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Plant Structure, Macro.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure, Macro."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure, Macro

2 Reproductive shoot (flower)
Figure 35.2 Reproductive shoot (flower) Apical bud Node Internode Vegetative shoot Leaf Blade Petiole Stem Taproot Lateral (branch) roots Shoot system Root system Axillary bud


4 STEMS Rhizomes Rhizome Root Bulbs Storage leaves Stem Stolons Stolon


6 Leaf Arrangement Simple leaf Axillary bud Petiole Compound leaf
Leaflet Doubly compound leaf

7 Leaf Venation

8 LEAF SHAPE This is a sampling of the possibilities.

9 Leaf Margins

10 Figure 38.UN02

11 Stamen Stigma Carpel Anther Style Filament Ovary Sepal Petal Receptacle An idealized flower

12 Kinds of flowers Perfect flowers Imperfect flowers Monoecious flowers
Dioecious Flowers Anything is possible……! Plasticity.

13 Flowers look like…..?

14 Flower Arrangement

15 Saucer Magnolia solitary flowers
Some species of plants produce solitary flowers. Solitary flowers are borne singly and separate from one another. Saucer Magnolia solitary flowers

16 Many solitary flowers on Blood red Geranium (Geranium sanguineum)
Another example of a plant that bears solitary flowers is Blood red Geranium. Many solitary flowers on Blood red Geranium (Geranium sanguineum)

17 What is an inflorescence?
In other species of plants many, small flowers are borne together in dense clusters called inflorescences. There are many types of inflorescences. Each type of inflorescence is determined by how the flowers are arranged. Inflorescences are a useful plant ID tool.

18 Common Inflorescences
Spike Raceme Panicle Umbel Corymb Cyme Composite Head

19 Spike Individual flowers are sessile (without pedicels).
Lower flowers open first. Indeterminate. spike

20 Spike Gladiolus ‘Lavadandy’ flower spike (image courtesy of Columbia View Gladiolus) Gladiolus

21 Raceme Individual flowers have pedicels.
Pedicels can vary in length from species to species. Lower flowers open first. Indeterminate. peduncle pedicel raceme

22 Raceme Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire produces dense, pubescent racemes. The flowers have short pedicels and the inflorescence resembles a spike. Virginia Sweetspire

23 Raceme Dicentra spectabilis, Bleeding Heart, produces a one-sided raceme of pink, heart-shaped flowers. Bleeding Heart

24 Panicle A highly branched inflorescence consisting of many, repeating units. Panicles can be made of many spikes, racemes, corymbs, or umbels. Indeterminate. A panicle of racemes

25 Panicle Syringa vulgaris, Common Lilac, produces panicles.

26 Panicle Aesculus glabra, Ohio Buckeye, produces 4-7” long panicles.
This tree is located near the Kirkwood library. Ohio Buckeye

27 Umbel Individual flower pedicels all originate from the same spot on the peduncle. Outer flowers open first. Indeterminate. pedicel peduncle

28 Umbel Allium ‘Jade Eyes’, image courtesy of Breck’s.
Often, umbels are globe-shaped like this one. Allium

29 Corymb Somewhat similar to the umbel.
Individual flower pedicels are attached to the peduncle at different points. Often flat-topped. Outer flowers open first. Indeterminate. peduncle pedicel corymb

30 Corymb Pyrus calleryana, Callery Pear, is a beautiful, spring-flowering tree covered with corymbs of white flowers. Callery Pear

31 Cyme In real life, cymes tend to be flat or convex shaped.
The inner flowers open first. Determinate. cyme

32 Cyme Cymes are often compound as shown in the illustration to the right. compound cyme

33 Cyme Viburnum x juddi, Judd Viburnum, produces cymes of light pink flowers in late April. The flowers have a pleasing, spicy fragrance Judd Viburnum

34 Cyme Viburnum dentatum, Arrowwood Viburnum, produces cymes of white flowers that are not fragrant. Arrowwood Viburnum

35 Corymbs vs. Cymes Often these two types of inflorescences can look a lot alike. Remember that corymbs are indeterminate, they continue to elongate as the season progresses. Cymes are determinate and do not continue to elongate as the growing season progresses. Also, the inner flowers of cymes open first.

36 Composite Head A highly advanced inflorescence.
disk flower A highly advanced inflorescence. Consists of separate ray and disk flowers Bracts may be green, but can also be colored(Strawflower). ray flower bract

37 Composite Head Helianthus annus, Sunflower, produces a large composite head. After pollination and fertilization, each disk flower becomes a single-seeded fruit. Sunflower

38 Composite Head Echinaceae purpurea, Purple Coneflower (image courtesy of Wildflower Farm). Composite head with purple ray flowers and brown disk flowers. Purple Coneflower

39 Floral Diagram Pi : pistil : 雌蕊 St : stamen : 雄蕊 Pe : petal : 花瓣
O : ovary :子房 Se : sepal : 萼片 Bra : bract : 苞叶 R : floral receptacle : 花托 A : axis Up : petal connate to petal : Sp : sepal adnate to stamen :

40 Pineapple inflorescence
What do you eat? Stigma Style Carpels Stamen Flower Petal Ovary Stamen Stamen Sepal Stigma Ovary (in receptacle) Ovule Ovule Pea flower Raspberry flower Pineapple inflorescence Apple flower Each segment develops from the carpel of one flower Remains of stamens and styles Carpel (fruitlet) Stigma Sepals Seed Ovary Stamen Seed Receptacle Pea fruit Raspberry fruit Pineapple fruit Apple fruit (a) Simple fruit (b) Aggregate fruit (c) Multiple fruit (d) Accessory fruit

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