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Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods

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Presentation on theme: "Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods"— Presentation transcript:

1 Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods
Landscapes For Wildlife

2 Attracting Wildlife Food Fruit-bearing Nectar plants Larval Plants
Cover Water Puddling station Birdbaths Managing for Wildlife Weeds Nuisance Animals More Information

3 Habitat All Animals Need: Food Cover Water Space
Animals will only reside or forage in an area that contains enough of these four essential elements to maintain daily activities. Habitat As you create a new landscape or improve your existing one, add a few features for wildlife, and you will bring your yard to life with birds, butterflies and beneficial insects. Just remember that food, water and cover attract wildlife, but providing habitat is not enough. You also need to maintain your yard so the impact it has on the environment is minimal.

4 Food Fruit Seeds Insects Nectar Larval
Meat Remember to provide food year-round, especially in winter. Attract a variety of birds, reptiles, bats, butterflies and other insects Food — Provide food in the form of plants that bear seed, fruit, foliage or flowers that you’re willing to have eaten by birds, larval butterflies (caterpillars) or adult butterflies. Berries, fleshy fruits, nuts and acorns are all treats for wildlife. Wildlife find meadow grasses and wildflowers especially attractive, and they add a graceful feature to any landscape.

5 Fruit-bearing Plants for Louisiana
These two species are examples of some fruiting plants suitable for wildlife attraction. The Beautyberry grows wild in many parts of Louisiana, and the Muscadine is available from commercial sources and in the wild. Many other varieties of fruit bearing plants are available for landscapes and will also attract wildlife. The presentation strives to highlight a few of these species. Many in this presentation are available at nurseries or retail garden stores. Others may be more difficult to find, but native species can be obtained from the wild, and many introduced species can be ordered from some plant catalogs if not available at retail stores. Muscadine Vitis sp Beautyberry Calicarpa americana

6 Fruit-bearing plants available at many nurseries or retailers

7 Firethorn Pyracantha spp.
Large evergreen shrub Bears flowers and fruit Good wildlife food and cover Full sun to partial shade Does best in well-drained soil

8 Parsley Hawthorn Crataegus marshallii Large shrub Flowers in spring
Fruits in fall Very good for attracting birds that eat its fruit and nest in shrub

9 Pecan Carya spp. Many varieties.
Prefers deep, fertile, well-drained soil. Nuts are excellent human and wildlife food.

10 Hickory In the genus Carya Includes 12-13 species native to N.A.
Nuts used as food by many species of wildlife and leaves used by some larvae of butterflies and moths

11 Mayhaws Crataegus poaca and Crataegus aestivalis
Usually reach feet tall at maturity. Native to habitats that have low, wet and slightly acid soils. Full sun to partial shade. Berries ripen from mid-April to mid-May. Fruit for human consumption and wildlife.

12 Mulberry Morus rubra Large, native tree ~ 40 ft Full sun
Throughout Louisiana Edible fruit in spring Brittle bark, messy

13 Holly Ilex spp. Native and introduced trees Sun to partial shade
Range varies Fruit remains through winter, attracting birds Salt-, drought- and shade- tolerant Suckers Gallberry Ilex glabra Dahoon Holly Ilex cassine

14 Paw Paw Asimina triloba
Humid growing zones. Germinating seedlings need partial shade for 1st or 2nd year. Fruiting mature plants need full sun. Slightly acidic (ph 5.5-7) well-drained soil. Mature – small tree seldom taller than 25 feet.

15 Good fruit-bearing plants for wildlife not readily available
at retail stores.

16 Chickasaw Plum Prunus angustifolia
Native tree ~10 ft Full to partial sun Blooms early spring Edible fruit Suckers tend to form thickets

17 Elderberry Sambucus canadensis
Native shrub ~ 15 ft Full to partial sun Throughout Louisiana Fragrant flowers year-round Edible fruit

18 Nectar Plants for Louisiana
Cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Nectar plants will attract a variety of butterflies to your yard. Nectar plants are those that unfurl flowers, and profuse bloomers are even better. These three species are examples of nectar plants available at many retail plant outlets. See the plant list at the back of the Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods Handbook or consult your parish AgCenter Extension office for examples of plants that attract butterflies. A few plants are described in the following slides. Remember- Reduce or eliminate pesticide use. Each time you apply an insecticide to your landscape, you reduce the survival of butterflies and larvae as well as other insect populations, which form an important food source for birds. Some chemicals also can poison birds and other animals that feed on affected insects. Coneflower Echinacea purpurea

19 Lantana spp. Pentas spp. Woody perennial Sun or partial shade
Great for butterflies Pentas spp. Variety of flower colors Moderately fertile soil that retains moisture well Full sun to shade Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds

20 Golden Dew Drop Duranta erecta
Shrub ~ 14 ft Full to partial sun Blooms year-round Throughout Louisiana High drought tolerance Attracts butterflies

21 Porterweed Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Native and non-native perennial ~ 4 ft Full to partial sun Blooms year-round Medium salt- and drought-tolerant Red variety is non-native

22 Coral Honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens
Native vine Full to partial sun Blooms spring-fall Throughout Louisiana Attract butterflies and hummingbirds

23 Virginia Willow Itea virginica
Native shrub ~ 7 ft Full to partial sun Blooms spring Drought- and flood-tolerant Suckers tend to form thickets

24 Larval Plants for Louisiana
Butterfly Matchweed Phyla nodiflora Larval plants are plants that will attract the larvae (Caterpillars ) of butterflies and moths. Each butterfly species lays its eggs on a preferred host plant, which may differ from the adults' preferred nectar source. The caterpillars of butterflies must eat to grow large enough to form a chrysalis, so they often strip larval plants of leaves. If you want to attract butterflies to your yard, expect a certain level of damage. One way to keep outdoor living areas attractive and to cultivate a crop of butterflies is to intersperse larval and nectar plants in a bed. Or devote an entire planting area that is out of view to larval plants. Remember- Reduce or eliminate pesticide use. Willow, Salix caroliniana is a larval host of the Viceroy Adult and larvae of Phaon Crescent Phyciodes phaon

25 Red Bay Persia borbonia
Native tree ~ 40 ft Full to partial sun Throughout Louisiana Drought- and salt-tolerant Blooms in spring; attracts butterflies Purple fruit attracts birds Other larval plants include… Bays are larval food for the spicebush swallowtail

26 Mexican Milkweed Asclepias spp.
Shrub ~ 4 ft Natives available Full to partial sun Blooms year-round Throughout Louisiana Drought-tolerant Nectar attracts hummingbirds and butterflies Larval host of Monarch and Queen

27 Passion Flower Passiflora spp.
Vine Native varieties available Full to partial sun Blooms year-round Throughout Louisiana Larval host of Gulf Fritillary Does not sting

28 Dill Anethum graveolens
Plant in cool weather Full sun Can grow up to 3 ft tall Sow seeds close together Good plant to attract caterpillars Parsley Full sun or light shade Transplant plants to 9 inches apart Must protect in cold weather with coverings such as straw Good to attract caterpillars to your garden

29 Cover Vertical layers Evergreen species for winter cover
Standing dead trees or “snags” if practical Brush piles if practical Standing dead trees, or brush piles may not be legal or practical in urban areas. Care should be taken to insure that wildlife cover is compatible with yard size, urban zoning regulations, and the aesthetic value of the neighborhood. For optimal wildlife attraction cover is essential, if brush piles or snags are not practical, consider planting dense low hanging shrubs or dense stands of wildflowers.

30 Water Permanent water feature
Sound of running water attracts many animals Puddling: Butterflies obtain water and minerals from liquid in pore spaces. Puddling stations are a good way to provide water and minerals for butterflies. They are easy to construct just follows these simple steps. Puddling station

31 Design a Puddling Station
Layer sand in saucer. Add layer of compost. Place pebbles on top. Add water slowly (to pebble layer). Place saucer on upside down pot.

32 Birdbath Shallow with mildly sloping sides Rough surface Keep clean
Rinse off any soap residue Audubon Society recommends changing the water and cleaning bird baths weekly to avoid spreading avian diseases. The sound of running water will attract wildlife to your yard. This sound could come from a natural feature, such as a pond, creek or other body of fresh water. A fountain will also beckon wildlife. Even a simple birdbath that captures rainwater can suffice. Empty and clean your birdbath every few days. Do not clean it with soap or bleach; just physically scrub all surfaces with a brush or scouring-type sponge. Changing water regularly prevents mosquito breeding and bacterial contamination.

33 Long-tailed skipper feeding on Spanish needle.
Managing for Wildlife Vertical layers of vegetation. Plant natives if possible. Introduced plants also useful. No pesticides! Plant wild flowers or reduce mowing in certain areas of your property if possible. Manage pets. Long-tailed skipper feeding on Spanish needle. Managing for wildlife involves a few simple steps – 1) Increase Vertical Layering — Plant a variety of plants in different sizes and heights. This provides more cover and feeding opportunities for wildlife species. 2) Planting native species is desirable because the food they produce is often familiar or specifically needed by some species of wildlife. 3) Introduced species are suitable when natives are not available or when natives are not part of the aesthetics of your landscape. 4) Remember- Reduce or eliminate pesticide use when possible, see the Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods Manual Section on Integrated Pest Management or talk to you County Agent about safer methods to reduce or control pest . 5) Plant dense stands of wild flowers and/or if practical and space allows reduce the amount of mowed lawn or property area — Over time, un-mowed areas contain more plant species than mowed areas. In some cases you might be able to reduce the mowed area around your house, especially in low-traffic areas, such as corners of the yard. If not practical, trade turf for diverse plant species or wildflowers that will create shelter and food for many animal species. Plant diversity attracts more wildlife species. 6) Manage Pets — If you permit pets to harass wildlife, you will only frustrate any efforts you make toward attracting wildlife. This is especially true for house cats allowed to roam in yards. If you permit your cat to wander in your yard, it is better not to try to attract birds and other animals whose lives would be in danger.

34 Plant Wildflowers for Wildlife
Coreopsis Coreopsis spp. Horsemint Monarda punctata Plant Wildflowers for Wildlife Pokeweed Phytolacca americana A few examples of wildflowers and dense cover/food plants for wildlife. Blanket flower Gaillardia pulchella

35 Tolerance of Nuisance Animals
Diggers (moles, squirrels, armadillos, tortoises) Bring nutrient to surface Loosen & aerate soil Feed on turf and landscape pests Trapping and deterrents Herbivores (deer, rabbits, ducks, squirrels) Contribute to food web, circle of life Nets and fencing may protect fruits Harassment or nest removal for non-natives Garden moles Armadillo Gray squirrel Attracting Beneficial Wildlife Means Possibly Attracting Undesirable Critters. As you strive to attract wildlife to your yards and gardens, remember the conditions you develop may also attract some species that may cause occasional damage to your landscape or animals you would rather not encounter. It is important to remember these animals are part of the environment and provide some beneficial aspects to the landscape. If nuisance animals become too much of a problem, traps, nets, and fencing are sometimes effective. Your local county agent can provide tips on dealing with some of these problems.

36 Venomous Spiders and Disease-carrying Insects to Avoid
Mosquito Southern Black widow (male and female) Brown Recluse Ticks Spiders- All species of spiders have venom and can bite. Most species bites only produce mild irritation and minimal pain if any, and usually have no complication. Two relatively common species, the Brown Recluse and the Black Widow female can bite and inject venom that can cause more serious complications. Bites are seldom fatal but can cause severe pain and tissue necrosis if left untreated. Both of these spiders like dry, dark places. Avoid reaching into these areas with unprotected hands. As with snakes, gloves are a good idea, and long sleeves when temperatures permit is also advised. Southern Black Widow Most frequently found, glossy, black 1½ long, female has red hourglass on abdomen, bite like a pin prick, leaves two tiny red marks, muscular pain begins within 15 minutes, death seldom occurs, seek medical attention Brown Recluse About ¼ to ½ long, light tan to reddish brown, distinctive violin-shaped mark on head and thorax, may not feel pain for several hours, a blister arises at the site, followed by inflammation, forms a necrotic lesion that may take months to heal, seek medical attention. Mosquito Breed in low, damp areas, carrier of Eastern encephalitis and West Nile Virus, can be fatal, no specific treatment or cure, many effective repellants are available. Ticks Carrier of Lyme disease, primarily the black-legged deer tick, the first sign is a red oval rash 2-3 inches in diameter, prevent by wearing long sleeves and pants, wear repellents, inspect after exposure, seek medical attention.

37 Poisonous Snakes Copperhead Canebreak Rattlesnake Coral Snake
Water Moccasin Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnake Snakes- Snakes are a natural and essential part of the ecosystem and are beneficial to any wildlife habitat. However, most people do not enjoy strolling around the yard or garden and encountering these species. Remember many of the same conditions and plant species that attract birds and other desirable wildlife can also attract snakes. Several snake repellants are often touted as effective deterrents for snakes. There is no research that supports these claims! The most effective deterrent for snakes is to minimize ground cover and food availability. Doing one or both of these things may also reduce the attractiveness of your yard or garden to other wildlife species. Remember most species of snakes are non-poisonous. There are only 6 species in Louisiana that are poisonous (only the 5 most common are shown above) and many more that are harmless. All snakes want to be left alone and if encountered will quickly try to get out of your way. If you encounter a snake the best policy is to back away and let it move away from you. Also, wearing shoes or boots, and gloves when working in the garden is a good idea. If bitten by any snake seek medical attention. If you truly want a garden that is attractive to a diverse wildlife population, snakes may occasionally be part of the deal. Copperhead Adults range from inches, more cases of poisonous snake bites than any other species, Canebreak Rattlesnake Subspecies of timber rattlesnake, adults adv. 36 inches but up to 60, bear live young, preys mostly on small animals, frogs and birds, bite is seldom fatal but can produce serious consequences. Coral Snake Relatively rare but venomous and dangerous, has a black head and red touches yellow, averages 18 to 36 inches in length, caution around mulch and leaf litter Water Moccasin Venomous, can be aggressive, found near water, ponds and lakes, black band like mask on face,“Cat eye” pupils, also called cottonmouth. Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnake Venomous, small and aggressive, averages 18 to 24 inches,

38 IF YOU ARE BITTEN BY A SNAKE, SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION!
A snake controls how much venom is injected. 50% of all snake bites are dry. 25% are warning bites with enough venom to cause pain, swelling, tissue loss and possible limb loss. 25% are potentially lethal. IF YOU ARE BITTEN BY A SNAKE, SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION!

39 More Information LSU AgCenter www.lsuagcenter.com
Louisiana Dept of Ag. and Forestry Louisiana Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries United States Fish and Wildlife Service Local Audubon Society

40 Further Reading Trees for Louisiana Landscapes-A Handbook. LSU AgCenter #1622 (online only). Gardening for Butterflies in Louisiana. Gary Ross. LDWF. Louisiana Backyard Wildlife Management. Bill Vermillion. LDWF. Economy Bat House Plans. Batcon.org. Backyard Bird Feeding. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Homes for Birds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

41 Acknowledgements The LSU AgCenter thanks the Florida State
Extension Service for many materials and several photos used in this presentation.

42 Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods
Landscapes for Wildlife


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