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Worlds oldest crop Native to Middle East Ancestral form is winter habit 2-row hulled The ancestral state.

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Presentation on theme: "Worlds oldest crop Native to Middle East Ancestral form is winter habit 2-row hulled The ancestral state."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Worlds oldest crop Native to Middle East Ancestral form is winter habit 2-row hulled The ancestral state

3 2-row vs. 6-row 1 gene/30,000 genes

4 Winter vs. Spring What is the difference between winter and spring barley, and what the *%^&(+ is a facultative barley? The three growth habit classes of barley are winter, facultative and spring. A winter barley is planted in late fall and is harvested the following summer. A spring barley is planted in the spring and harvested the same summer. If you plant a winter barley in spring, it will not flower, or it will flower too late. If you plant a spring barley in the fall, it will (in many temperate environments) die from low temperature injury. A facultative barley can be planted in the spring or the fall, and it is cold-tolerant. There are three principal physiological traits involved: vernalization sensitivity, photoperiod sensitivity, and low temperature tolerance. Vernalization sensitivity means the plant needs exposure to low temperature before it can flower. Winter barleys are vernalization-sensitive whereas facultative and spring types are not. Photoperiod sensitivity means the plant will not flower until the day length reaches a critical threshold. Many winter barleys, most facultative barleys, and few spring barleys are sensitive to short days. Low temperature tolerance is an induced trait. Winter and facultative barleys are more cold tolerant than spring barleys. Since the traits are controlled by different genes our bets are on photoperiod-sensitive, cold-tolerant facultative varieties.

5 Hulled vs. Hull-less The headache of pearls

6 Malt vs. Feed Why some varieties are better for making beer than others Barley malt is the perfect combination of starch, enzymes, flavors, and aromas for brewing, distilling, baked goods, cereals and confections. There are many types of barley malt – from light to dark – but all are variations on two principal themes: germination and kilning. Different end-uses require different malt quality specifications. Some of the principal characteristics used to define malting quality are protein (low, moderate, or high), malt extract (high), enzyme activity (moderate to high), and beta glucan (low). Feed barley is used as food for animals. Varieties also differ in their feeding properties but unfortunately feed barley is simply sold by the ton. Feed barley prices are often so low that farmers grow other crops - if they can do so. As a consequence, barleys adaptability to extreme climates makes it an important feed grain only in areas where it is unprofitable to grow (or import) maize. Hooded barley is a unique type of feed barley that has hoods, rather than awns. These types are usually cut green for hay or silage. The lack of awns allows for easy chewing by the animals. Malt Feed Forage A rule of thumb is that good malt barley is good feed barley, but not the reverse. In general, malt barley commands a premium over feed barley, but yield less. Many genes determine malting and feed quality; two genes determine the hooded trait. _sheet.php

7 Malting barley variety development Grain to Glass 11 – 13 years Time frame (yrs) Activity Breeding and selection; initial agronomic assessment Segregating generations Doubled haploid populations Preliminary to advanced agronomic testing and micro-malting of samples from multiple environments AMBA Pilot Scale Test must be rated satisfactory in 2/3 years of testing AMBA Plant Scale malting and brewing trials must be rated satisfactory in 3/3 brewing trials Amount of seed required for one malting quality assessment Amounts of seed available and scale grams 7 kilograms/ location 2 locations 800 metric tons 0g – 1 kg for breeding program 1 kg – 20 kg for breeding and extension programs 20 kg –100 kg for breeding and extension programs. Initiate large- scale increase of pure seed for commercial scale quality assessment and variety release Large volumes for on- farm testing and commercial scale malting and brewing

8 Molecular breeding Measure meaningful genetic diversity Measure the traits that matter

9 Why Barley? Diversify New products Rotation Whole grains in a complete diet Full spectrum local supply We have very productive areas for growing barley

10 Raising barley – from seed to seed Variety choice Planting Management Harvest Storage End uses

11 Varieties Self-pollinated Breed true Variation due to limited cross- pollination, mixture, mutation, breeding method Growth habit Winter, spring, facultative Seed source Certified, farmer-farmer, saved Ownership Public, PVP, licensed, patented

12 Planting How Broadcast, drill Seedbed preparation Tillage, minimum-tillage, no-tillage Seeding rate Lbs/acre; seeds/square foot Seeding date Growth habit Dont spring-plant a winter Diseases Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus is a problem in early-seeded winters

13 Management and who to contact at OSU Mike Flowers (CSS Extension) Weeds: Andrew Hulting (CSS Extension) Companion Crops Herbicides Tillage Mulches Diseases: Chris Mundt (BPP) Yield and quality loss Stripe rust Contamination Smut Health hazards Ergot Fusarium Head Blight Genetic resistance Fungicides Insects: Sujaya Rao (CSS) Cereal Leaf Beetle Nutrition:John Hart, Dan Sullivan (CSS) N,P, K, +, +,+

14 Harvest Combine Plot Small Standard Cutting Hand tools Mowers Binders Threshing Abrasion Mechanical threshers Cleaning De-hulling Removing chaff Removing other seeds

15 Storage Moisture Insects Rodents Fungi

16 Marketing Protein, seed weight/size (test weight, plump/thin) Malt (extract, enzymes), Food (beta glucan), Feed (protein, test weight), Forage (protein, fiber)

17 Bringing it all home to Oregon Maja. Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR 2010

18 Growth habit, end-use and disease resistance are key considerations for making management decisions and income projections Maja. Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR 2010

19 Growth habit: winter, facultative, and spring Highest yields with winter or facultative barley Seeded mid-October and harvested in early July At least 6,000 lbs per acre and test weights > 50 lbs./bu Winter breeding nursery. CBARC. Pendleton, OR 2009

20 Late spring (March/April) plantings of barley will likely yield less than fall plantings and will require irrigation to achieve maximum yield Spring breeding nursery. Hyslop Farm, Lewisburg, OR 2010

21 Facultative varieties: plant any time Late winter/early spring (~ February) seeding of winter, facultative, or spring varieties is an option for some growers Spring breeding nursery (foreground) and winter breeding nursery (background). Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR 2010

22 Principal end-uses are feed, food, forage, and malt Rogue ale hour. OR 2010

23 Malting varieties must meet specific quality criteria for malting and brewing The maltster and brewer will specify which variety (ies) will be contracted

24 Feeders will typically specify test-weight

25 The food barley market is developing The driver is Beta glucan = soluble dietary fiber Key differentiators are hulled vs. naked waxy vs. normal starch The hull is removed by genetics, de-hulling, pearling, or milling

26 Forage varieties are hooded – no awns Harvested for hay, green chop, silage Grazed Grain

27 The barley form of stripe rust can be very severe in the Willamette Valley: complete crop loss Scald: a matter of degree BYDV can be a problem in early fall plantings Stripe rust on susceptible varieties. Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR Any year

28 Choose adapted varieties Barleyworld.org

29 Variety recommendations Winter Feed – Strider, Alba (2012) Food – Streaker (2012), WinCrisp (2013) Forage – Verdant (2011) Malting – Endeavor (2-row), Maja (6-row; facultative) Spring 2-row


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