15 Saucer Magnolia solitary flowers Some species of plants produce solitary flowers.Solitary flowers are borne singly and separate from one another.Saucer Magnolia solitary flowers
16 Many solitary flowers on Blood red Geranium (Geranium sanguineum) Another example of a plant that bears solitary flowers is Blood red Geranium.Many solitary flowers on Blood red Geranium (Geranium sanguineum)
17 What is an inflorescence? In other species of plants many, small flowers are borne together in dense clusters called inflorescences.There are many types of inflorescences. Each type of inflorescence is determined by how the flowers are arranged.Inflorescences are a useful plant ID tool.
18 Common Inflorescences SpikeRacemePanicleUmbelCorymbCymeComposite Head
19 Spike Individual flowers are sessile (without pedicels). Lower flowers open first.Indeterminate.spike
20 SpikeGladiolus ‘Lavadandy’ flower spike (image courtesy of Columbia View Gladiolus)Gladiolus
21 Raceme Individual flowers have pedicels. Pedicels can vary in length from species to species.Lower flowers open first.Indeterminate.pedunclepedicelraceme
22 RacemeItea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire produces dense, pubescent racemes.The flowers have short pedicels and the inflorescence resembles a spike.Virginia Sweetspire
23 RacemeDicentra spectabilis, Bleeding Heart, produces a one-sided raceme of pink, heart-shaped flowers.Bleeding Heart
24 PanicleA highly branched inflorescence consisting of many, repeating units.Panicles can be made of many spikes, racemes, corymbs, or umbels.Indeterminate.A panicle of racemes
25 Panicle Syringa vulgaris, Common Lilac, produces panicles.
26 Panicle Aesculus glabra, Ohio Buckeye, produces 4-7” long panicles. This tree is located near the Kirkwood library.Ohio Buckeye
27 UmbelIndividual flower pedicels all originate from the same spot on the peduncle.Outer flowers open first.Indeterminate.pedicelpeduncle
28 Umbel Allium ‘Jade Eyes’, image courtesy of Breck’s. Often, umbels are globe-shaped like this one.Allium
29 Corymb Somewhat similar to the umbel. Individual flower pedicels are attached to the peduncle at different points.Often flat-topped.Outer flowers open first.Indeterminate.pedunclepedicelcorymb
30 CorymbPyrus calleryana, Callery Pear, is a beautiful, spring-flowering tree covered with corymbs of white flowers.Callery Pear
31 Cyme In real life, cymes tend to be flat or convex shaped. The inner flowers open first.Determinate.cyme
32 CymeCymes are often compound as shown in the illustration to the right.compound cyme
33 CymeViburnum x juddi, Judd Viburnum, produces cymes of light pink flowers in late April. The flowers have a pleasing, spicy fragranceJudd Viburnum
34 CymeViburnum dentatum, Arrowwood Viburnum, produces cymes of white flowers that are not fragrant.Arrowwood Viburnum
35 Corymbs vs. CymesOften these two types of inflorescences can look a lot alike.Remember that corymbs are indeterminate, they continue to elongate as the season progresses. Cymes are determinate and do not continue to elongate as the growing season progresses. Also, the inner flowers of cymes open first.
36 Composite Head A highly advanced inflorescence. disk flowerA highly advanced inflorescence.Consists of separate ray and disk flowersBracts may be green, but can also be colored(Strawflower).ray flowerbract
37 Composite HeadHelianthus annus, Sunflower, produces a large composite head.After pollination and fertilization, each disk flower becomes a single-seeded fruit.Sunflower
38 Composite HeadEchinaceae purpurea, Purple Coneflower (image courtesy of Wildflower Farm).Composite head with purple ray flowers and brown disk flowers.Purple Coneflower
39 Floral Diagram Pi : pistil : 雌蕊 St : stamen : 雄蕊 Pe : petal : 花瓣 O : ovary :子房Se : sepal : 萼片Bra : bract : 苞叶R : floral receptacle : 花托A : axisUp : petal connate to petal :Sp : sepal adnate to stamen :
40 Pineapple inflorescence What do you eat?StigmaStyleCarpelsStamenFlowerPetalOvaryStamenStamenSepalStigmaOvary (in receptacle)OvuleOvulePea flowerRaspberry flowerPineapple inflorescenceApple flowerEach segment develops from the carpel of one flowerRemains of stamens and stylesCarpel (fruitlet)StigmaSepalsSeedOvaryStamenSeedReceptaclePea fruitRaspberry fruitPineapple fruitApple fruit(a) Simple fruit(b) Aggregate fruit(c) Multiple fruit(d) Accessory fruit
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