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WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Lesson 4 1 The copyright in these Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) training lessons is owned by the WSSA. WSSA grants you a limited license to use these materials solely for training and educational purposes. Slides may be used individually, and their order of use may be changed; however, the content of each slide and the associated narrative may not be altered. If you have questions, please contact Joyce Lancaster at and phone ( ). Monitoring After a Herbicide Application and Confirming Herbicide Resistance
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Objectives Understand the importance of scouting for herbicide-resistant weeds. Know the factors that can contribute to weeds being present after a herbicide application. Know how to identify herbicide resistance in the field. Understand when to suspect and test for herbicide resistance in the field. Know procedures for confirming herbicide resistance. By the end of this lesson, you will: 2 Above: Mature Palmer amaranth, a weed known to be resistant to several herbicides. Photo: Jason Bond, Mississippi State University
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved The Importance of Monitoring Many factors can contribute to the presence of weeds in the right of way after a herbicide application and later in the season. Monitoring or scouting is the only way to know which weeds are present, and their patterns in treated areas can help to understand why they are present. Changes in weed management practices based on a monitoring program help to: Reduce weed seed production Maximize remedial management tactics within the same growing season Plan alternative management strategies for future applications. 3 Close monitoring will be helpful in documenting changes in the weed population that occur over time in response to land management practices, including the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Begin inspecting treated sites 21 to 28 days after each herbicide application, and continue at regular intervals. Move across the treated area in a systematic pattern covering the area. Observe and record: – Weed species (proper identification is important) – Spatial patterns (if present) of weeds – Weed densities – Presence of live and dead weeds – Herbicide symptoms on live weeds Monitoring Procedure for Resistant Weeds After a Herbicide Application 4 Above: Example of a scouting pattern in a field.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved 4. Application problems If Weeds are Present after an Application, Determine the Reason 1. Application history2. Weed biology5. Herbicide resistance Consider the following factors: 5 3. Environment Investigate and rule out all other factors affecting herbicide performance before suspecting herbicide resistance.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Right of Way History Previous cultural, chemical, and mechanical weed management practices have all influenced the current weed community. These practices can also provide insight into the likelihood that weed populations may become herbicide-resistant. Some important information to consider includes: The probability for herbicide-resistant weed populations to evolve is increased as diversity in weed management practices is reduced. Keeping records on weed populations, including density and distribution, will help you to note important changes that may be underway. 6 If Weeds are Present After an Application, Determine the Reason Number of herbicide mechanisms of action used Typical number of applications to that site each year Use of mechanical and cultural weed management practices Presence of weed species, including density and distribution
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Time of emergence in relation to application 7 If Weeds are Present After an Application, Determine the Reason Weed Biology An example of weeds that were too large for the application of a postemergence foliar product An example of weed seeds that were below the treated layer of a soil-residual herbicide product (shown in orange) Weed seed size and depth in soil Size and age of plants at application
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Soil moisture before and after application Rain soon after application Soil characteristics (e.g., pH, texture, organic matter) Weeds under stress before and/or after herbicide application Herbicide must have time to translocate within plant before senescence Freeze soon after application 8 If Weeds are Present After an Application, Determine the Reason Environment An example of a weed under stress
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Sprayer skips (E) Poor sprayer calibration and/or equipment failures (E) Herbicide rate too low (R) Dust/soil on plant leaves at application (R) Poor spray coverage (R) Selection of ineffective herbicide for weed spectrum (H) Improper choice of adjuvant (H) Inadequate agitation of herbicide solution (E) Soil conditions at time of application (S) 9 Problems during a herbicide application can reduce the performance of herbicides and therefore, increase the presence of weeds. Problems can be related to the equipment (E), choice of herbicide (H) and related products, herbicide rate (R), and soil conditions (S). Examples If Weeds are Present After an Application, Determine the Reason Application Problems
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Patterns: Observations in the Absence of Herbicide Resistance A uniform response of individuals within a population is observed. 10 Multiple weed species are present. The spatial pattern of plants remaining in the treated area can be correlated with the herbicide application.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Weed Shifts 11 With the repeated use of the same herbicide active ingredient, certain weed species may become dominant due to selection for those that are tolerant to that herbicide. These populations are not herbicide-resistant. Weed shifts due to herbicide use can be caused by: Using a herbicide to which the species is tolerant Using rates that are lower than recommended Using postemergence herbicides when weeds are too large or too small
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Patterns: Field Observations Related to Herbicide Resistance The response of individual surviving weeds can range from little or no injury to death. 12 A single weed species is present, especially late in the season. All other weed species on the label have been controlled. The spatial pattern of surviving weeds is random or consists of multiple plants within a patch. Upper and lower photographs courtesy of Jason Bond, Mississippi State University
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Response of Herbicide-Resistant Individuals Low-level Resistance: A continuum of plant responses from slightly injured to nearly dead is observed with the majority of plants displaying an intermediate herbicide response. Susceptible plants will be present in the population, especially when resistance is determined early. High-level Resistance: Plants are slightly injured to uninjured with few plants having intermediate herbicide responses. Susceptible plants can be present in the population. To learn more about scouting for low-level resistance, click the green button. The response of individual plants is usually different between high-level and low-level resistance. 13 = dead = intermediate = slightly injured Above: In this example of high-level resistance, the common ragweed is uninjured.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Patterns of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds Early years of herbicide resistanceLater years of herbicide resistance 14 When only a few plants survive a herbicide application and during the early years of herbicide resistance, consider hand-removing them and making adjustments to future weed management strategies. Waiting until numerous dense weed patches evolve during the later years of herbicide resistance can contribute to profit losses because of increased input costs.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Check List for Proper Monitoring Inspect treated areas 21 to 28 days after each herbicide application and near season end (spring and fall). Identify and record the weed species present. Determine the distribution pattern of survivors. Correlate with application pattern or identify as random Determine if plants present survived a previously applied herbicide or emerged after the last herbicide application. Observe individual plant responses, especially if plants survived a herbicide application. Review previous application history to understand what changes may be occurring. 15
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Confirming Herbicide Resistance Two methods for confirming herbicide resistance: GreenhouseField 16 Above: Highway right of way. Photo credit: John Byrd, Mississippi State University. Above: Screening for herbicide resistance in the greenhouse. Photo credit: Alan York, North Carolina State University.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Flag In Treated Area Flag a minimum of 5, but preferably 20, of the healthiest weeds that survived the herbicide application. Spray Spray the weeds in both areas with the same herbicide in two strips – to one strip apply the labeled rate; to the second strip, spray the area with the labeled rate twice and label twice the labeled rate 1. Flag Outside Find an area outside of the treated site that was not previously sprayed and contains the same species. Flag the same number of weeds. Evaluate Evaluate all plants 10 to 14 days after herbicide application. 17 Field Confirmation (Postemergence Foliar Herbicides)
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Greenhouse Confirmation The best method for confirming herbicide resistance in a weed species with no history of resistance, in a weed species suspecting of having resistance to multiple herbicides, and when laboratory tests are not available. Procedure: Collect seeds from mature plants suspected of being herbicide-resistant and generate plants from these seeds in the greenhouse. Plants are sprayed with the herbicide of interest and the response of suspected population is compared to the responses of known herbicide- susceptible and -resistant populations. 18 Contact your local extension specialist for instructions on seed collection procedures. Allow only those plants necessary for collection to flower and set seed and destroy all other surviving plants.
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved 19 Known herbicide- susceptible population UntreatedTreated Test herbicide-resistant population UntreatedTreated Above: Screening for herbicide resistance in the greenhouse. Photo credit: Alan York, North Carolina State University. Greenhouse Confirmation
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Conclusions Monitor rights of way to determine the reasons for weed survival after a herbicide application is important. Herbicide application history, weed biology, environment, application parameters, and herbicide resistance are factors that can contribute to weeds surviving the application of a herbicide. Symptomology may differ between the observations of low-level and high-level herbicide resistance. Confirming herbicide resistance early, when just a few weeds are present, and removing them by hand can decrease the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds, thereby reducing the costs required to manage them. 20
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved This lesson was developed by a WSSA sub-committee and reviewed by the WSSA Board of Directors and other WSSA members before being released. The sub-committee was composed of the following individuals. Wes Everman, PhD (North Carolina State University) Les Glasgow, PhD (Syngenta Crop Protection) Lynn Ingegneri, PhD(Consultant) Jill Schroeder, PhD (New Mexico State University) David Shaw, PhD (Mississippi State University) John Soteres, PhD (Monsanto Company) (Sub-committee chairman) Jeff Stachler, PhD ( North Dakota State University and University of Minnesota ) François Tardif, PhD (University of Guelph) The module was adapted for noncropland applicators by John D. Byrd, Jr., Ph. D. (Mississippi State University) and William W. Witt, Ph. D. (University of Kentucky, retired). Financial support for this was provided by Global HRAC, North America HRAC, and WSSA. Our thanks are extended to the National Corn Growers Association for allowing us to use training materials posted on their website as the starting point for these training lessons. Credits: 21
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Methods for Seed Collection Choose plants from areas known to have been sprayed. Choose plants in which – 10 to 15% of seeds have fallen from the plant or greater than 50% of fruits have matured Seeds are firm and dark in color Choosing the plants: Soil-residual herbicides: Areas where weeds emerged first, assuming the herbicide was adequately moved into the soil solution. Postemergence foliar active herbicides: Areas with multiple herbicide applications. Choose the healthiest plants, especially those with an intact main meristem. If there is no main meristem, choose plants with the greatest number of large branches. 22
WSSA Herbicide Resistance Management Lesson 4 © 2011 WSSA All Rights Reserved Methods for Seed Collection Cut the plants below the lowest fruiting structures (90% of plant having seeds) and carefully place them in a large paper bag. Staple shut in the field to contain all seeds. Mark the bag to clearly identify sample location, weed species, herbicide(s) and rates applied, and collection date. Mature seed Female flowers of common ragweed in leafy bracts Male flowers Harvest a minimum of 5 to 10 plants with larger quantities preferred. Place a single plant in a single bag. Upon return from the field, open bags to allow plants to dry before shipment. Re-staple the bags prior to shipment. For a dioecious species, such as Palmer amaranth or waterhemp, collect only the female plants (plants with seeds). Collecting the plants: 23 Example
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