Turn Out the Lights - The Partys Over Aaron G. Hager Department of Crop Sciences University of Illinois Aaron G. Hager Department of Crop Sciences University of Illinois
Lyrics Turn out the lights, the partys over They say that all good things must end Lets call it a night the partys over And tomorrow starts the same old thing again Turn out the lights, the partys over They say that all good things must end Lets call it a night the partys over And tomorrow starts the same old thing again ? ?
Waterhemp Spp. Source: Dr. Aaron Hager, Univ of IL
Palmer Amaranth in Fulton County Dr. Bill WittCam Kenimer
Vegetative Characteristics of Pigweeds In KY SPECIESCHARACTERISTICS Smooth PigweedHairy stems Redroot PigweedHairy stems WaterhempSmooth stems Leaves long, narrow, & waxy Palmer AmaranthSmooth stems, Long petioles Symmetrical leaf arrangement Spiny AmaranthSmooth stems Spines at leaf nodes
Reproductive Characteristics of Pigweeds In KY SPECIESCHARACTERISTICS OF FLOWERING BRANCHES MONOECIOUS Smooth PigweedCompact short, slender & somewhat prickly Redroot PigweedCompact short & prickly Spiny AmaranthMale flowers top of plants & female flowers at bottom & middle of plants DIOECIOUS Waterhemp spp.Long, slender, & smooth Palmer AmaranthVery long (males smooth / females prickly)
COMPARASION OF FLOWERING STRUCTURES
WATERHEMP & PALMER AMARANTH BIOLOGY CREATE CHALLENGES FOR SOYBEAN GROWERS Prolific seed producers. Seed scattered with combines. Dioecious (male & female plants). Pollen flow contributes to dispersal. Multiple events of plant emergence throughout the season. Palmer grows rapidly and difficult to control: 3 tall with Flexstar 5 to 6 tall for Ignite in LL soybean.
TYPES OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE IN MAJOR PIGWEED SPECIES IN THE US MODE/SITE OF ACTION SMOOTH PIGWEED WATERHEMP SPP PALMER AMARANTH ALSXXX GLYCINE-XX PS IIXXX DNA--X ALS + GLYCINE-XX ALS + PS IIXX- ALS + PPO-X- ALS + PS II + PPO-X- ALS + PPO + GLYCINE-X- Most of these confirmed based on criteria in International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds ( ) X = Resistance has been documented.
HERBICIDE OPTIONS FOR WATERHEMP CONTROL IN SOYBEAN Authority Assist Authority First / Sonic Authority MTZ Boundary Envive Gangster Linex Prefix Spartan Valor Sx / Encompass Valor XLT Cobra Flexstar Reflex Ultra Blazer SOIL APPLIEDPOSTEMERGENCE
HERBICIDE OPTIONS FOR WATERHEMP CONTROL IN SOYBEANS Authority Assist Authority First / Sonic Authority MTZ Boundary Envive Gangster SOIL APPLIED POSTEMERGENCE Cobra Flexstar Linen Prefix Spartan Valor Sx / Encompass Valor XLT Reflex Ultra Blazer
HERBICIDE OPTIONS FOR PALMER AMARANTH CONTROL IN SOYBEANS Authority First/Sonic Authority MTZ Valor Sx / Encompass Valor XLT SOIL APPLIED POSTEMERGENCE Dual Intrro Prefix Prowl Sencor Treflan > Ignite in LL soybeans > Cobra Flexstar Ultra Blazer
Burndown Control of Marestail 2,4-D ester Sharpen Optill Ignite
UK Weed Sci Corn yield reduced 42 to 60 % due to interference from volunteer corn plants (Source Univ. of Illinois) 1 Volunteer Corn Clump/8 ft 2 Reduces Soybean Yield 25% Source: Becket & Stoller 1988 VOLUNTEER CORN IS A WEED
Herbicide Options for Controlling Unwanted Corn Plants Prior to Planting Field Corn Herbicide Approx. Cost/A Previous Corn Hybrid Conventional Hybrid Roundup Ready Liberty Link Clearfield IMI-Corn Glyphosate$ /A++X Paraquat + Photo System II Inhibitor (e.g.. Atrazine, Linex, Metribuzin) $ /A++++ Select MAX *$9/A = Recommended ++ = Highly recommended X = No control UK Weed Sci * SELECT MAX Replant no sooner than 6 days after application
Soybean Herbicides Labeled For Controlling Volunteer Corn Postemergence HerbicideCost/A*Max Corn Height Arrow (4-6 oz/A$ 4.50 – 7.0/A4 to 12 Assure II (4 to 8 oz/A)$ 4.50 – 8.75/A18 to 30 Fusion (4 to 6 oz/A)$ /A24 Poast (0.75 pt/A)$ 6.75/A20 Select Max,etc (6 / 9 / 12 oz/A)$ /A(12) (24) (36) ** Glyphosate (0.56 to lbae/A)$ /A 12 to 20 ** Sequence (2.5 pt/A)$?/A18 * * Will not Control Glyphosate -Tolerant Volunteer Corn. * Price does not include cost of application or adjuvants UK Weed Sci