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HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Morphology and Development.

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Presentation on theme: "HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Morphology and Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Morphology and Development

2 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit develops from the flowers zFlower parts - Perfect flower Gynoecium (set of carpels) Androecium (set of stamens) Corolla (group of petals) Calyx (group of sepals)

3 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit develops from the flowers yFlower parts - Imperfect flower MaleFemale

4 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Flower types Floral parts arrangements zAttachment of floral parts zPosition of ovary

5 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Classification Seed-bearing structure derived from a flower zFleshy fruit yBerry yDrupe yPome yPepo zDry fruit yDehiscent - splits when ripe yIndehiscent - one carpel zAggregate fruit zMultiple fruit

6 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fleshy fruit: Berries One pistil (carpel) One or many seed

7 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fleshy fruit: Drupes One seeded Seed within stony endocarp zPeach, plum, apricot, cherry ySkin = exocarp yEat mesocarp yPit = endocarp

8 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fleshy fruit: Drupes One seeded Seed within stony endocarp zAlmond yMesocarp dries and separates yEndocarp is hard to soft yEat seed

9 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fleshy fruit: Pomes Leathery carpels Edible portion is receptacle

10 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fleshy fruit: Pepos Inferior flower, > 1 carpel Receptacle surrounds pericarp to form rind yWatermelon yCucumber ySquash yPumpkin

11 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Dry fruit: Dehiscent Split open when ripe yBeans yPeas

12 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Dry fruit: Indehiscent Single carpel Does not split when ripe zAchene yOne seeded, free from pericarp yStrawberry, sunflower zNut ySimilar to achene yEnclosed by pericarp (leathery in chestnut, woody in walnut) yHusk (shuck) is fusion of sepals, bracts, bracteoles.

13 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Aggregate Fruit Many ovules One flower

14 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Multiple fruit Many flowers Along a common axis or inflorescence

15 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit development: Definitions zMaturation yProcess of development yLeads to maturity = ability to ripen properly zRipening yFollowing step in fruit development yMature fruit becomes fully edible zSenescence yFinal step in fruit development yDeterioration yLeads to death

16 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Growth Pattern Sigmoid pattern: Pomes, pecans, strawberry ySlow yRapid, cell division and expansion ySlow, leveling off of growth

17 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Growth Pattern Double sigmoid: Peach, plum, cherry ySlow yRapid, cell division ySlow, pit hardening yRapid, cell expansion ySlow

18 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Growth Pattern Double Sigmoid yLate and early ripening peaches differ in length of STAGE II

19 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fruit Size yFruit size is inversely proportional to fruit number This is why fruit is thinned.

20 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production What you should learn from this lab zWhere a fruit comes from zFlower types zFruit classification zBasic fruit morphology zFruit development yTerminology yFruit growth patterns yEffect of seed number yEffect of thinning zID of fruits and their seed

21 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Laboratory Procedure zFruit displays yDrupes/Stone fruit - 2 yPome fruit - 2 yBerries yNuts yMultiple/aggregate fruit zPit and seed display zThinned vs. Unthinned zMount pressed leaves in book

22 HORT Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Laboratory Procedure zAnswer work sheets yDrupes/Stone fruit - 5 pts yPome fruit - 5 pts yMisc. Fruit/Seed - 10 pts yThinned vs. Unthinned - 5 pts zFruit Development Exercise on Homepage (15pts) yCompare fruit development for pecan, pear and peach yAnswer questions on Homepage and submit to teaching assistant


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