Presentation on theme: "Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods"— Presentation transcript:
1Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods Landscapes For Wildlife
2Attracting Wildlife Food Fruit-bearing Nectar plants Larval Plants CoverWaterPuddling stationBirdbathsManaging for WildlifeWeedsNuisance AnimalsMore Information
3Habitat All Animals Need: Food Cover Water Space Animals will only reside or forage in anarea that contains enough of these fouressential elements to maintain daily activities.HabitatAs you create a new landscape or improve your existing one, add a few featuresfor wildlife, and you will bring your yard to life with birds, butterflies andbeneficial insects. Just remember that food, water and cover attract wildlife, butproviding habitat is not enough. You also need to maintain your yard so theimpact it has on the environment is minimal.
4Food Fruit Seeds Insects Nectar Larval MeatRemember to provide food year-round, especially in winter.Attract a variety of birds, reptiles, bats, butterflies and other insectsFood — Provide food in the form of plants that bear seed, fruit, foliage orflowers that you’re willing to have eaten by birds, larval butterflies(caterpillars) or adult butterflies. Berries, fleshy fruits, nuts and acorns are alltreats for wildlife. Wildlife find meadow grasses and wildflowers especially attractive, andthey add a graceful feature to any landscape.
5Fruit-bearing Plants for Louisiana These two species are examples of some fruiting plants suitable for wildlife attraction. The Beautyberry grows wild in many parts of Louisiana, and the Muscadine is available from commercial sources and in the wild. Many other varieties of fruit bearing plants are available for landscapes and will also attract wildlife. The presentation strives to highlight a few of these species. Many in this presentation are available at nurseries or retail garden stores. Others may be more difficult to find, but native species can be obtained from the wild, and many introduced species can be ordered from some plant catalogs if not available at retail stores.Muscadine Vitis spBeautyberry Calicarpa americana
6Fruit-bearing plants available at many nurseries or retailers
7Firethorn Pyracantha spp. Large evergreen shrubBears flowers and fruitGood wildlife food and coverFull sun to partial shadeDoes best in well-drained soil
8Parsley Hawthorn Crataegus marshallii Large shrub Flowers in spring Fruits in fallVery good for attracting birds that eat its fruit and nest in shrub
9Pecan Carya spp. Many varieties. Prefers deep, fertile, well-drained soil.Nuts are excellent human and wildlife food.
10Hickory In the genus Carya Includes 12-13 species native to N.A. Nuts used as food by many species of wildlife and leaves used by some larvae of butterflies and moths
11Mayhaws Crataegus poaca and Crataegus aestivalis Usually reach feet tall at maturity.Native to habitats that have low, wet and slightly acid soils.Full sun to partial shade.Berries ripen from mid-April to mid-May.Fruit for human consumption and wildlife.
12Mulberry Morus rubra Large, native tree ~ 40 ft Full sun Throughout LouisianaEdible fruit in springBrittle bark, messy
13Holly Ilex spp. Native and introduced trees Sun to partial shade Range variesFruit remains through winter, attracting birdsSalt-, drought- and shade- tolerantSuckersGallberry Ilex glabraDahoon HollyIlex cassine
14Paw Paw Asimina triloba Humid growing zones.Germinating seedlings need partial shade for 1st or 2nd year.Fruiting mature plants need full sun.Slightly acidic (ph 5.5-7) well-drained soil.Mature – small tree seldom taller than 25 feet.
15Good fruit-bearing plants for wildlife not readily available at retail stores.
16Chickasaw Plum Prunus angustifolia Native tree ~10 ftFull to partial sunBlooms early springEdible fruitSuckers tend to form thickets
17Elderberry Sambucus canadensis Native shrub ~ 15 ftFull to partial sunThroughout LouisianaFragrant flowers year-roundEdible fruit
18Nectar Plants for Louisiana Cardinal flower Lobelia cardinalisButtonbush Cephalanthus occidentalisNectar plants will attract a variety of butterflies to your yard. Nectar plants are those that unfurl flowers, and profuse bloomers are even better. These three species are examples of nectar plants available at many retail plant outlets. See the plant list at the back of the Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods Handbook or consult your parish AgCenter Extension office for examples of plants that attract butterflies. A few plants are described in the following slides. Remember- Reduce or eliminate pesticide use. Each time you apply an insecticide to your landscape, you reduce the survival of butterflies and larvae as well as other insect populations, which form an important food source for birds. Some chemicals also can poison birds and other animals that feed on affected insects.Coneflower Echinacea purpurea
19Lantana spp. Pentas spp. Woody perennial Sun or partial shade Great for butterfliesPentas spp.Variety of flower colorsModerately fertile soil that retains moisture wellFull sun to shadeAttracts butterflies and hummingbirds
20Golden Dew Drop Duranta erecta Shrub ~ 14 ftFull to partial sunBlooms year-roundThroughout LouisianaHigh drought toleranceAttracts butterflies
21Porterweed Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Native and non-native perennial ~ 4 ftFull to partial sunBlooms year-roundMedium salt- and drought-tolerantRed variety is non-native
22Coral Honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens Native vineFull to partial sunBlooms spring-fallThroughout LouisianaAttract butterflies and hummingbirds
23Virginia Willow Itea virginica Native shrub ~ 7 ftFull to partial sunBlooms springDrought- and flood-tolerantSuckers tend to form thickets
24Larval Plants for Louisiana Butterfly Matchweed Phyla nodifloraLarval plants are plants that will attract the larvae (Caterpillars ) of butterflies and moths. Each butterflyspecies lays its eggs on a preferred host plant, which may differ from theadults' preferred nectar source. The caterpillars of butterflies must eat togrow large enough to form a chrysalis, so they often strip larval plants ofleaves. If you want to attract butterflies to your yard, expect a certain level of damage. One way to keep outdoor living areas attractive and to cultivate a crop of butterflies is to intersperse larval and nectar plants in a bed. Or devote an entire planting area that is out of view to larval plants. Remember- Reduce or eliminate pesticide use.Willow, Salix caroliniana is a larval host of the ViceroyAdult and larvae of Phaon CrescentPhyciodes phaon
25Red Bay Persia borbonia Native tree ~ 40 ftFull to partial sunThroughout LouisianaDrought- and salt-tolerantBlooms in spring; attracts butterfliesPurple fruit attracts birdsOther larval plants include…Bays are larval food for the spicebush swallowtail
26Mexican Milkweed Asclepias spp. Shrub ~ 4 ftNatives availableFull to partial sunBlooms year-roundThroughout LouisianaDrought-tolerantNectar attracts hummingbirds and butterfliesLarval host of Monarch and Queen
27Passion Flower Passiflora spp. VineNative varieties availableFull to partial sunBlooms year-roundThroughout LouisianaLarval host of Gulf FritillaryDoes not sting
28Dill Anethum graveolens Plant in cool weatherFull sunCan grow up to 3 ft tallSow seeds close togetherGood plant to attract caterpillarsParsleyFull sun or light shadeTransplant plants to 9 inches apartMust protect in cold weather with coverings such as strawGood to attract caterpillars to your garden
29Cover Vertical layers Evergreen species for winter cover Standing dead trees or “snags” if practicalBrush piles if practicalStanding dead trees, or brush piles may not be legal or practical in urban areas. Care should be taken to insure that wildlife cover is compatible with yard size, urban zoning regulations, and the aesthetic value of the neighborhood. For optimal wildlife attraction cover is essential, if brush piles or snags are not practical, consider planting dense low hanging shrubs or dense stands of wildflowers.
30Water Permanent water feature Sound of running water attracts many animalsPuddling: Butterflies obtain water and minerals from liquid in pore spaces.Puddling stations are a good way to provide water and minerals for butterflies. They are easy to construct just follows these simple steps.Puddling station
31Design a Puddling Station Layer sand in saucer.Add layer of compost.Place pebbles on top.Add water slowly (to pebble layer).Place saucer on upside down pot.
32Birdbath Shallow with mildly sloping sides Rough surface Keep clean Rinse off any soap residueAudubon Society recommends changing the water and cleaning bird baths weekly to avoid spreading avian diseases.The sound of running water will attract wildlife to your yard. This sound could come from a natural feature, such as a pond, creek or other body of fresh water. A fountain will also beckon wildlife. Even a simple birdbath that captures rainwater can suffice. Empty and clean your birdbath every few days. Do not clean it with soap or bleach; just physically scrub all surfaces with a brush or scouring-type sponge. Changing water regularly prevents mosquito breeding and bacterial contamination.
33Long-tailed skipper feeding on Spanish needle. Managing for WildlifeVertical layers of vegetation.Plant natives if possible.Introduced plants also useful.No pesticides!Plant wild flowers or reduce mowing in certain areas of your property if possible.Manage pets.Long-tailed skipper feeding on Spanish needle.Managing for wildlife involves a few simple steps – 1) Increase Vertical Layering — Plant a variety of plants in different sizes and heights. This provides more cover and feeding opportunities for wildlife species.2) Planting native species is desirable because the food they produce is often familiar or specifically needed by some species of wildlife. 3) Introduced species are suitable when natives are not available or when natives are not part of the aesthetics of your landscape. 4) Remember- Reduce or eliminate pesticide use when possible, see the Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods Manual Section on Integrated Pest Management or talk to you County Agent about safer methods to reduce or control pest . 5) Plant dense stands of wild flowers and/or if practical and space allows reduce the amount of mowed lawn or property area — Over time, un-mowed areascontain more plant species than mowed areas. In some cases you might be able to reduce the mowed area around your house, especially in low-traffic areas, such as corners of the yard. If not practical, trade turf for diverse plant species or wildflowers that will create shelter and food for many animal species. Plant diversity attracts more wildlife species. 6) Manage Pets — If you permit pets to harass wildlife, you will only frustrateany efforts you make toward attracting wildlife. This is especially true for house cats allowed to roam in yards.If you permit your cat to wander in your yard, it is better not to try to attract birds and other animals whoselives would be in danger.
34Plant Wildflowers for Wildlife Coreopsis Coreopsis spp.Horsemint Monarda punctataPlant Wildflowers for WildlifePokeweed Phytolacca americanaA few examples of wildflowers and dense cover/food plants for wildlife.Blanket flower Gaillardia pulchella
35Tolerance of Nuisance Animals Diggers (moles, squirrels, armadillos, tortoises)Bring nutrient to surfaceLoosen & aerate soilFeed on turf and landscape pestsTrapping and deterrentsHerbivores (deer, rabbits, ducks, squirrels)Contribute to food web, circle of lifeNets and fencing may protect fruitsHarassment or nest removal for non-nativesGarden molesArmadilloGray squirrelAttracting Beneficial Wildlife Means Possibly Attracting Undesirable Critters.As you strive to attract wildlife to your yards and gardens, remember the conditions you develop may also attract some species that may cause occasional damage to your landscape or animals you would rather not encounter. It is important to remember these animals are part of the environment and provide some beneficial aspects to the landscape. If nuisance animals become too much of a problem, traps, nets, and fencing are sometimes effective. Your local county agent can provide tips on dealing with some of these problems.
36Venomous Spiders and Disease-carrying Insects to Avoid MosquitoSouthern Black widow (male and female)Brown RecluseTicksSpiders- All species of spiders have venom and can bite. Most species bites only produce mild irritation and minimal pain if any, and usually have no complication. Two relatively common species, the Brown Recluse and the Black Widow female can bite and inject venom that can cause more serious complications. Bites are seldom fatal but can cause severe pain and tissue necrosis if left untreated. Both of these spiders like dry, dark places. Avoid reaching into these areas with unprotected hands. As with snakes, gloves are a good idea, and long sleeves when temperatures permit is also advised.Southern Black WidowMost frequently found, glossy, black 1½ long, female has red hourglass on abdomen, bite like a pin prick, leaves two tiny red marks, muscular pain begins within 15 minutes, death seldom occurs, seek medical attentionBrown RecluseAbout ¼ to ½ long, light tan to reddish brown, distinctive violin-shaped mark on head and thorax, may not feel pain for several hours, a blister arises at the site, followed by inflammation, forms a necrotic lesion that may take months to heal, seek medical attention.MosquitoBreed in low, damp areas, carrier of Eastern encephalitis and West Nile Virus, can be fatal, no specific treatment or cure, many effective repellants are available.TicksCarrier of Lyme disease, primarily the black-legged deer tick, the first sign is a red oval rash 2-3 inches in diameter, prevent by wearing long sleeves and pants, wear repellents, inspect after exposure, seek medical attention.
37Poisonous Snakes Copperhead Canebreak Rattlesnake Coral Snake Water MoccasinDusky Pygmy RattlesnakeSnakes- Snakes are a natural and essential part of the ecosystem and are beneficial to any wildlife habitat. However, most people do not enjoy strolling around the yard or garden and encountering these species. Remember many of the same conditions and plant species that attract birds and other desirable wildlife can also attract snakes. Several snake repellants are often touted as effective deterrents for snakes. There is no research that supports these claims! The most effective deterrent for snakes is to minimize ground cover and food availability. Doing one or both of these things may also reduce the attractiveness of your yard or garden to other wildlife species. Remember most species of snakes are non-poisonous. There are only 6 species in Louisiana that are poisonous (only the 5 most common are shown above) and many more that are harmless. All snakes want to be left alone and if encountered will quickly try to get out of your way. If you encounter a snake the best policy is to back away and let it move away from you. Also, wearing shoes or boots, and gloves when working in the garden is a good idea. If bitten by any snake seek medical attention. If you truly want a garden that is attractive to a diverse wildlife population, snakes may occasionally be part of the deal.CopperheadAdults range from inches, more cases of poisonous snake bites than any other species,Canebreak RattlesnakeSubspecies of timber rattlesnake, adults adv. 36 inches but up to 60, bear live young, preys mostly on small animals, frogs and birds, bite is seldom fatal but can produce serious consequences.Coral SnakeRelatively rare but venomous and dangerous, has a black head and red touches yellow, averages 18 to 36 inches in length, caution around mulch and leaf litterWater MoccasinVenomous, can be aggressive, found near water, ponds and lakes, black band like mask on face,“Cat eye” pupils, also called cottonmouth.Dusky Pygmy RattlesnakeVenomous, small and aggressive, averages 18 to 24 inches,
38IF YOU ARE BITTEN BY A SNAKE, SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION! A snake controls how much venom is injected.50% of all snake bites are dry.25% are warning bites with enough venom to cause pain, swelling, tissue loss and possible limb loss.25% are potentially lethal.IF YOU ARE BITTEN BY A SNAKE, SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION!
39More Information LSU AgCenter www.lsuagcenter.com Louisiana Dept of Ag. and ForestryLouisiana Dept. of Wildlife and FisheriesUnited States Fish and Wildlife ServiceLocal Audubon Society
40Further ReadingTrees for Louisiana Landscapes-A Handbook. LSU AgCenter #1622 (online only).Gardening for Butterflies in Louisiana. Gary Ross. LDWF.Louisiana Backyard Wildlife Management. Bill Vermillion. LDWF.Economy Bat House Plans. Batcon.org.Backyard Bird Feeding. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.Homes for Birds. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
41Acknowledgements The LSU AgCenter thanks the Florida State Extension Service for many materials and severalphotos used in this presentation.
42Louisiana Yards and Neighborhoods Landscapes for Wildlife