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Families, youth, communities and businesses benefit from educational programs, activities, and resources provided by Texas A&M AGRILIFE Extension Service.

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Presentation on theme: "Families, youth, communities and businesses benefit from educational programs, activities, and resources provided by Texas A&M AGRILIFE Extension Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 Families, youth, communities and businesses benefit from educational programs, activities, and resources provided by Texas A&M AGRILIFE Extension Service organized under these program areas: Agriculture and Natural Resources Family and Consumer Sciences 4-H and Youth Development Community Economic Development Extension is a cooperative program between Federal, State, and County governments

2 Edible Flowers For North Texas Collin County Master Gardeners Association

3 History of Edible Flowers Traditionally used in many types of cooking: European, Asian, East Indian, Victorian, English, and Middle Eastern Early American settlers used flowers for food Renewed interest in edible flowers for their taste, color and fragrance

4 Ten Rules for Flower Eaters 1. Eat only those flowers you know to be safe (some are toxic) 2.Just because flowers are on your plate, doesnt mean they are edible 3.Eat only flowers that have been grown organically

5 4.Do not eat flowers from florists, nurseries, garden centers, or grocery stores unless you know they are grown organically 5.Do not eat flowers if you have hay fever, asthma, or allergies 6.Do not eat flowers from the side of the road; they are contaminated from auto emissions

6 7.Not all flowers are edible Some are poisonous When in doubt, leave it out! 8.Introduce flowers into your diet the way you would new foods to a baby; one at a time and in small quantities 9. Eat flowers in moderation 10. Small children and pregnant women should avoid edible flowers

7 Preparation Harvest flowers in the early morning when their water content is at its highest Gently washing in a bowl of water should flush out insects Remove pistils, stamens and the bitter white base of the petals Store in damp paper towels in refrigerator

8 Bergamot, Bee Balm Monarda didyma Perennial, Full Sun to Part Shade 2 to 2-1/2 Tall x 1 Wide Magenta or red spidery flowers

9 Part Used: Blossoms and Leaves Taste: Flowers are reminiscent of citrus with a soft mingling of Lemon and Orange Makes a great addition to homemade teas, tossed salads and a striking garnish for any entree Used to make Oswego Tea (aka Bee Balm Tea) 2 Tablespoons Bee Balm Flowers or Leaves, chopped 4 cups Boiling Water Steep flowers or leaves in water for five to ten minutes Strain and serve

10 Borage Borago officinalis Re-Seeding Annual, Full Sun - Part Shade 1-3 Tall x 1 Wide Cornflower blue star-shaped flowers

11 Part Used: Blossoms and Leaves Taste: Cooling, Cucumber Blossoms mainly used as garnish for chilled soups, sorbets and dips Freeze single bloom in ice cube Stunning topping for a Deviled egg Fresh, young leaves are used raw in salads and cool drinks, or cooked with vegetables

12 Calendula, Pot Marigold Calendula officinalis Cool Season Annual, Full Sun 2 Tall x 1 Wide Yellow or orange disc and ray flowers

13 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Sharp, Tangy, Peppery Mildly Bitter Blossoms dry well Used in soups, rice dishes, custards, herb butters and salads Good substitute for (expensive) saffron and colors cheese and butter yellow (bruise petals for best color) Garnish for cakes and vegetables

14 Chives: Onion and Garlic Allium schoenoprasum, A. tuberosum Perennial, Sun to Part Shade 8-10 Tall x 6-8 Wide Purple-Pink Frilly Flowers (Starry White for Garlic Chives)

15 Part Used: Blossoms and Leaves Taste: Onion or Garlic Flavor Mostly used for flavoring and garnishing savory dishes, salads and soups Avoid eating the whole flower; the taste can be overwhelming

16 Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum morifolium C. coronarium Perennial, Sun to Part Shade 1 Tall x 2 Wide Flowers in a variety of colors and petal configurations

17 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Faint Pepper to Mild Cauliflower Each variety is different, some strong and bitter (coronarium is milder than morifolium) Use petals only and remove the base Blanch petals before use Used in salads and stir fries Lovely garnish

18 Daylily Hemerocallis spp. Perennial, Full Sun – Part Shade Up to 3-1/2 Tall x 1 Wide Trumpet-shaped flowers in a variety of colors

19 Part Used: Buds and Blossoms Taste: Slightly Sweet with a mild Vegetable flavor (like sweet lettuce or melon) Chewable consistency Flavor changes with blossom color Used as garnish in salads and soup

20 In Asian dishes, Daylily flowers are called golden needles and chopped up for use in stir fry dishes and Asian soups Blossoms are good stuffed or dredged in breadcrumbs and sautéed

21 Dianthus, Carnations, Pinks Dianthus spp. Annual/Perennial, Full Sun - Part Shade 6-2 Tall x 1 Wide Frilly flowers in shades of white, pink and red

22 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Sweet Clove Use in candy making, butters, marmalades, teas, honey or as a cake decoration One of the secret ingredients in Chartreuse

23 Hibiscus, Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa Tender Perennial, Full Sun 6-8 Tall x 2-4 Wide Exotic looking red flowers with a large red calyx

24 Part used: Blossoms and Calyx Taste: Cranberry-like with Citrus Overtones Hawaii, South Korea and Malaysia claim the Hibiscus as their Official National flower The blossoms can be dried to make an exotic rosy-hued tea Use acidic petals sparingly in salads, in pie fillings and blended into jams and jellies Use as a garnish

25 Lavender Lavandula spp. Perennial, Full Sun 2 Tall x 2 Wide Spiky flowers in shades of blue and purple

26 Part Used: Blossoms and Leaves Taste: Highly Perfumed Use in cookies, custards, flans, sorbets; pairs well with chocolate Lavender sugar is a special treat Use sparingly as the flavor is strong

27 Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus Cool Season Annual, Full Sun to Light Shade 18 Tall x Twining Climber to 3 Cup-shaped flowers in shades of red, yellow and orange

28 Parts Used: Blossoms, Buds, Seeds, Leaves Taste: Spicy and Peppery Leaves can be used to wrap fillings like a taco Add to mayonnaise, butter, guacamole, and cream cheese An ingredient in flavored vinegars Pickled seed pods are a substitute for capers Use entire flowers to garnish platters, salads, open faced sandwiches and savory appetizers

29 Pansy Viola x wittrockiana Cool Season Annual, Full Sun - Part Shade 6-8 Tall x 6 Wide Multi-lobed flowers in assorted colors and sizes

30 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Slightly sweet, green and grassy; whole flower has wintergreen overtone Used in salads, popsicles (flower sugar syrup), wrap for soft cheese, pasta dishes and filling for ravioli Garnish and decorate cakes

31 Redbud Cercis canadensis Tree, Full Sun to Part Shade To 20 Tall by 20 Wide Small magenta flowers appear before leaves

32 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Slightly Sour and Astringent Used to coat soft cheese rolls Use as a garnish for baked goods and frosted cakes

33 Rose Rosa spp. Shrub and Climbers, Full Sun Varies by Species Flowers in many colors and forms

34 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Perfumed From Strawberries to Sour; Depending on the Variety Incorporate into main dishes, in beverages, bread, ravioli and pasta, soup, jelly, syrups, butter, candy and ice cream Used to make rose sugar and spice blends

35 Sage, Pineapple Sage Salvia officinalis, S. elegans Annual/Perennial - Full Sun to Part Shade Size Varies by Variety Tube-like in Violet-Blue, Pink or White Pineapple Sage has Vibrant Red Flowers

36 Part Used: Blossoms and Leaves Taste: Flowers Have Same Flavor as the Leaves Pineapple Sage is Pineapple-Like Sweet Used in Bean, Corn Dishes, Stuffed Mushrooms, Soups and Salads Pineapple Sage is used to flavor drinks, teas and is a beautiful garnish

37 Scented Geranium, Pelargonium Pelargonium crispum, P. graveolens, P. odoratissimum, P. tomentosum Tender Perennial, Full Sun to Part Shade 1-3 Tall x 1-3 Wide Multi-petaled flowers in variety of colors DO NOT eat citronella scented varieties

38 Part Used: Blossoms and Leaves Taste: P. crispum: Lemon flavor; P. graveolens: Rose flavor; P. odoratissimum: Apple flavor; P. tomentosum: Peppermint flavor Leaves can be pressed into baked goods and used to flavor sugar Steeped in a simple sugar solution, can be used as a base for beverages

39 Violet V. odorata Perennial, Part Shade 8-12 Tall x 8-12 Wide Nodding flowers in lovely blue shades

40 Part Used: Blossoms Taste: Sweet, Perfumed Freeze blossoms in ice cubes Use to make sorbets Embellish deserts and adorn frosted cakes Look attractive in green and potato salads May be crystallized

41 Other Edible Flowers to Investigate: Bachelor Buttons, Centaurea cyanus Begonia, Begonia x tuberosa Fuschia, Fuschia spp. Hollyhock, Althea rosea Impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Johnny Jump Ups, Viola tricolor Passionflower, Passiflora spp. Portulaca, Portulaca oleracea Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus Sunflower, Helianthus annuus Tulip, Tulipa spp.

42 Edible Herb Flowers: Anise Hyssop, Agastache foeniculum Basil, Ocimum basilicum Chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium Dandelion, Taraxacum officinalis Dill, Anethum graveolens Elderberry, Sambucus canadensis Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Lemon Verbena, Aloysia triphylla Mint, Mentha spp. Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis Thyme, Thymus spp.

43 The MASTER GARDENERS PROGRAM is a volunteer organization affiliated with Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Master Gardeners: Receive training and continuing education in horticulture Share their expertise through a wide variety of projects Promote research-based horticultural practices For horticulture information and services 972-548-4219 972-548-4232 Extension programs serve people of all ages regardless of socioeconomic level, race, color, sex, religion, disability of national origin.

44 Bibliography Barash, Cathy Wilkinson. Edible Flowers from Garden to Plate. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO. 1993 Belsinger, Susan. Flowers in the Kitchen. Interweave Press, Colorado. 1991 Byczynski, Lynn. The Flower Farmer. Herb Companion, April/May 2012 Harding, Jennie. The Herb Bible, A Complete Guide to Growing and Using Herbs. Paragon Books, Ltd., 2004

45 8513.html bleFloursMain.htm Lauderdale, Cyndi, Edible Flowers. NC State University, http://ggg.xwa.nxau.wsu/swpra/hoer/hil/ hil-8513d.html McVicar, Jekka, Good Enough to Eat. Kyle Cathie, Limited, London, 1997

46 Patton, Justine. Heart-Healthy Hibiscus. The Herb Companion, July 2012. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs, Claire Kowalchik, Willian H Hylton, Editors, Rhodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, 1987 Schlosser, Katherine K. The Herb Society of Americas Essential Guide to Growing and Cooking with Herbs. Louisiana State University Press, 2007 Turner, R.G. Botanica. Barnes & Noble, Inc. 1999 (for botanical nomenclature)

47 Varney, Bill and Sylvia. Herbs, Growing and Using the Plants or Romance. Ironwood Press, 1998 Varney, Bill and Sylvia. Along the Garden Path. Favorite Recipes Press, 1995

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