Presentation on theme: "DIVISION OF THE HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE Prehistorical/Stone Age (c.3.000.000.000 – 3.000 BC) Historical Age (3.000 BC – nowadays) c. 3.000 BC invention of."— Presentation transcript:
DIVISION OF THE HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE Prehistorical/Stone Age (c – BC) Historical Age (3.000 BC – nowadays) c BC invention of writing by the Sumerians (cuneiform writing)
Stone Age Mesolithic Age ( – BC) Paleolithic AgeNeolithic Age ( – BC) (6.800 – BC)
D URING THE P ALEOLITHIC A GE, THE FIRST HUMAN BEING APPEARED ON E ARTH The Archanthropos of the Petralona Cave (1960)in Chalkidiki (Greece) is the oldest anthropoid found in Europe. His age is years old!!! Europe was first inhabited by anthropoids at least in BC.
A RCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN PETRALONA
P ALEOLITHIC AGE ( – BC) Hunting and gathering was the way of life in this age. Paleolithic man moved in groups to scare away wild animals. He used fire for cooking and to scare away the animals while living in caves. To ensure protection he covered himself with coarse animal skin and large leaves. He painted rocks and caves with pictures of everydays life.
G REECE IN THE P ALEOLITHIC AGE Geomorphologic and climatic changes Strong and constant earthquakes Fluctuation of the level of the Aegean Sea o Changes in flora and fauna and in the human living Flora: conifer-trees, wild-beans, etc. Fauna: bears, mammoths, deer, wild-boars, etc. o More finds after BC
G REECE IN THE P ALEOLITHIC A GE Most important archaeological points: Theopetra (Thessaly) Fragthi Cave (Peloponnese) Characteristics: o Residence in caves, under rocks or outdoors o Living in groups of persons, sometimes related o Hunting in groups in deep forests or passages or collecting snails, herbs and fruit
G REECE IN THE P ALEOLITHIC A GE Characteristics: o Tools from stone, bone or horn (even some utensils from wood or clay) o Using yellow or red ochre to paint the face or the body of the dead (paleolithic gold) Burial in graves with funeral gifts (tools, flowers, horns) Belief in life after death
M ESOLITHIC AGE ( – BC) People started making semi-permanent houses They probably lived in light wooden frameworks covered with thatch or sods, which could have been erected and dismantled quickly and easily They started using boats for transport and fishing They started making flint tools with handles and stone tools from microliths, set into toothed slots in bone or antler shafts, in order to create a variety of harpoons, arrows and fish hooks
G REECE IN THE M ESOLITHIC AGE Stabilized geomorphologic and climatic conditions Most important archaeological points: Sidari (Corfu) Fragthi Cave (Peloponnese) Maroulas (Alonnesos) Gioura (Aegean Sea)
G REECE IN THE M ESOLITHIC AGE Characteristics: o Residence in outdoor points or in caves near the sea o Living in groups of persons, sometimes related o Almost permanent installation o Accommodation with stone- made foundations o Graveyards next to the installation points
G REECE IN THE M ESOLITHIC AGE Characteristics: o Hunting in groups, collecting herbs and fruit AND systematic fishery with developed equipment o Limited domestication of some wild plants and animals o Long, organized naval trips in the open sea ( tuna fishing OR transporting essential materials) o
G REECE IN THE M ESOLITHIC AGE Characteristics: o Import of tougher materials, in order to make more effective tools and weapons o Construction of blades and bladelets o Cremation of dead (in some cases) for the first time o Construction of some kind of jewels as ornaments or even funeral gifts (according probably to the social position)