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98% of all animals are invertebrates

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1 98% of all animals are invertebrates

2 EQ: How are animals classified into groups? Vocabulary:
Classifying Animals EQ: How are animals classified into groups? Vocabulary: classify vertebrate mammal warm-blooded cold-blooded reptile amphibian 2

3 Classifying Animals tiger earthworm An earthworm and a tiger are both animals, but they are quite easy to tell apart. Animals are the same in some ways, but different from each other in many ways. Scientists classify, or sort, animals into groups to help them understand ways that animals are the same and different. 3

4 Classifying Animals Vertebrates Invertebrates Two Main Animal Groups
Vertebrate: Animals with a backbone (tiger) Invertebrate: Animals without a backbone (earthworm) Vertebrates Invertebrates 4

5 You are a vertebrate because you have a backbone
You are a vertebrate because you have a backbone. Other vertebrates include dogs, cows, snakes, frogs, birds, and fish.

6 More Vertebrates

7 Invertebrates Invertebrates tend to be small because they do not have a backbone to support their bodies. Many invertebrates live in the ocean, where the water helps support their weight. They include soft animals such as worms, snails, sponges, and octopuses. Invertebrates also include animals with hard shells such as crabs, lobsters, shrimp, and clams.

8 Classifying Animals Marine Invertebrates 5

9 Invertebrates Classifying Animals Insects Spiders
Insects and spiders make up the biggest group of invertebrates. Many insects, such as cockroaches, have hard shells. These shells protect and support their bodies. There are many more invertebrates than vertebrates. Scientists are still identifying all the kinds of invertebrates that live on land and in the water. 6

10 Vertebrates all have backbones, but they are as different as frogs and elephants. This big group of animals is divided into five smaller groups, as you can see below. Vertebrates tend to be much bigger than invertebrates. Animals Vertebrates Invertebrates Mammals Birds Fish Reptiles Amphibians

11 Animals...Vertebrates... Mammals
You and other humans are in the mammal group. Almost all mammals give birth to live babies instead of laying eggs. Mammal mothers produce milk to feed their babies. Mammals are warm-blooded, which means that their bodies produce heat. Thus, they can survive in very cold weather. Mammals have fur or hair that also helps them stay warm. Mammals

12 Mammals Classifying Animals Kinds of Vertebrates give live birth
mammal mothers produce milk warm-blooded (bodies produce heat) have fur or hair 7

13 Animals...Vertebrates... Birds
Birds are another group of vertebrates. They have lightweight, hollow wings, and most can fly. However, some birds cannot fly. These birds include ostriches, penguins, and dodo birds that are now extinct. All birds lay eggs and are covered with feathers. Like mammals, birds are warm-blooded so they can survive cold weather. Dodo Bird History Birds

14 Birds Classifying Animals Kinds of Vertebrates
Light-weight, hollow bones Most can fly Lay eggs Covered with feathers Warm-blooded (bodies produce heat) 8

15 Animals...Vertebrates...Fish Fish piranha
Fish live in water and breathe with gills. Instead of fur, hair, or feathers, fish have scales to protect their bodies. Most fish lay eggs (about 97%), but some give birth to live babies (about 3%), like mammals. Fish are cold-blooded. That means their bodies are the same temperature as their surroundings. When the water is very cold, fish move slowly to save energy. Grey Nurse Shark (gives live birth) Fish piranha Fish eggs

16 Fish Classifying Animals Kinds of Vertebrates
Live entire life in water Breathe with gills Have scales (no fur, feathers, or hair) Most Lay eggs, but some give live birth Cold-blooded (bodies are same temperature as surroundings) 9 WARNING: A jellyfish is NOT a fish. It is an invertebrate!!!

17 Animals...Vertebrates...Reptiles
Reptiles, such as snakes, lizards, and turtles, live on land and breathe with lungs. They are covered with scales, like fish. Most reptiles lay eggs. Like fish, reptiles are cold-blooded. On a chilly day, they often lie on a rock in the sun to get warm. Reptiles tend to live in warmer climates. Reptiles

18 Reptiles: Classifying Animals Kinds of Vertebrates Live on land
Breathe with lungs Covered with scales Most lay eggs Cold-blooded Komodo dragon hatching 10

19 Animals...Vertebrates...Amphibians
Amphibians include frogs, toads, and salamanders. Amphibians live in the water when they are young and breathe with gills. You probably have seen tadpoles-young frogs-swimming in ponds. As amphibians become adults, they begin to spend more and more of their time on land. The tadpole’s tail begins to disappear. Soon it is a frog that breathes with lungs, not gills. Most amphibians lay their eggs in the water. A few kinds of adult amphibians have small scales. All amphibians are cold-blooded. Amphibians

20 Amphibians Classifying Animals Kinds of Vertebrates newt
Live 2 lives (first in water, then on land) While living in water, they breathe with gills When living on land, they breathe with lungs Most lay eggs Cold-blooded newt 11

21 If you found a new animal, how would you classify it?
First, you would study its outer covering, if it is warm-blooded or cold-blooded, its way of reproducing, and other characteristics. Those characteristics would tell you if it was a bird, reptile, fish, amphibian, or mammal.

22 Lesson 1 review Which animal is an invertebrate? a. shark b. squid
c. dolphin d. whale B

23 A 2. Which statement is NOT true? a. A snake is an amphibian.
b. An alligator is a reptile. c. An ostrich is a bird d. A deer is a mammal. A

24 3. Which animal is cold-blooded?
a. penguin b. a polar bear c. an eagle d. a salmon D

25 4. Scientists classify animals by
a. their names b. their roles as prey and predator c. their physical characteristics d. what they usually eat.

26 EQ: Vocabulary: Classifying Plants
How are plants classified into groups? Vocabulary: Vascular Nonvascular Fungi Reproduce Pollen Spore 12

27 Plant Classification Plants do not have fur, scales, or blood, so how are they classified? Like animals, plants are divided into two main groups. Then those two groups are divided into smaller groups. In which group do daises go? Where do mushrooms fit in? The ways that plants get their food and the ways that they create new plants will help you classify them.

28 Vascular: having tubes to carry water from roots to leaves
Classifying Plants *Non = not One way to group plants is the way that plants get their food. Vascular: having tubes to carry water from roots to leaves Nonvascular: no tubes. They suck up water and food from the soil like sponges. Cross-section of celery stalk This rock is covered with a carpet of moss. Moss is made of tiny nonvascular plants. They need lots of moisture to stay alive. Mosses Hornworts Liverworts Hint: Nonvascular plants are much smaller than vascular plants because much of the plant has to be touching the soil. They need lots of moisture to stay alive. Hint: Most all plants are vascular. 13

29 Classifying Plants What about Mushrooms? Mushrooms belong to a group called fungi. Mushrooms, yeast, and mold are all fungi. Instead of producing their own food from sunlight, fungi get their food from dead plants or animals. Fungi break these things into tiny pieces. Then they soak up the food in the pieces. Why do they get a category of their own? Unlike most plants, they do not make their own food! Mold Mushrooms growing on cow dung. 14 Lichen

30 Classifying Plants Another way to group plants is the way that plants produce new plants, or reproduce. Plants reproduce in 3 main ways. By growing from the part of the parent plant These plants can grow from seeds or from part of the parent plant. By producing seeds or cones By producing spores Pollen under a microscope 15

31 Plants Grow By Producing Seeds or Cones
Pollination Photosynthesis Tomato Flower Plants that produce seeds first produce flowers with pollen in them. Daisies are in this group. Pollen is a special dust that helps plants reproduce. Bees, birds, bats, and the wind carry the pollen from one flower to another. Flowers that receive pollen then produce seeds. Some flowering plants also produce fruit. For example, apple trees bloom in the spring. Then bees and other animals help spread their pollen. Each flower that receives pollen grows into an apple. The apple has seeds inside it. In the same way, tomato plants grow flowers. Each flower that receives pollen from other tomato plants become a tomato. Inside each tomato are seeds that can grow into new tomato plants. Pine trees produce cones but no flowers. These cones contain pollen. As animals and the wind carry pollen from one cone to another, seeds form in the cones. Some of the seeds drop to the ground and sprout. Soon tiny new pine trees are reaching toward the sky.

32 Plants Grow By producing spores
Some plants do not produce flowers, pollen, seeds, or cones. Instead, they produce spores. A spore is a tiny cell that can grow into a plant. Spores drop off the plant into the soil. There they begin to grow. Most spores need to land on very moist soil. Otherwise, they will dry up before they can sprout. Some spores have a coating that protects them. They can wait until there is enough moisture for them to sprout. Both vascular and nonvascular plants use spores to reproduce. For example, this fern is a vascular plant. The little dots on its leaves are spores. Mosses, which are nonvascular, also use spores to reproduce. So do fungi. Tomato Flower Plants Grow By producing spores

33 Plants can Grow from Part of the Parent Plant
Some plants can reproduce in two ways. They can grow from seeds or from part of the parent plant. For example, a new potato plant can grow from seeds or from the “eye” of a potato. Strawberry plants and some kinds of grass send out runners. A runner is a specialized stem that grows on the soil surface. When the runner touches the soil, it grows roots and a new plant forms.

34 The next slides do not follow the Coach book, but you may need to know this information…

35 Plant Growth Plant Kingdom
Vascular Nonvascular Seed Plants Seedless Plants Hornworts Liverworts Mosses Plant Growth Angiosperms Ferns Gymnosperms Horsetails Plants are classified according to the ways they transport water and reproduce. 35

36 Seed Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms
Vascular plants can be divided into 2 groups – Seed Plants and Seedless Plants. Let’s take a closer look at seed plants. They can also be classified into 2 groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Gymnosperms Angiosperms Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds but do not produce flowers and fruits. The seeds rest in hard berries or on woody structures called cones. Angiosperms are vascular plants that produce flowers. The flowers make seeds as well as fruits to protect seeds. Seed Plants 36

37 Lesson 2 Review D In which two groups does moss belong?
a. vascular and seed-producing b. vascular and spore-producing c. nonvascular and seed-producing d. nonvascular and spore-producing D

38 2. Why is a fern a vascular plant?
a. It has tubes inside its leaves and stems b. It has no tubes inside its leaves and stems c. It grows from spores d. It grows from seeds A

39 3. Do spore-producing plants need birds and bees to help them reproduce?
a. Yes, because birds and bees help spread their pollen b. No, because they have no pollen to spread c. Yes, because they have no flowers. d. No, because they have no cones. B

40 4. Which statement is true?
a. The biggest plants are nonvascular b. The biggest plants reproduce by spores c. All plants use pollen or cones to reproduce d. All plants must reproduce to survive D

41 Ch. 6 CRCT Review A shark is a vertebrate because it
a. is cold-blooded b. has a backbone c. lives in the ocean d. lays eggs B

42 2. Newborn puppies drink milk because they are
a. warm-blooded b. born with fur c. mammals d. vertebrates C

43 Use the picture below to answer question 3.
3. How do you know that this animal is an invertebrate? a. It has a furry body b. It is a spider c. It comes from an egg d. It is cold-blooded B

44 4. In which group does a cherry tree belong?
a. vascular and seed-producing b. vascular and spore-producing c. nonvascular and seed-producing d. nonvascular and spore-producing A

45 5. Why are fungi nonvascular plants?
a. They have tubes inside their leaves and stems b. They have no tubes inside their leaves and stems. c. They grow from spores d. They grow from seeds. B

46 6. What do you know about the plant above?
a. It is nonvascular b. It reproduces by spores c. It reproduces by runners d. It reproduces by seeds D

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