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Investigative Macroevolution Investigators: Dianne Burpee, Shu-Mei Chang, Mark Farmer, Paula Lemons, Kim Nelson, and Denise Woodward UGA Facilitators:

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Presentation on theme: "Investigative Macroevolution Investigators: Dianne Burpee, Shu-Mei Chang, Mark Farmer, Paula Lemons, Kim Nelson, and Denise Woodward UGA Facilitators:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Investigative Macroevolution Investigators: Dianne Burpee, Shu-Mei Chang, Mark Farmer, Paula Lemons, Kim Nelson, and Denise Woodward UGA Facilitators: Kelley Harris-Johnson and Lillian Tong

2 Learning GoalMeasurable Outcome Understand the nature of scienceFormulate a hypothesis and ways to test it Understand that all life has a common ancestry List/define common characteristics of life Associate apomorphies (shared derived character) with well-defined groups of organisms Define apomorphy When given a phylogenetic tree, identify the apomorphies that define groups of organisms Describe apomorphies for a major group of organisms Use apomorphies to infer evolutionary relatedness Investigative Macroevolution: Teachable Unit Target Audience: Introductory Biology (Majors and Non-Majors)

3 Learning GoalMeasurable Outcome Understand that classifications are a human-made construct and are subject to change based on new data Describe the history of classification from Aristotle to Woese Find a current article (within the last year) that has lead to the reclassification of an organism Understand the continuum between micro- and macro- evolution Describe the mechanisms by which apomorphies arise Understand how investigative macroevolution relates to something meaningful Build a phylogenetic tree from data Interpret a phylogeny Describe how a phylogeny can be used to address additional questions in science Investigative Macroevolution: Teachable Unit

4 Unit Timeline Topics and activities – History and change of biological classification schemes – Discussion of common characteristics of life and shared-derived characteristics of major groups of organisms – Analysis of character data – How to construct phylogenetic trees from character data – How to interpret phylogenetic trees

5 Investigative Macroevolution: Teachable Tidbit Learning Goal and Objectives – Understand how Investigative Macroevolution relates to something meaningful Build a phylogenetic tree from a data matrix Interpret a phylogeny Apply phylogenetic analysis to solve a clinical mystery

6 Recap From Last Class ChloroplastCuticleStomataVascularPollenFlowers Green algaeX MossesXXX FernsXXXX GymnospermsXXXXX AngiospermsXXXXXX Data Matrix Resulting Phylogeny

7 Activity DO NOT start until you have been told to GO 1.Construct a data matrix using the data strips that you will find in the large envelope. 2.Open envelope 1 and circle the best tree that fits the data matrix and provide group name. 3.One team member run to front with your tree C. elegans 123 7

8 Clicker Q1. Which of the following phylogenetic trees matches the tree you constructed from your data matrix? A.B. C. D.

9 Chytrid Myxozoa Trypanosome Giardia C. elegans Ascaris Chlamydia Staphylo- coccus AmanitaCandida Strepto- coccus The Correct Phylogeny - B Bacteria ProtistsFungiAnimals

10 Whats Ailing Roberto? You are a clinical microbiologist who specializes in identifying parasitic infections. A physician has brought you a sample of a pathogenic organism from a critically ill 22 year old male patient who has not responded to standard treatment.

11 He has no known underlying health conditions but has presented with: – severe intestinal symptoms including severe diarrhea and wasting – A lung X-ray reveals inflammation and fluid in the lungs.

12 His physician took a sample of fluid from his lungs and isolated the microorganism seen below:

13 Who am I ??

14 Remove the new data strip from the envelope 2 and determine where this mystery organism fits within your data matrix Chytrid Myxozoa Trypanosome Giardia C. elegans Ascaris Chlamydia Staphylo- coccus AmanitaCandida Strepto- coccus Bacteria ProtistsFungi Animals

15 Clicker Q2. Which organism in the matrix is most closely related to the mystery pathogen? A.Myxozoa B.C. elegans C.Candida D.Trypanosoma E.Staphylococcus

16 HELP !!!!! The clinical microbiologists now know this organism is most like Candida. Lets determine a treatment for Roberto.

17 Clicker Q3. Use the table below to select the drug you would try first to treat Roberto. A.Tamiflu B.Sulfisoxazole C.Cefazolin D.Natamycin DrugMechanism of action TamifluInhibits the enzyme neuraminidase. Neuraminidase enables some viruses to release themselves from host cells. SulfisoxazoleInhibit folic acid synthesis (bacteria and most eukaryotes must make, mammals acquire in diet) CefazolinInhibits peptidoglycan formation in cell walls. NatamycinMakes holes in fungal cell membranes but not human cell membranes.

18 What additional information do you need? DrugMechanism of action TamifluInhibits the enzyme neuraminidase. Neuraminidase enables some viruses to release themselves from host cells. SulfisoxazoleInhibit folic acid synthesis (bacteria and most eukaryotes must make, mammals acquire in diet) CefazolinInhibits peptidoglycan formation in cell walls. NatamycinMakes holes in fungal cell membranes but not human cell membranes.

19 Which drug should be used first? 1.Natamycin It makes holes in fungal cell membranes. The mystery organism is closely related to other fungi. 2.Sulfisoxazole It interferes with folic acid synthesis. Most fungi make folic acid, but not all eukaryotes do. It is currently unknown if the mystery pathogen makes folic acid. Why not cefazolin? Why not tamiflu?

20 Microsporidia a group of parasitic fungi


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