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Reproduction of flower plants Watch Video Below Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall.

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Presentation on theme: "Reproduction of flower plants Watch Video Below Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reproduction of flower plants Watch Video Below Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

2 IB ASSESSMENT STATEMENT Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of dicotyledonous animal-pollinated flower and plants. Know the location and function of following structures Sepal Petal Anther Filaments Stigma Style ovary

3 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers Function of Flowers Flowers are reproductive organs.

4 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers Sepals enclose the bud before it opens and protect the flower while it is developing. Sepal

5 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers Petals are often brightly colored and are found just inside the sepals. Petals attract insects and other pollinators to the flower. Petal

6 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers The male parts of a flower consist of an anther and a filament, which together make up the stamen. Filament Anther Stamen

7 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers An anther is an oval sac where meiosis takes place, producing pollen grains (male sex cells). Anther

8 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers The filament is a long, thin stalk that supports an anther. Filament

9 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers The innermost floral parts are carpels, also called pistils, which produce the female gametophytes. Carpel Style Stigma Ovary

10 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers Each carpel has a broad base forming an ovary. The ovary contains one or more ovules where female sex cells are produced. Ovary Ovule

11 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers The narrow stalk of the carpel is the style. Style

12 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers At the top of the style is the stigmaa sticky portion where pollen grains frequently land. Stigma

13 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Structure of Flowers Ovary Ovule Carpel Style Stigma Ovary Filament Anther Stamen Parts of a Typical Flower Sepal Petal

14 Flower structure Stigma Style Ovary Petal Sepal Filament Anther © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

15 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall IB ASSESSMENT STATEMENT Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of dicotyledonous animal-pollinated flower and plants. Know the location and function of following structures Sepal Petal Anther Filaments Stigma Style ovary

16 IB Assessment Statement Distinguish between pollination, fertilization, and seed dispersal. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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18 IB Assessment Statement Distinguish between pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal Pollination – pollen is transferred from anther to a stigma Fertilization- After pollination a zygote is formed by the fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete inside the plants ovule. Seed Dispersal – Ovaries develop into a fruit. The function of a fruit is to disperse seeds.

19 Pollination Pollen grains contain the male gametes of the plant They are picked up by a pollinator and transferred to another flower Plants tend to specialise in pollinators This ensures the pollen is delivered to same species of plant Yellow archangel Lamiastrum galobdolon being pollinated by a bumble bee Bombus hortorum © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

20 Pollination Small skipper Thymelicus flavus on marsh thistle Cirsium palustris © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

21 Pollination The honey bee Apis melifera on marsh thistle Cirsium palustris © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

22 Pollination Most species of flowering plants are hermaphroditic Pollen from a flower could land on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant = self pollination Pollen transferred from the anther on one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different plant = cross pollination © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

23 Fertilisation Pollination Fertilisation The male gamete (the male nucleus) has to get to the egg cell The egg cell lies in an ovule in an ovary at the centre of the plant The pollen grain germinates on the stigma It grows a pollen tube down the style It male nuclei travel down the pollen tube to the ovule © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

24 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The pollen grain germinates on the stigma It grows a pollen tube down the style It male nuclei travel down the pollen tube to the ovule Pollen grains (N) (male gametophyte) Stigma Fertilisation

25 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The egg cell lies in an ovule in an ovary at the centre of the plant. Haploid cell (N) Ovule Ovary (2N) Fertilisation

26 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Pollen grows a pollen tube down the style It male nuclei travel down the pollen tube to the ovule Pollen tube Egg cell Sperm Polar nuclei Embryo sac (N) (female gametophyte) Fertilisation

27 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The sperm moves from the pollen tube to combine with the egg of the ovule to forma zygote (seed). Pollen tube Embryo sac (N) (female gametophyte) Egg cell Sperm Polar nuclei Fertilisation

28 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The sperm moves from the pollen tube to combine with the egg of the ovule to forma zygote (seed). As the seed develops around the ovary will develop into a fruit. Fruit protects the seed Endosperm (3N) Zygote (2N) Fertilisation

29 Style Stigma Pollen grain Ovule Embryo sac Pollen tube Ovary © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS

30 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Draw and label a diagram showing the external and internal structure of a named dicotyledonous seed. Know the following location and function of the following structures: Testa Micorphyle Embryo root Embryo shoot cotyledons IB ASSESSMENT STATEMENT

31 Seed Germiination The seed is the means by which an embryo can be dispersed to distant locations. It is a protective structure for the embryo. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

32 Seed Structure a) Testa protects the plant embryo and the cotyledon food stores b) Radicle is the embryonic root c) Plumule is the embryonic stem d) Cotyledons contain food store for the seed e) Micropyle is a hole in the testa ( from pollen tube fertilisation) through which water can enter the seed prior to germination f) Scar is where the ovule was attached to the carpel wall. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

33 LE 38-8a Seed coat (Testa) Embryo Shoots (plumule) Radicle (Embryo root) Cotyledons

34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

35 9.3.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the external and internal structure of a named dicotyledonous seed. Know the following location and function of the following structures: Testa Micorphyle Embryo root Embryo shoot cotyledons IB ASSESSMENT STATEMENT

36 IB Assessment Statements Explain the conditions needed for germinaton of a typical seed. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

37 Seed Germination Conditions for the germination of a typical seed. Seeds require a combination of: Oxygen for aerobic respiration Water to metabolically activate the cells temperature for optimal function of enzymes Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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39 IB Assessment Statement Outline the metabolic processes during seed germination of a starchy seed, Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

40 Metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed. The metabolic events of seed germination: a) Water absorbed and the activation of cotyledon cells b) Synthesis of gibberellin which is a plant growth substance. (Hormone is some text longer a term used to describe such compounds). c) The gibberellin brings about the synthesis of the carbohydrase enzyme amylase Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

41 Metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed. The metabolic events of seed germination: d) Starch is hydrolysed to maltose before being absorbed by the embryonic plant e) The maltose can be further hydrolysed to glucose for respiration on polymerised to cellulose for cell wall formation. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

42 Metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall


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