILSEssential oils are consumed in numerous uses; they are used :For their therapeutic actions.For flavoring, e.g. oil of lemon.In perfumery, e.g. oil of roseAs starting materials for the synthesis of other compounds, e.g. oil of trupentine
5They are used : As inhalations, e.g. eucalyptus oil. Orally, e.g. peppermint oil.As gargles & mouthwashes, e.g. thymol.TransdermallyIn aromatherapy, e.g. lavender, rosemary & bergamot
6Oils with a high phenol content, e. g Oils with a high phenol content, e.g. clove and thyme have antiseptic properties. Oils showing antispasmodic activity. e.g. fennel, mentha,chamomile, anise, rosemary. Whereas others are used as carminatives. Used in food preservation & cosmetic preparations. NOTE carminatives means: either prevents formation of gas in the GIT or facilitates the expulsion of gas.
7Composition of Volatile Oils Volatile oils are generally mixtures of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds derived from these hydrocarbons.The odor and taste of volatile oils is mainly determined by these oxygenated constituents, which are to some extent soluble in water but more soluble in alcohol.NOTERose water & tinctures of lemon
11Although volatile oils have different chemical properties, they have a number of physical properties in common:They possess characteristic odors.They are characterized by high refractive indices.Most of them are optically active.Their density is generally lower than that of water (except for sassafras, clove & cinnamon oils).May darken in color when exposed to light.They are immiscible with water, but they are sufficiently soluble to impart their odor to water. The aromaticity of water depend on this slight solubility.
12Preparation of volatile oils Essential oils are prepared by:Distillation.Scarification and expression.Extraction.Enzymatic hydrolysis.Enfleurage.
13A- DistillationThere are three basic types of essential oil distillation:water or "hydro-distillation"water and steam or "wet steam"steam or "dry steam“1- Hydro-distillation in this method the plant material is immersed totally in boiling water. The disadvantages are that the heat is difficult to control and hence the rate of distillation is variable. Also there is a possibility for overheating and "burning" which lead to a poorer quality oil.
142- Water/steam distillation the plant material is placed on a grid which keeps the plant material above the water level. The water is boiled below the grid and "wet" steam passes through the plant material. Over packing of the still can cause the steam to leave parts of the plant un-extracted.3- Steam Distillation by direct steam provided from a separate boiler. The still contains a grid plate under which an open steam pipe is fitted. The advantages of "dry" steam distillation are that it is rapid, therefore it is less likely to damage those oils. Most advanced type of distillation
15B-Scarification and expression These are mechanical techniques carried at room temperature.Used in preparation of heat sensitive oils.Process:Squeezing of the plant material under water stream which yield a mixture of essential oil, water, cellulose, wax and other substance.Removal of water an cellulose by centrifugation.Removal of wax by chilling followed by feltration.
16C- ExtractionFor preparation of delicate flowers oils which contain either small amounts of oils or heat sensitive oilsClassified into:Non-volatile solvent extraction.Volatile solvent extraction.Extraction with supercritical gases.
17D- Enzymatic hydrolysis For glycosidic volatile oils e.g. mustard oil.Principle:Subjecting the plant material to enzymatic hydrolysis to liberate the volatile constituents.Separation of the volatile constituents by distillation or extraction.Purification of the products.
18E- ENFLEURAGE Used to extract oils utilized in perfumery. Process: A glass plate is covered with a thin coating of especially prepared and odourless fat.The freshly cut flowers are individually laid on to the fat which in time becomes saturated with their essential oils.The flowers are renewed with fresh material.
20Carrier oils AKA fixed or base oils; are the oily non volatile part of the plant, typically obtained from the seed or nut. They are called ‘fixed’ as they have large molecules that do not evaporate like the essential oils.Several points differ between volatile oils and fixed oils:Volatile oils can be distilled from their natural sources.Volatile oils do not consist of glyceryl esters of fatty acids. Hence, they do not leave a permanent grease spot on paper and cannot be saponified with alkalis.Volatile oils do not become rancid as do the fixed oils, but instead, on exposure to light and air, they oxidize and resinify.
211- Clove (Caryophylli) قرنفل (مسمار) Origin:Clove consists of the whole flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum . F. Myrtaceae.dried until they become reddish-brown.MorphologyThe flower bud is reddish-brown and consists of a quadrangular stalked portion, the hypanthium, 10 mm to 17.5 mm long, surmounted by four divergent lobes of sepals which surround a globular head .The head is globular and dome-shaped, composed of four imbricated petals
22The powder is dark brown and has strong aromatic spicy agreeable odour and warm spicy agreeable taste Examine under a microscope The powder showsepidermis and underlying parenchymaLarge oil glandsshort fibers occurring singly or in small groupswith thickened, lignified walls .abundant of parenchyma containingcluster crystals of calcium oxalatenumerous triangular pollen grainsXylem vessels and fibres.Note : prisms of calcium and Starch granules areabsent.
23Usesrelieve pain and to promote healing flavouring industries (spice)anaesthetic properties (for toothache)Antispasmodic and carminativeIn manufacture of vanillin.Active constituentsvolatile oil (15 -20%) ,which contain eugenol (85%).Pyrogallol tannin.Chemical testsudan III → red colour.FeCl3 → blue colour.KOH: needle crystals of K eugenate.
24Adulteration of clove: Clove StalksExternally, they are brownish and rough .internally presence of prisms of calcium oxalate and pseudo crystal sheath.Mother ClovesThis can be detected by the presence of much starch in the seeds.Brown Cloves ( Expanded flowers)Exhausted Cloveslighter than water
252- German chamomile البابونج Origin:German chamomile is the dried flower heads of Matricaria chamomilla, family CompositaeMorphologyThe flower head is almost hemispherical,with hollow receptacle carrying two typesof small sessile flowers called florets:ray florets and central or disc florets.
26Active constituents:flavonoid glycosides.volatile oil contains matricarin which converted to chamazulene by heating.Usescalm frayed nerves (tranquilizer).carminative, antispasmodic.local anti-inflammatory for sun burnsChemical test: sudan III : red colour
273- Anise Fruit (Fructus Anisi, Aniseed) يانسون Origin:Is dried ripe fruits of Pimpinella anisum F. UmbelliferaeMorphologyAnise fruits are greyish brown, about 2-12mm. long, ovoid,They are broad near the base, and taper gradually towards the apex, which is crowned with a stylopod. Cremocarp separated into its meri-carps which usually remain united and attached to a pedicel longer than the fruit. Each mericap possesses five ridges, rough to touch due to presence of short, stout hairs
29crossed by the cells of the endocarp aleurone grains The powder is greenish-yellow or brownish-green.The powder have strong aromatic agreeable characteristic taste and sweet strongly aromatic taste shows the followingcharacters:fragments of branched vitta usuallycrossed by the cells of the endocarpaleurone grainsmicro-rosettes of calcium oxalatenon-glandular, unicellular warty hairsFew fibres and pitted parenchyma
30Chemical test: Sudan III Active constituents1. Volatile oil (2 to 6%) contain anethole2. fixed oil and protein.Uses:Carminativeflavoring agentStimulantChemical test: Sudan III
314- Cinnamon Bark (Cortex Cinnamomi) Origin:Cinnamon is the dried bark of cinnamomum zeylanicum, Family Lauraceae, deprived of most of its cortex known as Ceylon Cinnamon.MorphologyCinnamon occurs as quills (single or double compound quills ).1 meter in length.
32Starch granules and needle crystals of calcium oxalate. powder:a reddish brown powder with acharacteristic pleasant and aromaticodour and taste, showing fragments of:fibres, they are thick-walled and lignified with lumen and few slit-shaped pits.thin-walled oil cellsSclereids, isodiametric, thick wall, lignified, the outer wall is less thickened than the others.Starch granules and needle crystals of calcium oxalate.Cork cells are rare
33Chemical test: Sudan III, Rhuthenium red, FeCl3 and KOH for eugenol Constituents:1) volatile oil ( % ) (contains cinnamicaldehyde, eugenol)2) tannin and mucilageUses:- Carminative- Antispasmodic- Mild astingent- Flavoring agent.The oil is also a powerful germicideChemical test: Sudan III, Rhuthenium red, FeCl3 and KOH for eugenol
345- Cassia Bark (Chinese Cinnamon) Origin:It is the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia,Family Lauraceae.Morphology:Chanelled pieces or Single quill up to 40 cm long, earthy brown colour with patches of the thin grayish cork.
35Powder: differs than cinnamon in: Odour is less delicate, taste as cinnamon but slightly mucilaginous.Numerous fragments of cork cells, polygonal with slightly thick wall, contains reddish brown content.Fibres are shorter and thicker.
36Volatile oil consisting of Cinnamicaldehyde,no eugenol is found Active constituents:Volatile oil consisting of Cinnamicaldehyde,no eugenol is foundUseThe same uses as cinnamon barkChemical testall as cinnamon but negative test for eugenol
377- Mentha Herb (Peppermint) (Herba Mentha Piperitae)نعناع Origin:they dried from the leaves and flowering tops of Mentha piperita F. Labiatae
38Powderthe powder is brownish-green. with an aromatic characteristic odour and an aromatic taste followed by a sensation of cold in the mouth. It is characterized microscopically by the presenceof fragments of:cells of the epidermis having wavywalls and diacytic stomata Glandular labiaceous hair, unicellular basewith multicellular head composed of 8-16 radiating cellsNon-glandular hairs.Different types of xylem vessels,fibres and wood parenchyma.Calcium oxalate crystals are absent
39Chemical test: Sudan III Active constituentsVolatile oil : chief components are menthol TanninUses:carminative and flavoring agent.inflammation of the mouth and pharynx (oral preparations)Menthol is used in pharmaceutical preparations as local antipruritic, counter irritant and antiseptic.Recently the oil is used for treatment of colitis.Chemical test: Sudan III