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Presentation on theme: "FLOWER ARRANGEMENT ON FLORAL AXIS: INFLORESCENCE"— Presentation transcript:

Presented by: Dr. Maninder Kaur Associate Professor, Botany Department, Government College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh

2 INFLORESCENCE Many trees do not bear their flowers separately but in groups closely together. These groups of flowers and their associated stems are called inflorescences. The stem that bears a single flower or an inflorescence is called the peduncle. The peduncle of an inflorescence may have smaller stems called pedicels The pedicels may bear the flowers as in the example on the left, or they may have further small branches which bear the flowers, in which case the inflorescence is said to be compound.                                                         A diagram of a generalised inflorescence

3 Types of Inflorescence
Racemose Type: The main axis grows indefinitely giving rise to younger flowers in an acropetal order. Cymose Type: The apical bud is a flower. The younger flowers are borne below it, in a basipetal manner. Special Inflorescence

4 Racemose Inflorescence
Capitulum Rachis Flattened Racemose Inflorescence Umbel Rachis Shortened Rachis Suppressed Corymb Rachis Elongated Pedicillate Flowers Sessile Flowers Spike Catkin Spadix Spikelet Raceme Panicle

5 Rachis Flattened Rachis Elongated Raceme
Capitulum Rachis Flattened Rachis Suppressed Rachis Shortened Corymb Umbel Rachis Elongated Pedicillate Flowers Sessile Flowers Raceme Panicle Spike Catkin Spadix Spikelet

6 Solitary Polychasial Scorpoid Cymose Inflorescence Dichasial
Monochasial Scorpoid Helicoid

7 Cymose Inflorescence Solitary cyme Dichasial cyme Polychasial cyme
Monochasial cyme Scorpoid Helicoid

8 Special Inflorescence
Cyathium Verticillaster Hypanthodium

9 Stalked flowers are borne acropetally on an elongated rachis.
Raceme                                                                                                                                                                                    Stalked flowers are borne acropetally on an elongated rachis. e.g. Mustard, Radish.

10 PANICLE Flowers borne not directly on the axis but on its branches.
Alfalfa Flowers borne not directly on the axis but on its branches. e.g. Alfalfa Panicle inflorescence of alfalfa

11 SPIKE Like a raceme but flowers are without stalk.e.g. Achyranthes
Simple Spike- Achyranthes aspera Compound Spike-Amaranthus spinosus Like a raceme but flowers are without stalk.e.g. Achyranthes

12 SPADIX Musa indica Rachis is thick and fleshy and the flowers are covered by one or more spathy bracts e.g. Musa indica (banana)

13 CATKIN Morus alba Carya texana Spike in which the axis is thin and weak. These are unisexual inflorescences and usually deciduous e.g. Morus alba (Mulberry)

14 SPIKELET Triticum vulgare 1-5 flowers are present in a spikelet, which are subtended by lemma (br.), palea (brls.) and glumes e.g. Triticum vulgare (wheat)

15 CORYMB Iberis amara Axis not elongated. All the flowers are placed almost at the same level, the lower flowers having longer pedicels. e.g. Iberis amara (candy tuft)

16 UMBEL Foeniculum vulgare
Geranium Axis is suppresed and the flowers usually have pedicels equal in length, forming a cluster e.g. Foeniculum vulgare (saunf)

17 Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa)
CAPITATE Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa) The axis is suppressed and a large number of sessile flowers arise from it forming a globose structure e.g. Acacia, Mimosa

18 CAPITULUM Helianthus annus Rachis forms a flattened or convex receptacle on which the florets are arranged e.g. Helianthus annus (sunflower)

19 SOLITARY Hibiscus rosa sinensis Axillary bud forms a single flower e.g. Hibiscus rosa sinensis (shoe flower)

20 MONOCHASIAL CYME Heliotropium
Main axis terminates in a flower and one lateral branch develops from its base also ending in a flower e.g. Heliotropium

21 DICHASIAL CYME Dianthus Two lateral branches develop on two sides of the terminal flower. Lateral branches may again branch e.g. Dianthus

22 POLYCHASIAL CYME Calotropis procera More than two branches develop on the two sides of the terminal flower e.g. Calotropis procera (Ak)

23 CYATHIUM Euphorbia pulcherrima Extremely reduced unisexual florets are placed on convex receptacle covered by a cup shaped green involucre. Central female flower is the biggest surrounded by a large number of male flowers e.g. Euphorbia pulcherrima(Poinsettia),

24 VERTICILLASTER Ocimum sanctum The opposite leaves at the nodes, bear dichasial cymes in their axils. The sessile flowers are clustered together appearing like a whorl around the stem e.g. Ocimum sanctum (tulsi)

25 HYPANTHODIUM Ficus Cup-shaped receptacle formed by the condensation of the rachis of closely placed cymes. The receptacle forms a vessel with a terminal opening and flowers inside it in cymose groups e.g. Ficus

26 Thank you


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