Presentation on theme: "Mgmt 510 International Management Doha, 2011 Class 3."— Presentation transcript:
Mgmt 510 International Management Doha, 2011 Class 3
Cluster Competitiveness Porter Diamond Clusters… Allow regional economic base to survive in the face of globalization and technical change. May extend beyond a single industry, but hold together in varying degrees of mutual interest and geographic proximity. Develop through positive externalities (in part because of agglomeration advantages) that lead to cost savings. Serve to upgrade managerial and labor force skills and advance marketing/customer relations. Enhance local competition, productivity, new business formation, and innovation - leading to a virtuous cycle of development Woodward, 2005
Cluster Competitiveness Porter Diamond Policy? Support the development of all clusters, not choose among them; Strengthen established and promising clusters rather than attempt to generate entirely new ones; Top-down government strategies should not guide development. Cluster initiatives are advanced by the private sector, with government as facilitator. Woodward, 2005
Stimulation and Acquisition of relevant research and development L5 DISTINCTIVENESS GENERATION LOOP Performance of individual firms Overall performance of all firms in the zone Intensity of differentiated competitive threat Motivation for competitive innovation Degree of enhancement of competitive innovation Competitive level of platform for innovation Sharing of critical sectoral knowledge Extent of collaborative initiatives Extent of shared response to common challenges L1 INTER-FIRM RIVALRY LOOP L2 INTER-FIRM CO-OPERATION LOOP Global competition and external market pressure Type of cultural context L3 COLLABORATIVE ADVANTAGE LOOP L4 VENTURE ATTRACTIVENESS LOOP Cluster Dynamics Competitive power of cluster
Systems Dynamics Approach Adds dynamism –includes changes in amount and rate Provides explicit roles for contextual interventions to system – culture, collaboration Enhances understanding of delays in the system
L1 Inter-Firm Rivalry Loop Performance of individual firms Overall performance of all firms in the zone Intensity of differentiated competitive threat Motivation for competitive innovation
General question: To what extent is the firm motivated to innovate new products, services and/or processes? Other indicators… Is there a relatively high (low) number of patents issued by firms in the region? Do firms in the region allocate relative high (low) percentages of sales to R&D? Is there a relatively high (low) number of new product introductions from the regional companies? Are firms organized to maximize (limit) innovations going from lab to market? L1 Inter-Firm Rivalry Loop Motivation for competitive innovation
L2 Inter-firm Collaboration Loop Performance of individual firms Overall performance of all firms in the zone Intensity of differentiated competitive threat Extent of collaborative initiatives Extent of shared response to common challenges
L2 Inter-firm Collaboration Loop General Question: To what extent does the firm respond similarly as other regional firms to challenges (e.g. global competition, policy proposals, activists, etc.) and create collaborative initiatives in response to the challenges? Specific indicators: Is there a high (low) awareness of competitive offerings from ex-regional competitors? Do firms offer joint (independent) responses to ex-regional competitive threats or policy proposals? Extent of collaborative initiatives Extent of shared response to common challenges
L3 Collaborative Advantage Loop Degree of enhancement of competitive innovation Competitive level of platform for innovation Sharing of critical sectoral knowledge Performance of individual firms Overall performance of all firms in the zone Intensity of differentiated competitive threat Extent of collaborative initiatives Extent of shared response to common challenges
L3 Collaborative Advantage Loop General Question: To what extent is the firm involved with competitors and related firms in sharing technological, process, policy and other knowledge? Specific indicators Is there high (low) memberships in inter- and intra- industry associations and councils? Is there high (low) participation rates in conferences and related forums? Competitive level of platform for innovation Sharing of critical sectoral knowledge
L4 Venture Attractiveness Loop Performance of individual firms Overall performance of all firms in the zone Intensity of differentiated competitive threat Motivation for competitive innovation Degree of enhancement of competitive innovation
L4 Venture Attractiveness Loop General Question: To what extent is the firm continually creating innovations that are commercialized with market success? Specific indicators Is the percent of revenue derived from new product launches high (low) relative to the industry average? Is the firm able to create new market space through innovative product and/or service offerings? Degree of enhancement of competitive innovation
L5 Distinctiveness Generation Loop Stimulation and Acquisition of relevant research and development Performance of individual firms Overall performance of all firms in the zone Intensity of differentiated competitive threat Degree of enhancement of competitive innovation Competitive level of platform for innovation Sharing of critical sectoral knowledge Extent of collaborative initiatives Extent of shared response to common challenges
L5 Distinctiveness Generation Loop General Question: Is the firm gaining leading edge knowledge – through internal R&D, external acquisitions/licensing, and/or partnerships? Specific indicators: Is the firm acquiring technologies, patents, companies, etc.? Stimulation and Acquisition of relevant research and development
Cluster Dynamics and Economic Transitions Qatar Vision 2030 …chosen development path entails a transition from uncontrolled development relying on low-productivity, low- skilled and low-paid expatriate workers, to a diversified post- carbon economy relying on a high-productivity, highly-skilled and highly-educated labour force. pg. 27. Qatar National Development Strategy 2011-2016 Well beyond 2022, the World Cup may present opportunities to strengthen the structure and performance of Qatars nonenergy sectors. pg. 6.
Cluster Dynamics and Economic Transitions Qatars long-term development outcomes, as articulated in the Qatar National Vision 2030 (QNV 2030), are built on the principles of sustainable development. Emphasis is placed on sustaining a careful balance between the interests of the current generation and the interests of future generations. Qatars exceptionally rapid development has a potential downside: an adverse impact on the environment that could undermine sustainable development. At risk are the aims of achieving water security, preserving and protecting the marine environment, reducing long-term impacts of climate change (mitigation), and adjusting to the expected consequences of climate change (adaptation).
Cluster Dynamics and Economic Transitions Natural resource dependence and long term economic sluggishness Overvaluation of national currency Dutch disease Rent-seeking Import protection policies Lack of motivation for economic efficiency Burdensome bureaucracy, High corruption, Poor infrastructure Lack of human capital investment Low-skill labor dependent Gylfason, 2001
Cluster Dynamics and Economic Transitions Natural resource dependence and long term economic sluggishness Education 18% increase in the natural capital share of GNP associated with 1% decrease in public expenditure on education of GNP. 5% increase in the natural capital share of GDP associated with 1 year decrease of the schooling that an average girl at the age of school entry can expect to receive. 10% decrease in the secondary-school enrollment rate. Gylfason, 2001
Clusters Dynamics and Economic Transitions Qatar Country Profile The most problematic factors in doing business Inadequate supply of infrastructure16.8 Access to financing15.4 Inadequately educated workforce13.8 Restrictive labor regulations13.3 Inefficient government bureaucracy12.7 Inflation8.4 Poor work ethic in national labor force4.9 Policy instability4.9 Foreign currency regulations2.8 Corruption2.1 Government instability/coups1.8 Crime and theft1.3 Tax rates1.0 Tax regulations0.8 Note: From a list of 14 factors, respondents were asked to select the five most problematic for doing business in their country/economy.
Clusters Dynamics and Economic Transitions Qatar Infrastructure broad infrastructure initiative that will use 40% of federal budget between 2011 and 2016. $11 billion towards the completion of new international airport, $5.5 billion on a deep-water seaport, $1 billion on a transportation corridor through the capital, $20 billion on new roads and $25 billion on a rail network $65 billion on tournament-related infrastructure such as stadiums, hotels and transportation. The PRS Group/International Country Risk Report 2011
Clusters Dynamics and Economic Transitions Qatar education Factor QatarSaudi ArabiaEcuador ActualNormdActualNormdActualNormd Human Development Index, 20050.887.690.816.290.774.76 Gross Secondary Enrollment rate, 2007103.478.8294.216.7467.543.06 Prof. and Tech. Workers as % of Labor Force, 2007215.6219.294.9515.063.62 Gender Development Index, 20050.867.460.785.360.723.84 School Enrollment, Secondary, Female (% gross), 20071028.47864.53702.92 Knowledge for Development, The World Bank
Clusters Dynamics and Economic Transitions Factor QatarGermany United States ActualNormdActualNormdActualNormd Human Development Index, 20050.887.690.948.530.959.23 Gross Secondary Enrollment rate, 2007103.478.82100.698.1993.896.67 Prof. and Tech. Workers as % of Labor Force, 2007215.6234.519.5220.695.33 Gender Development Index, 20050.867.460.938.620.948.91 School Enrollment, Secondary, Female (% gross), 20071028.471018.25946.72 Qatar education Knowledge for Development, The World Bank
Clusters Dynamics and Economic Transitions Summary of Qatar Situation Significant portion of GDP dependent on gas and oil hard currency earnings Significant investments in infrastructure and education Strategy includes attempt to limit high exposure to volatile energy prices – diversify to non-energy sectors Committed to environmental stewardship. Processes for engaging multiple stakeholders in policy-making yet remains hierarchical. Some emerging resources and capabilities focused on green building So, does the potential exist to attract a global PV panel manufacturer?
Example: Ecuador The Ecuadorian Economy in 2011 Ecuador has had a long history of economic and political instability Since 2001, Ecuador has enjoyed relative macroeconomic stability as a result of dollarization High oil prices have allowed the country to increase government spending Ecuador export growth has been driven by commodities prices BUT In 2010, the Ecuadorian economic growth was slower than other Latin-American countries Prosperity remains low High poverty levels and inequality persist and large segments of the population lack access to basic needs Ecuador is overly dependent on oil exports. Higher economic growth rates and poverty reduction are possible only if Ecuador can substantially improve competitiveness Porter, 2011
Strengths Infrastructure Significant improvements in transportation infrastructure High mobile phone penetration Competitive Context High levels of entrepreneurship Other A new national agenda for innovation and entrepreneurship Improving sophistication of local buyers Example: Ecuador Porter, 2011
Weaknesses Financial Markets Weak financial markets Workforce Development and Training Low skill level of the labor force Poor quality higher education system Competitive Context Import substitution strategy reducing competitiveness High level of government subsidies distort competition Low intensity of local competition Limited internationalization of firms Burdensome government regulations – Labor regulations give rigidity to the market – Customs and Trade regulations – Difficult new business formation Weak investor protection and protection of intellectual property High informality in the economy Trade and Investment Liberalization FDI limited to oil and mining sectors New restrictions on capital flows High trade barriers Complex custom procedures Few trade agreements with other countries Innovation Infrastructure Weak university-industry research collaboration Low patenting rates Other Low level of quality certification Example: Ecuador Porter, 2011
State of Cluster Development in Ecuador Ecuador has strengths in resource-related clusters, including cut-flowers, bananas, coffee, cacao, fishing, and tourism Clusters that serve mainly the domestic market include textiles, apparel, automotive, and metalworking Most of the clusters are shallow, with a weak supplier base There are weak supporting institutions with poor coordination between the private and public sectors Ecuadors clusters have been subject to traditional industrial policy characterized by subsidies and protectionism Example: Ecuador Porter, 2011
Building the pitch Assess Qatar using Porters Diamond What conditions in the diamond lend themselves to this opportunity? Which conditions do not? Current Conditions
Building the pitch Understand the dynamics at play – culture, business, policies – and the interventions in the system What aspects of the culture, business environment and policies provide a positive environment for this opportunity? Which do not? Global competition and external market pressure Type of cultural context Competitive power of cluster
Building the pitch Examine how one or more of the loops provides a basis for the industry to emerge. L5 DISTINCTIVENESS GENERATION LOOP L1 INTER-FIRM RIVALRY LOOP L2 INTER-FIRM CO-OPERATION LOOP L3 COLLABORATIVE ADVANTAGE LOOP L4 VENTURE ATTRACTIVENESS LOOP