2 IntroductionThe principles and elements of design assist floral designers in selecting materials and visualizing compositions.
3 IntroductionDesign principles and elements are important in the design and construction of compositions that are:Structurally soundFunctionalAesthetically pleasing
4 Principles of DesignThe principles of design are guidelines that govern the organization of the elements and materials in accordance with the laws of nature.
5 Principles of Design The primary principles of design include: Balance ProportionDominanceContrastRhythmHarmonyUnity
6 BalanceBalance is the physical and visual stability of a floral arrangement.Physical or mechanical balance refers to the physical stability of the arrangement.Visual balance refers to the visual appearance of the arrangement.
7 Balance Two types of visual balance are: Symmetrical balance Asymmetrical balance
8 Symmetrical Balance For a symmetrically balanced floral arrangement: An equal amount of materials exists on either side of an imaginary central vertical axis through the center of the arrangement.Central vertical axis
9 Symmetrical BalanceOne side of the arrangement is a near mirror image of the other side.
10 Symmetrical BalanceThe focal point exists at the center of the arrangement, near the base of the vertical axis.Focal point
11 Symmetrical BalanceThis visual balance is referred to as formal balance and has a formal appearance.
12 Asymmetrical BalanceFor an asymmetrically balanced floral arrangement:The visual weight on either side of the arrangement is not the same.
13 Asymmetrical BalanceThe imaginary vertical axis is to the left or right of the center of the arrangement, balancing the visual weight accordingly.
14 Asymmetrical BalanceVertical lineVisual balance is achieved by creating a high vertical line on one side of the arrangement and a low horizontal line on the other side.Horizontal line
15 Asymmetrical BalanceThe focal point exists at the bottom of the arrangement, near the base of the vertical axis, which is off-centered.Focal point
16 Asymmetrical BalanceThis visual balance is referred to as informal balance and has a more informal and natural appearance.
17 Establishing Visual Balance To establish visual balance in an arrangement, position larger flowers with bold, distinctive shapes and darker colors lower in the arrangement.
18 Establishing Visual Balance Place darker, heavier colors nearer to the center of the arrangement.LightDarkLightDark
19 Establishing Visual Balance Smaller flowers with lighter colors and more delicate textures appear lighter in weight. Therefore, place these flowers toward the edges and perimeter of the arrangement.
20 Proportion & ScaleProportion is the relationship in size and quantity among the parts within an arrangement. Relationships among flowers, foliage, and the container affect the proportion of an arrangement.
21 Proportional Standard The standard commonly used by florists to achieve a pleasing proportion between the plant material and the container is to make the height of an arrangement at least 1 ½ times the height or width of the container, whichever is the greater dimension.
22 Proportioning Stem Lengths Proportioning stem length to low containerProportioning stem length to tall container
23 Visual WeightThe size and color of flowers and their positions within an arrangement are also important for achieving proportion. Larger and darker colored flowers have more visual weight than smaller, lighter colored flowers.
24 ScaleScale refers to the relationship of an arrangement with its surroundings. Larger arrangements are more in scale in larger, open settings.
25 Dominance / EmphasisMost floral arrangements consist of one type of form flower that has more visual interest or dominance over the other flower types. This area of strong visual appeal is the focal point of the arrangement, attracting the viewer’s eyes to the arrangement.
26 Dominance / EmphasisIn traditional geometric floral arrangements, the location of the focal point is located just above the rim of the container. The stems of flowers and foliage making up the arrangement appear to radiate from this area.
27 Dominance / EmphasisThe size, color, form, and location of flowers in the focal area dominate the other flowers in the arrangement.Focal Point
28 Contrast Contrast is emphasis by means of difference. Contrast adds richness and impact through opposition. Color and texture are two means of achieving contrast in an arrangement.
29 RhythmRhythm gives a design the feeling or appearance of motion, leading the eye to the focal point and throughout the arrangement. Rhythm uses the elements of form, line, color, and space to develop the sense of motion.
30 RhythmTechniques such as repetition, radiation of lines, and transition are also effective for developing rhythm in an arrangement.
31 RadiationRadiation provides the illusion that all the flower stems originate from one growth point.
32 TransitionTransition involves the gradual change or progression of plant materials from the perimeter of an arrangement to the focal area. Visual movement from the perimeter of the arrangement to the focal area occurs due to gradual changes in flower spacing, size, and facing.
33 HarmonyHarmony is created through the blending of textures, shapes, and colors in a floral arrangement. The floral materials in an arrangement should harmonize with the container, the style of design, and the surroundings.
34 Unity Unity provides a feeling that a design is a single unit. Unity in an arrangement occurs when all the principles and elements blend together.
35 Elements of DesignThe physical characteristics of materials used in designs make up the elements of design. Line, form, texture, color, and space are the traditional elements of design. Two additional contemporary design elements are pattern and size.
36 Elements of DesignCombining the properties of the design elements with the principles of design is the foundation of successful design.
37 LineLine is the design element that forms the structural framework of a floral composition. It establishes a visual path and creates motion throughout the arrangement by encouraging the viewers’ eyes to travel from one part of the arrangement to another.
38 LineThe element of line establishes the structure, shape, movement, and excitement in the arrangement and creates the dimensions of height, width, and depth.
39 LineIn Western style geometric designs, lines radiate from a central point in an arrangement. Line directions may be:Horizontal / Diagonal – relaxedVertical – strengthCurved – gentle and softness
40 LineThe use of linear materials in an arrangement is effective in establishing line within the arrangement.
43 FormForm is the overall three-dimensional external shape of a design. Three basic forms of geometric floral arrangements expressed in two-dimensional terms include the circle, square, and triangle.
44 TextureTexture refers to the relative comparisons among the visual and tactile surface qualities of an object. An effective design guideline for texture is to use either a complete blend or a definite contrast. Repeating or contrasting textures adds interest and beauty to a design.
45 ColorColors of flowers carefully blended and positioned in an arrangement reflect the mood of the design.
46 SpaceSpace includes the area in, around, and between the materials making up a design. Use of this design element prevents crowding of materials and allows for each flower to be seen. Space provides an opportunity for the viewers’ eyes to rest, thus giving importance to line and form.
47 Space Two types of space exist within a floral arrangement. Positive space is the space occupied by the flowers and foliage.Negative space refers to the empty areas that exist between the floral materials.Negative space
48 SpaceThe use of negative space allows the designer to enhance and draw attention to particular forms or lines within a design.
49 PatternPattern is closely related to form and refers to the silhouette or outline of an arrangement or flower as observed against its background. It includes both positive space and negative space within the arrangement. Pattern also refers to a repeated physical characteristic of a plant material.
50 Pattern Five standard patterns common to floral design include: Round OvalSymmetrical triangleAsymmetrical triangleRectangular
52 SizeSize is a contemporary design element. It refers to the dimensions of line, form, and space.
53 Foundation of Floral Design The foundation of floral design is based on the natural occurrence of design principles and elements that exist together in unity and harmony. Each is important and interrelated to impact the entire appearance and visual expression of an arrangement.
54 AcknowledgementsJane Gloyd, TMF, AAF, Horticultural Professor (retired), Richland College, Dallas, Texas organized and developed the information used in this PowerPoint presentation.Christine Stetter, Artist, Instructional Materials Service, developed and illustrated this PowerPoint presentation.Keith Zamzow, Curriculum Specialist, Instructional Materials Service, edited and reviewed this PowerPoint presentation.
55 All Rights Reserved Reproduction or redistribution of all, or part, of this presentation without writtenpermission is prohibited.Instructional Materials ServiceTexas A&M University2588 TAMUSCollege Station, Texas2007