2The phenotype of a guinea pig’s hair color can best be determined by Test crossLooking at the guinea pigPedigree chartKnowing the genotype of the mother pig
3Recessive Dominant Codominant Mutated If a trait that is visible in the parent organisms is not seen in the offspring but then returns in the F2 generation, the most probable cause is that this trait in question isRecessiveDominantCodominantMutated
4Which of the following genotypes below shows a pure dominant genotype? AaaaAAAB
5Genes that are located at the same position on homologous chromosomes are called RecessiveDominantAllelesHomozygotes
6In garden pea plants, the offspring formed from a cross between two heterozygous tall parents would most likely be25% tall50% tall75% tall100% tall
7Incomplete dominance Codominance Dominance Recessive trait A pink flower is produced by crossing a plant that has white flowers with a plant that has red flowers. This example most likely shows what condition in genetics?Incomplete dominanceCodominanceDominanceRecessive trait
8Who was Gregor Mendel?Gregor Mendel was a monk who grew pea plants to study genetics
9What is the difference between a dominant allele and a recessive allele? Dominant allele – capital letterRecessive allele – lowercase letter
10The parents of three girls are expecting another child, what are the chances the child will be a boy?25%50%75%100%
11If an colorblind man and a woman who is a carrier for colorblindness have a child, what percentage of their female children will be color-blind?0%25%50%100%
12Which of the following would represent the sex chromosomes of a normal female? XXXYYYXXY
13Match the genetic cross of the parents on the left with the genotypes on the right of the offspring most likely to be produced from that cross. You may use an answer choice more than once or not at all.Genetic CrossPredicted OffspringBB x bbBb x BbBB x BBbb x bbBb x bb25% BB 50% Bb 25% bb100% bb100% Bb50% Bb 50% bb100% BB75% Bb 25% bb
14Match the genetic cross of the parents on the left with the phenotypes on the right of the offspring most likely to be produced from that cross. You may use an answer choice more than once or not at all.Genetic CrossPredicted OffspringTT x tttt x TtTt x TtTT x TTtt x tt100% short75% tall 25% short100% tall25% tall 75% short50% tall 50% short
15What organisms did Mendel use in his famous genetic experiments? MicePea plantsRose plantsHorses
16What would be the expected phenotypes of the offspring from the following cross? (TT x Tt) 50% tall, 50% short100% tall100% short75% tall, 25% short
17What is the name given to a particular cross used to determine the unknown genotype of an organism? Test crossHomologous crossHeterozygous crossTarget cross
18In humans, skin color is controlled by at least four genes, this is an example of Sex-linked traitRecessive traitPolygenic traitCodminant trait
19A female that has an allele for color blindness but not the phenotype for color blindness would be consideredColor-blindA carrier for color blindnessHomozygous dominant for color blindnessHomozygous recessive for color blindness
20If a human male that is heterozygous for blood type B has a child with a woman who is heterozygous for blood type A, what percent of their children can be expected to have blood type B?25%50%75%100%
21[A] one inheritable unit (element) came from each parent In Mendel’s first experiment, true-breeding plants with contrasting forms for one trait were crossed. Only one form appeared in the hybrid F 1 offspring. What did this show?[A] one inheritable unit (element) came from each parent[B] one form was dominant over the other[C] the parents were not true breeding[D] the traits separate during gamete formation
22[A] the traits separate during gamete formation After the first experiment described above, Mendel then self-pollinated the F 1 generation and obtained an F 2 generation with both parental forms in the ratio of 3 to 1. What additional information did this show?[A] the traits separate during gamete formation[B] one inherited unit came from each parent[C] the parents were not true breeding[D] one form was dominant over the other
23How would you describe the P and F 1 plants in Mendel’s first experiment in modern terms? The P plants were[A] heterozygous as were the F 1 plants[B] homozygous as were the F 1 plants[C] heterozygous and the F 1 plants were homozygous[D] homozygous and the F 1 plants were heterozygous
24Today geneticists refer to Mendel’s true-breeding parent pea plants as [A] codominant for the traits[B] dominant for the traits[C] homozygous for the traits[D] heterozygous for the traits
25An individual’s genotype for an inherited trait is the [A] set of alleles carried for the trait[B] family pedigree for the trait[C] sex of the individual in relation to the trait[D] physical appearance caused by the trait
26Hybrid means the same as [A] homozygous[B] dominant[C] mutant[D] heterozygous
27A gene whose effect remains hidden when it is paired with a different gene is called [A] mutant[B] recessive[C] codominant[D] dominant
28Different genes that affect the same single trait are called [A] alleles[B] genes[C] chromosomes[D] hybrids
29An individual in which the two alleles of a pair that affect a particular trait are identical is said to be[A] heterozygous[B] hybrid[C] homozygous[D] dihybrid
30The genetic makeup of an individual for a trait being studied is called that individual’s [A] phenotype[B] pedigree[C] genotype[D] variability
31[A] all offspring will show recessive trait Let’s say that “A” represents the gene for a dominant characteristic and “a” its recessive allele. If an Aa individual mates with an aa individual[A] all offspring will show recessive trait[B] half the offspring will show the dominant trait and half will show the recessive trait[C] three quarters of the offspring will show the dominant trait and one quarter will show the recessive trait[D] all offspring will show the dominant trait
32How many heterozygous offspring would you expect if two parents who were heterozygous for a trait produced an F 1 generation of 40 individuals?[A]5[B] 10[C] 15[D] 20
33Human blood type is determined by [A] polygenic inheritance[B] a single gene[C] linked gene pairs[D] multiple alleles
34What is the relationship between two unlike alleles of a pair if they both express their effects on an individual’s phenotype?[A] codominance[B] linkage[C] X-linkage[D] dominance
35The relationship between the IB allele for Type B blood and the i allele for Type O blood is [A] codominance[B] different loci[C] dominant/recessive[D] unknown
36In the AB blood type, the relationship between the IA allele and the IB allele is [A] X-linked[B] dominant/recessive[C] codominance[D] unknown
37[A] Susie [B] Owen [C] Mary [D] Carl Mr. Sandival has Type B blood. Mrs. Sandival has Type O blood. They have three children of their own and one adopted child. Owen has Type AB blood, Mary Type O, Susie Type B, and Carl Type B. Which child is adopted?[A] Susie[B] Owen[C] Mary[D] Carl
38[A] segregation [B] breeding [C] mutation [D] codominance A homozygous clover with a “v-shaped” leaf pattern is crossed with a homozygous clover that has a large pale center to its leaves. The leaves of every plant in the F1 generation show a v-shaped pattern on a large pale center (expressing characteristics of both parents). This is an example of[A] segregation[B] breeding[C] mutation[D] codominance
39Identification bracelets were accidentally removed from three newborn babies. Blood samples were taken to help the identification procedures. The blood types for the babies and their parents wereBaby I—Type A Baby II—Type O Baby III—Type ABMr. Black—Type A Mr. Brown—Type AB Mr. White—Type OMrs. Black—Type B Mrs. Brown—Type O Mrs. White—Type OWhich baby could belong to Mr. and Mrs. Black?[A] Baby I[B] Baby II[C] Baby III[D] any of the threeWhich baby could belong to Mr. and Mrs. Brown?Which baby could belong to Mr. and Mrs. White?
40Use the following information to answer the questions. In peas, yellow seed (Y) is dominant to green seed (y), and round seed (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r).How many types of gametes could be produced by a YYRr plant?[A]1[B]2[C]3[D]4How many types of gametes could be produced by a YyRr plant?How many types of gametes could be produced by a yyRR plant, the most common garden variety of pea?
41If AaBb is crossed with aabb, what proportion of the offspring would be expected to be aabb? 9/161/81/41/16
42AaBb x AaBb AaBb x aaBB aaBb x aabb aaBb x Aabb If the offspring of a cross show a 9/16 to 3/16 to 3/16 to 1/16 ratio (9:3:3:1), the parents of the cross have the genotypesAaBb x AaBbAaBb x aaBBaaBb x aabbaaBb x Aabb
43purple and tall purple and short white and tall white and short If W = purple flower and w = white, and D = tall plants and d = short plants, a wwDd plant would bepurple and tallpurple and shortwhite and tallwhite and short
44If aaBb is crossed with AAbb, what proportion of the offspring will be Aabb? 1/23/169/161/4
45In Summer Squash, the allele for white fruit (W) is dominant over that for yellow fruit (w). Similarly, the allele for disk-shaped fruit (D) is dominant over that for sphere-shaped fruit (d). The Punnett square below shows a cross between two squash plant with genotype ‘WwDd’. How many offspring will have yellow disk-shaped fruits?9321
46In guinea pigs, the allele for black fur (B) is dominant over that for brown fur (b). Similarly, the allele for short fur (S) is dominant over that for long fur (s). The Punnett square below shows a cross between two guinea pigs with the genotype ‘BbSs’. What is the phenotypic outcome of the offspring produced by this cross?13 Black short fur, 1 Black long fur, 1 Brown short fur, 1 Brown long fur12 Black short fur, 1 Black long fur, 1 Brown short fur, 2 Brown long fur4 Black short fur, 4 Black long fur, 4 Brown short fur, 4 Brown long fur9 Black short fur, 3 Black long fur, 3 Brown short fur, 1 Brown long fur
47What phenotypes and phenotypic ratios would you expect in a test cross of a pink flowered and a red flowered snapdragon?1 white: 2 pink: 1 red3 red: 1 pink1 red : 1 pink2 pink: 1 red3 pink: 1 red
48If a pedigree shows that a human trait seems to skip generations the trait is probably __________. Sex linkedPolygenicDominantRecessive
49In this pedigree, the shaded individuals are homozygous recessive In this pedigree, the shaded individuals are homozygous recessive. What is the genotype of individual B?heterozygoushomozygous recessivehomozygous dominantnone of the abovecan not tell from the diagram
50What type of inheritance mechanism—dominant, recessive, or sex-lined recessive—is shown in the pedigree? Support your answer with evidence.Recessive because it skips a generation and is present in both males and females
51What type of inheritance mechanism—dominant, recessive, or sex-lined recessive—is shown in the pedigree? Support your answer with evidence.Recessive because it skips a generation and is present in both males and females
52What type of inheritance mechanism—dominant, recessive, or sex-lined recessive—is shown in the pedigree? Support your answer with evidence.Sex linked recessive because only males are affected. Mothers of affected males are most likely carriers.
53What type of inheritance mechanism—dominant, recessive, or sex-lined recessive—is shown in the pedigree? Support your answer with evidence.Dominant because the trait is present in each generation.
54*Remember red-green colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive trait. A female whose father was red-green colorblind marries and normal male whose father was also red- green colorblind. What is the probability that their son will be colorblind?0%25%50%75%*Remember red-green colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive trait.
55*Remember red-green colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive trait. A female whose father was colorblind marries and normal male whose father was also colorblind. What is the probability that their daughter will be colorblind?0%25%50%75%*Remember red-green colorblindness is a sex-linked recessive trait.
56*Remember hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive trait. A woman whose brother has hemophilia is concerned about passing this trait to her offspring. What is the risk that she will have a son with hemophilia?1/8100%*Remember hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive trait.
57Can a male be a carrier for a sex-linked disease? yes, if the trait is recessiveyes, if the male's father and mother were carriersno, males have only a single copy of sex-linked genesno way to predict
58Achondroplasia is a dominant inherited disorder that causes a form of dwarfism. The homozygous dominant condition for this allele is lethal. If one parent is an achondroplasic dwarf, and the other parent is of normal height, then what proportion of their children will be expected to be of normal height?AllNone3/4
59If a woman who is red-green color blind marries a man with normal vision, what phenotypes would you expect their children to have?All their daughters will be carriers and all their sons will be color-blind.All their daughters will be color-blind, but all their sons will have normal vision.All their daughters will have normal vision and will not be carriers, but all their sons will be color-blind.Half of their daughters will be carriers and the other half will be fully normal, half of their sons will be color-blind and the other half will have normal vision.All their children will be color-blind
60If Chaplin's blood was B, then he must be the father. In 1944 Charlie Chaplin was involved in a legal battle over the paternity of a child born to Joan Berry, a young starlet. The baby was blood type B, the mother A, and Chaplin O. From what you know about inheritance of blood types, could Chaplin have been the father of the child? (At the time of the trial, blood group evidence was not admissible in California courts. Charlie Chaplin was declared responsible for the child's support).If Chaplin's blood was B, then he must be the father.No, he could not possibly have fathered the child.Yes he could of fathered the child.Perhaps, these results are inconclusive.