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5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics Flower: leaf-like whorls fulfill different.

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Presentation on theme: "5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics Flower: leaf-like whorls fulfill different."— Presentation transcript:

1 5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics Flower: leaf-like whorls fulfill different functions. Collectively, the ancestral adaptive value was to attract animal pollinators.

2 Pollinators forage non- randomly, and they can learn. So, by bribing pollinators with nectar, and advertising the location with large colorful petals, pollinators learn to visit flowers for food – and they trapline, going from flower to flower. Pollen transport is much more efficient than wind dispersal; less pollen is needed (but there are additional costs of flower ad nectar production.

3 Flies are attracted to flowers that smell like carrion. Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator. Hummingbirds are attracted to red tubular flowers, where the nectar is too deep for most insects to reach This increases the chance that the NEXT flower the pollinator visits will be a member of the same plant species.

4 Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator. Butterfly flowers offer a place to stand and probe many flowers from one place Many bat flowers are large, to receive the head of the bat. White is common for these flowers that open at night.

5 Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator. Orchids are one of the most derived groups of plants, and they show the most specialized flowers

6 In some flowering plants, the flowers have become very reduced – they no longer attract pollinators – the plants have returned to a wind-pollinated lifestyle. Oak flowers Ragweed flowers

7 5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics Fruit: modification to ovary tissue (typically) to attract animals to consume fruit and disperse seeds. apple-logo-reminds-me-of-the-fruit-salad-days/

8 Plants with dry, wind dispersed seeds are more common in fields, or in canopy trees. Fleshy fruits dispersed by animals are more common in forest understory and forest edges, where animals are more common.

9 5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics - life cycle

10 Double Fertilization

11 5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics - life cycle - evolutionary history

12 5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics - life cycle - diversity (90% of plant species) ndex.php/weblog/2006/01/P8/ n/

13 5. Tracheophytes b. Groups i. Lycopodiophytes ii. Monilophytes iii. Gymnosperms iv. Angiosperms - characteristics - life cycle - diversity (90% of plant species)

14 Amborella – the most primitive flowering plant, of New Caledonia Nymphaea – water lilies Magnoliids - ~9000 sp of Magnolias, Laurels, Black Pepper, Nutmeg…

15 Monocots – ~60,000 species of grasses, grains, palms, bamboos, lilies, irises, orchids, tulips, etc.

16 Eudicots – over 200,000 species! From vegetables to roses, trees (that arent gymnosperms, palms or Magnolias), asters, etc.

17 5. Tracheophytes 6. Summary Algae – aquatic non-tracheophytes: cuticle Lycopodiophytes: vascular tissue and dominance of the sporophyte (tall) Monilophytes: true leaves Gymnosperms: Seeds and pollen Angiosperms: Flowers and fruit


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