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Plant Reproduction and Breeding

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Reproduction and Breeding"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Reproduction and Breeding
UNIT 2: Topic 3

2 What is selective breeding?
Choosing specific plants with particular characteristics and encouraging those plants to reproduce

3 Plants are also bred to withstand environmental conditions such as:
Hardiness Yield Resistance to disease How well it stores Heather, Calluna vulgaris, one of Britain's hardiest plants

4 Genes Genetic material in a plant

5 Genetically Modified Plants
Scientists combine genetic material from two different plants, so it has genes from both.

6 Plant Reproduction Asexual reproduction happens when a “parent” plant grows new plants from its foots, stems, or leaves.

7 Vegetative Reproduction
When young plants are identical to the parents- usually happens when a new plant grows from the root of another. Can also occur through stems

8 Grafting To take a branch from one tree and attach it to another

9 Seed Plant Reproduction
Female Cone Male Cone Contains ovules Catches pollen grains, and once the pollen tube grows down to the ovule, pollination occurs -Smaller -Pollen grains develop on it

10 1. Parts of a Flower

11 2. Pollination Occurs when pollen has been transferred from the anther to the stigma. When the pollen grain germinates on the stigma it creates a burrow called the pollen tube as it travels toward the ovary

12 3. When the pollen grain reaches the ovule, fertilization occurs

13 4. Pollination must take place before fertilization can take place

14 5. The fertilized embryo will become a tiny new plant inside the seed

15 Pollination Two types of pollination are self-pollination and cross- pollination

16 2 ways of cross-pollination
1. Wind 2. Animals

17 Artificial Pollination
When plant breeders breed plants for specific purposes

18 Once a plant has been pollinated, a seed is formed
Once a plant has been pollinated, a seed is formed! Inside the seed is a tiny plant that is called an embryo. It is protected by a seed coat that helps it stay alive or dormant.

19 What conditions does a seed need to be able to grow?
Sunlight Water Air

20 When you bite into a pear you are eating a fruit
When you bite into a pear you are eating a fruit! What is the function of fruit for a plant? A fruit is the growing ovary of the plant that swells and protects the developing seeds of a plant until they are ripe.

21 Name 5 ways that seeds are spread
Wind Water (ex. Coconut) Eaten by animals “Hitch a ride” on animals Fire

22 Farmers use machines to spread seeds like wheat, canola, barley.

23 Germination The development of a seed into a new plant.

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