2Seed plants are divided into two groups: 1. gymnosperms – which bear their seeds directly on the surface of cones.Gymnosperms include conifers such as pine and spruce, palmlike plants called cycads, ginkgoes, and the very weird gnetophytes.
3Phylum Gymnosperm Gymno = naked sperma = seed “naked seed” no covering around seedDo not flowerProduce cones (acorns, pine)Shallow roots and woody stemsLeaves are needle-like and are replaced every 2 – 4 years.
4Gymnosperm continued Needles retain moisture even during cold seasons. Grow all yearCan grow in harsh environments (cold, poor soil)Used for lumber, making paper, wood chips
6The pollen falls down into the seed cone and fertilization results in a zygote which grows into an embryo inside a seed.As the seed ripens, the cone opens and releases the seeds. If the ground is favourable, it will grow.The pollen cone releases million of pollen into the air which is why allergies can be triggered in the spring.
11Produce flowers (which are unique reproductive systems)
12Soft stems (herbaceous) Broad leavesDeep rootsGrow in summer only (deciduous)
13PollinationPollination is the pollen moving from the male part of the plant to the female part of the plant.
14Pollination can take place in 2 ways: Self-polliation:occurs in some flowersCross-pollinators:a. birds, insects feed on the nectar.attracted to flower colour, scent, shape therefore they go to the same type of flowercarry pollen from plant to plant while feeding
16Success of angiosperm is due to: Flowers – Do not have to depend on wind or water to fertilize/reproduceFruit – The wall of tissue that surrounds the seed protects it and is usually delicious. As a result, they are often eaten. By the time the seeds have cleared the animal’s digestive system and are ready to sprout, they may have travelled many kilometers.
18Angiosperm are categorized in 3 ways: One way: Two classes with the angiosperm: Monocots (Monocotyledon)and Dicots (Dicotyledon)Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves or cotyledons in the plant embryo.
25Another way: 3. Annuals, biennials, perennials Annuals: Complete their life cycle in one year(grow, flower, produce seeds and die in one yearBiennials: complete their life cycle in two yearsPerennials: live for more than 2 years