7Calvinist Amsterdam: City of Contradictions Highly commercial – acquisition of all kinds of goods a fundamental preoccupationCenter of commerce in European northGoods traded from throughout the globeRigidly religious – austere in doctrine and in church decoration
8Amsterdam’s Independence Calvinist resistance to Spanish dominion in 16th century1567 Dutch flood their lands rather than submit to the Spanish Duke of Alba1576 Spanish Fury – leads to death of 7,000 citizens in Antwerp.1581 northern provinces declare their independence from SpainAmsterdam becomes the most important port in the North displacing Antwerp.
9The Dutch Reformed Church Proclaimed by Calvinist leaders in 1571Although not an official state religion in the Netherlands, any person in public service had to belong to this church
10Strictly Calvinist in doctrine Strong belief in the predestination of salvationGood works were useless in gaining salvationInterior of churches devoid of ornamentation – reflecting the purity and propriety of the congregation
11The Science of Observation In the 17th century Amsterdam was the most scientifically advanced city in the world.Inventions:LensTelescopeMicroscope
12The Science of Observation Astronomy:Kepler perfects Copernicus’ heliocentric theory of the UniverseGalileo improves the microscope and discovers gravityThe Church authorities persecute, incarcerate or execute scientists.
13Francis Bacon ( )Bacon was a leading advocate of the empirical method, based on inductive reasoning (direct observation of phenomena)However, utter reliance on senses could lead to fundamental errorsThe four Idols (the Tribe, the Cave, the Marketplace, the Theatre) were errors in reasoning that could lead one astrayOne of the founders of the Royal Society, a leading force in international science even today.
14Rene Descartes ( )Championed the process of deductive reasoning, the opposite of Bacon’s process.Believed that both observational senses and thought itself could mislead and deceive.Among the founders of deism, which asserts that religious belief is ultimately based in reason and logic.Famously stated “cogito, ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am.)
15Dutch Vernacular Painting Marked by intricate attention to detail, Dutch paintings of the 17th century can be grouped in several categories:Still life: representation of household objects and/or foodLandscape: the representation of the countrysideGenre scenes: images of everyday lifePortraits, either individual or group: the representation of personal likeness.
16Still LifeFlowers in a Wan-li Vase with Blue-Tit by Johannes Goedaert, c. 1660Example of vanitas painting – reminder that earthly pleasures do not lastReflects righteous Protestant principles
17LandscapeMay reflect Dutch national pride at reclaiming extensive lands from the sea (similar to God’s re- creation of the world after the Flood)Much emphasis on the infinite reaches of the heavens in such pictures
18Genre PaintingsMay be boisterous, fun-filled scenes or quiet domestic interiorsDepict the everyday, commonplace world of Dutch lifeRemarkably detailed – new aspects emerge upon repeated viewingJohannes Vermeer was a notable artist in this genre.
22Portraits Seek to convey the sitter’s vitality and personality Beginning with Frans Hals ( ), group portraits depict dynamic social relationships, involved in activities of their organization, with subtle indications of rank, prestige, or power
23Rembrandt ( )Pre-eminent painter of portraits – group, individual, self- portraitsHighly dramatic use of light
26Features of Baroque Art in the North Northern Baroque art is characterized by high levels of attention to detail.It reflects both scientific discovery of the era and religious conviction.Visual detail was understood as the earthly manifestation of the divine.Absence of religious themesPrivate demand rather than religious art commissioned by the Church