Biology Chapters 27-31 Pg 545 Botany – study of plants Cereals – grains, ex: rice, wheat, corn, oats Roots – beets, carrots, turnips, potatoes - low in amino acids??? Legumes – peas, beans, peanuts, protein, bacteria fix nitrogen in soil (pg 373, 415) Fruits – from a flower; nuts are dry, hard fruits Vegetables – from leaves, stems, roots
Quiz Your Brain Do you think plants are the same now as they were 100s of years ago? As the human population continues to grow what do you think will happen to our food sources? What processes do you think helps farmers with mass production of our fresh fruits?
Fertilizers – extra nutrients for plants, chemical or natural (organic, manure, compost)
Pesticides – kills bugs on plants, chemical or natural (hot spices) Herbicides – weed killer, chemical or natural (ground cover: plant that grows over an area of ground, used to provide protection from erosion and drought as well as helping to prevent unwanted vegetation.
Nonfood Uses Pg. 548-550 Medicine: Bark of a White Willow used to make Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin) Clothing: Tanning animal hides to make leather. Tannin from Oak trees.
Quiz Your Brain List three ways that some plants can cause harm to people. List three nonfood, nonmedicinal uses of plants.
Types of Plants Chapter 28 Pg 564 NONVASCULAR Phylum Bryophytes – mosses 1. nonvascular plants 2. no tubes for water or food 3. absorbs water from ground 4. lives in damp, low areas 5. pioneer species 6. creates soil 7. no true roots, stems, leaves
VASCULAR – tubes (xylem for water, phloem for sugar) 1. With spores instead of seeds – ex: ferns Pg 580 2. With seeds A. Gymnosperms – cones male & female Pg 611 & 581 B. Angiosperms – flowers 1. monocot 2. dicot handouts, Pg 576, 613, 594
Quiz Your Brain Plants can be classified into 2 categories which are…. Plants that produce cones are classified as…… Plants that produce flowers are classified as… What special tissue helps transport water and nutrients to all the parts of the plant?
Flower Power Activity Color corresponding flower parts: Purple – Petals (# 1, 2, and 3) Yellow – Stamens (# 4 and 5) Orange – Anthers (# 6 and 7) Red – Ovules (# 8, 9, and 10) Lavender – Stigma/Style (#11) Pink – Ovary (#12) Green – Sepal/Peduncle (#13)
Chapter 29 Pg 583 Plant Tissues Leaf layers – handout, Pg 601 Types of roots Pg 587 1.Taproot – one main root, dicots, dandelions 2.Fibrous roots – many little roots, monocots, grass
Stem growth Pg 586 Apical Meristems – grow from top of stem or root Pg 588, grass grows after mowing, primary growth, monocots Lateral Meristems – grow in diameter, secondary, dicots 1. Vascular Cambium – makes more tubes 2. Cork Cambium – replaces epidermis w/ dead cork, cant change size, ruptures as tree grows & makes bark look rough
Heartwood – old xylem in center of tree that doesnt transport water anymore, dark Sapwood – functional xylem wood, light Annual Rings – thick springwood, lots of water - thin summerwood due to less water - Pg 595
Quiz Your Brain Heartwood and Sapwood are an example of what kind of growth? Are all tree rings the same width? What is a Dendrochronolgy?
Stem Functions Pg 596 Translocation – moving sugar using pressure Transpiration – moving water using: cohesion – water attracted to water adhesion – water attracted to xylem wall capillarity – thinness of xylem draws water up like a straw
Quiz Your Brain Explain why a plant species might develop thorny stems in response to its environment. Describe how water is transported through xylem tissue.
Pollination & Seed Dispersal/Structure Chapter 30 Pg 616-20 Wind – flat flowers, lots of pollen/seeds Animals – colorful, smelly flowers, tasty fruit, sticky seeds/fruit/burs Water – seeds or fruits able to float Seed Coat – protection Endosperm – nutrients in seed to help germination (sprouting)
Quiz Your Brain How do the flowers of wind-pollinated plants differ from the flowers of animal-pollinated plants? Lack scents, nectar, and large colorful flowers. Animal-pollinated plants usually have these. Name three common methods of fruit and seed dispersal. Wind, Water, Animals
Chapter 31 Pg 632 Plant Hormones Chemical Messengers that affect a plants ability to respond to its environment. Auxins – growth Gibberellins–big fruit, grapes Pg 634 Ethylene – ripening fruit (keep fruit in bag to ripen faster)
Plant Movement Pg 636 Photropism – plant in window moves toward sun http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmoti on/movements/tropism/tropisms.html http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmoti on/movements/tropism/tropisms.html Heliotropism – sunflowers follow sun all day Thigmotropism – vines hold on to what it contacts Gravitropism – roots grow towards gravity, stems grow away from gravity Thigmonastic – leaves close on contact http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgNTRaxgVtg
Seasonal Responses Pg 640 Photoperiodism – plants that respond to length of day short day plants – need more darkness ex: poinsettia, ragweed (fall allergies), mums, fall flowers long day plants – need more light ex: wheat, summer flowers
Quiz Your Brain What adaptive advantages might thigmonastic movements provide a plant? Which hormone is could be called the ripening hormone, and why?
Fall Colors Pg 642 Less chlorophyll when less sun. Carotenoids visible: (always there but hidden) 1. xanthophylls – yellow/orange 2. anthocyanins - reds