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Morphology,Cultivation,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Fruits(Mango,Grapes &Lemon) Dr VISHAL SHARMA Assoc. Prof. Botany Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Morphology,Cultivation,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Fruits(Mango,Grapes &Lemon) Dr VISHAL SHARMA Assoc. Prof. Botany Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphology,Cultivation,Area of cultivation&High yielding Varieties(HYV) of Fruits(Mango,Grapes &Lemon) Dr VISHAL SHARMA Assoc. Prof. Botany Department Government Post Graduate College For Girls-11,Chandigarh

2 Pomology: The cultivation of fruits is known as pomology.Fruits are three basic types: (i)Eucarpic fruits:These are fruits formed from superiorovary e.g grape,mango (ii)Pseudocarps(False fruits):These are fruits formed from inferior ovary e.g apple (iii)Parthenocarps:These are seedless fruits and formed from ovary without fertilization MANGO Botanical Name: Mangifera indica Family:Anacardiaceae Part Used:Fruit The mango is one of the oldest and most important tropical fruits.Mango is native of South east Asia.The fruits are diuretic and laxative.A ripe fruit contains 84-86%water,10- 20%sugar,minerals,fats and proteins and good amount of Vitamin C

3 Mango is about ft high evergreen tree.The leaves are thick with winged petioles.The flowers are pinkish white and borne on panicle.The fruit is large ovoid- oblong,assymetrical drupe.The young and unripe fruits are very astringent i.e acidic and rich in starch Area of Cultivation: The major producers of mango are China,Mexico,Indonesia,Pakistan,Thailand,Nigeria,Egypt,Brazil,Bangladesh and columbia. In India,mango is grown in U.P,A.P,TamilNadu,Orissa,west Bengal and Bihar Soil Requirement: The mango trees prefer well drained laterite soils with Ph ,blacksoils of peninsular India and deep red loams Cultivation practice: Mango grows over a wide range of climatic conditions.The optimum temperature for growth is o c.An rainfall of 75-90cm is generally prefered.Dry weather along with cloudless sky during flowering and fruit ripening are considered to be essential for good crop

4 High yielding Varieties: (1)Alphanso (2)Fazri (3)Dasheri (4)Langra (5)Chausa (6)Neelam (7)Malika and Amrapalli(IARI,New Delhi) The mango crop is usually propagated through: (a)Inarching- In this process, a superior variety is grafted on to a seedling roots tock (b) Budding-A piece of bark with single bud taken from scion is placed in contact with the stem of the stock under bark (c) Grafting- is art of joining two parts i.e stock(upper) and scion(lower)

5 Grapes Botanical Name: Vitis vinifera Family:Vitaceae Part Used:Fruit The grape is one of the earliest and most important fruits.Grape is climbing vine and flowers are borne in panicles.The fruits is berry,juicy.A ripe fruit contains 75-80%water,5%sugar,minerals,fats and proteins and good amount of Vitamin C Area of Cultivation: The major producers of grapes are China,South Africa,Argentina,Chile,Iran, Greece,Yugoslavia and Germany In India,grapes is grown in Maharashtra,A.P,TamilNadu,Punjab and Haryana

6 Soil Requirement: The grapes vine prefer well drained soils but it thrives on light,friable loamy soils having good drainage Cultivation practice: Grapes grows over a wide range of climatic conditions.The optimum temperature for growth is o c.The ideal conditions for grape is dry weather at time of flowering is important for fruit set and considered to be essential for good crop.Plants are propagated by cuttings of cm in length.Pit of 0.5mx0.5m are made at distance of 2.5-3m.Usually manure of bone meal+sulphate of ammonia+sulphate of potash are applied.Cuttings are planted in the month of February when the plant is in dormant stage High yielding varieties: (1) Thomson seedless (2)Anab-e-Shahi (3)Kishmish-Rozovis-medium sized,seedless,matures in 21 days earluier than Thomson seedless

7 Lemon Botanical Name: Citrus limon Family:Rutaceae Part Used:Fruit The lemon is one of the most important fruits.The lemon is a small tree and flowers are large,white and fragrant.The fruits is juicy. A ripe fruit contains 40-45% juice, 5%sugar,minerals,fats and proteins and good amount of Vitamin C.Stem bear short spines.Leaves are evergreen,leathery,glandular,dotted,,unifoliate compound.The fruit is picked green because it deteriorates if ripens on the tree. Area of Cultivation: The major producers of grapes are Argentina, Japan,Australia, Spain,Italy,Braziland Greece In India,grapes is grown in Maharashtra,A.P,TamilNadu,Punjab and Haryana Soil Requirement: The grapes vine prefer well drained soils but it thrives on light, loamy soils having good drainage is very suitable

8 Cultivation practice: Lemon is a subtropical fruit,it grows over a wide range of climatic conditions.The optimum temperature for growth is o F.The ideal conditions for Lemon is dry weather at time of flowering is important for fruit set and considered to be essential for good crop with annual rainfall of cm. High yielding varieties: (1)Hill Lemon (2)Italian Round (3)Baramasi (4)Vikram(Kagzi lime) (5)Kinnow(Mandarin) (6)Pramalni (7)Eureka


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