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Essay Writing Expository Essay Character Analysis.

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1 Essay Writing Expository Essay Character Analysis

2 Modes of Essay Writing ModePurposeFound In Exposition (What is it, and how does it work?) to explain or informdictionary and encyclopedia articles, news stories, histories, biographies, reference sources Description (What does it look, sound, smell, feel, taste like?) to establish a mood or stir an emotion any kind of nonfiction writing that used images to appeal to the senses of sight, smell, taste or touch Narration (What happened?) To tell about a series of events usually in chronological order biographies, autobiographies, essays, news articles, histories Persuasion (What should I feel or do about it) to persuade the reader to believe or do something newspaper editorials, speeches, advertising, essays, articles

3 Expository Essay Writing Every good writer has a purpose when they sit down to write. The purpose may be to inform; to create a mood or stir an emotion; to tell about a series of events; to persuade the reader to believe or do something, but the primary purpose of an essay is to select and arrange words and details that best accomplish the purpose. In exposition writing, the main purpose is to inform, define, or clarify an idea. Dictionary and encyclopedia, as well as newspaper reports, use exposition. Exposition writing answers the questions, What is it, and how does it work?

4 5 Part Essay Plan Expository Introduction: 1. Attention getter (Lead) 2. Identify title, author, and character 3. Provide relevant background information that leads into the traits 4. Thesis (three character traits) Thesis Body: 1. The body is organized into three supporting paragraphs that prove your thesis statement 2. Each supporting paragraph needs to be illustrated with details, facts, examples, or quotes that make your point clear. (NO OPINIONS) Conclusion: Summarizes the essays main points! 1. Review the traits from your thesis statement/ Summarize main points 2. Connect to the introduction and reflect on the significance or character

5 Notes Introduction NEVER begin an essay with in this essay! 1.Grab the readers attention (lead) Begin with a quote from the story ___________________ Start with a strongly stated question that your readers might have (it may have a predictable answer) Start with a unique observation about the story or character Start with a snapshot (when you paint a picture, you draw the reader into the action) Begin with a metaphor that shows the storys significance 2.Identify the title of the story, the author, and the character 3.Provide relevant background information that leads into the traits 4.Thesis statement (3 character traits) Have you ever met someone who seemed too good to be true? In The Landlady by Roahl Dahl, unsuspecting Billy Weaver meets the Landlady. At first, she seems kind and welcoming, but it isnt long before the reader can deduct that she is welcoming handsome young men into her Bed and Breakfast for her own ulterior motives. The Landlady is deceitful, cunning, and cold-hearted, and Billy Weaver will never make it past her traps alive.

6 Attention-getting leads Leads are magic flashlights that shine down through a story showing the writer what to put in and what to leave out. ~ John McPhee

7 Get your readers attentionwith a great lead… 1.Begin with a quote from the story Weak lead : In one quote from the story the Landlady answers the door right away. Attention-getting But this dame was like a jack-in-the-box. He pressed the bell - and out she popped. It made him jump. 2. Start with a strongly stated question that your readers might have (it may have a predictable answer) Weak lead : In this paper I will attempt to show you what Alfonso did to fit in. Attention-getting : Have you ever felt so out of place that you would do almost anything to fit in? 3.Start with a unique observation about the story or character Weak lead : The narrator of The Tell-Tale Heart is crazy. Attention-getting : The narrator, while claiming to be perfectly sane, immediately placed doubt within the readers mind with his nervous repetition of thoughts. 4.Start with a snapshot (when you paint a picture, you draw the reader into the action) Weak lead : Squeaky always wins because she trains hard. Attention-getting : Running instead of walking, doing breathing exercises, and focusing on the goal are just a few things Squeaky does to prepare herself for the annual May day race. 5.Begin with a metaphor that shows the storys significance Weak lead : This story was about a crazy landlady who poisoned her guests. Attention-getting : Has something ever drawn your attention as if it was like gravity pulling you in? The hidden gravity that grabs your attention, maybe something as amazing as winning the lottery ticket or as miserable as watching the news about Hurricane Katrina.

8 Identify which lead this is… 1.Have you ever gotten the feeling that the being in front of you has put on a fake front in order to lure you into their own cold hands? 2.Imagine youre trapped in a pit of lions, and to them youre a nice juicy steak. In this situation one probably thinks they would trust their gut instinct, but Billy Weaver, the main character from Roald Dahls short story The Landlady was in the core of a pit full of lions and was foolish enough to believe that they wouldnt devour him whole. 3. She was just sitting there waiting for a small fish in the sea of people to bite. 4.Running is my life. You can see me jogging down Broadway, and I do not care who knows it. 5. Most things in life are complicated, but to one person, Charlie Gordon, complication is everything around him. 6. It was a dark and cloudy night as a man by the name of Billy Weaver rang the bell. Question lead Metaphor Lead Quote Lead Observation Lead Snapshot Lead

9 Notes Thesis Statement: A statement that gives the main idea or focus of an essay. This is the LAST sentence in the FIRST paragraph of your essay. Your thesis needs to be something that you are going to support with evidence throughout your essay. List THREE main points to your thesis so that these three points can be the three paragraphs in the body of your essay.

10 Notes Examples of thesis statements: In Roald Dahls The Landlady, the main character, Billy Weaver, is so polite and unquestioning and dim that he is not like a real-life person. She made herself be thought of as very kind, slightly dotty, and entirely harmless; yet she had a secret zest for stuffing handsome young men; she had no obvious motivation for this, but her actions were still very definitely effective. Squeaky comes off as a tough little girl growing up in Harlem, N.Y., but she is really soft and kind-hearted on the inside. Although Squeaky isnt afraid to speak her mind and can come across as being too candid, she is conscientious and accomplished. The Landlady is deceitful, cunning, and cold-hearted, and Billy Weaver will never make it past her little traps alive. She is so deceitful, cunning, and contemptible that she can stuff a human being.

11 Thesis Practice Directions: Please rewrite each simple thesis statement into a more complex statement with 3 dominant traits. Be sure to show some insight into how the traits correspond with each other or reflect the overall character. (Take the statement from a barebones thesis to one with substance or meat. Example: Barebones: The landlady is kind, dotty, and harmless. Substance: She made herself be thought of as very kind, slightly dotty, and entirely harmless; yet she had a secret zest for stuffing handsome young men; she had no obvious motivation for this, but her actions were still very definitely effective. 1. The landlady is cunning, deceitful, and contemptible. 2. Squeaky is tough, athletic, and responsible. 3. Mrs. Flowers is kind, aristocratic, and intelligent. 4. Marguerite is timid, insecure, and intelligent. 5. Alfonso is insecure, shy, and caring. 6. Charlie Gordon is determined, sensitive, and brave. 7. The narrator is deceitful, mad, and brutal. 8. Mr. & Mrs. White are greedy, curious, and hasty.

12 Sample Introductions The old mans hour had come! With a loud yell, I threw open the lantern and leaped into the room. He shrieked once – once only. In an instant I dragged him to the floor and pulled the heavy bed over him (205). In the strange story, The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator ends up being a cold-hearted murderer. The narrator tells the reader he is not crazy, but his irrational actions, like obsessing on the old mans eye, convince the readers otherwise. The narrator is quite arrogant and devious, but eventually his cruel insanity overtakes his intentions to appear calm to the police. …I made up my mind to take the life of the old man. …But why will you say that I am mad? (81) In the story, The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator is planning and executing the murder of an old man whose eye is bothersome to him. The narrator is so vain and sly that it is safe to say that the old man never had a chance. In the end, though, the narrators paranoia causes him to confess the crime he had executed so cleverly.

13 Sample introductions The disease had sharpened my senses - not destroyed – not dulled them (203). The Narrator in The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe states that the disease sharpened his senses, but is it really true? After all, he is a madman. He claims he loves the old man, and yet the old mans body was cut up and carefully stored beneath the floor. It is obvious that the narrator had all the traits of a deadly murderer; he is determined, clever, and malicious. Have you ever had someone in your life that made you feel accomplished? In Mrs. Flowers by Maya Angelou, Mrs. Flowers meets a young girl named Marguerite. Marguerite is an insecure young girl who needs someone to help her change her perspective. She will finally get that and so much more when she meets the practical, wise, and compassionate Mrs. Flowers.

14 Sample introductions Has something ever drawn your attention as if it was like gravity pulling you in? For some, the hidden gravity may grab their attention as they pass by a television or sale rack. For Billy Weaver it was when he caught sight of a printed notice propped up against the upper panes. It said BED AND BREAKFAST (172). Who would have thought that a simple sign would bring so much trouble? Not Billy Weaver, the main character of the short story The Landlady by Roald Dahl. In this story, Billy is tricked into staying at a bed and breakfast by a seemingly sweet landlady who actually has deadly motives for luring him into her home. Mr. Weaver is both curious and enthusiastic as he strives to be independent, but in his youth he still tends to be quite naive and suffers dire consequences as a result.

15 Notes Conclusion Remember… NEVER end an essay with I hope you enjoyed my essay. Summarize the essays main points. No first person. (I, You) (Instead, use oneor the reader) (See example below) 1. Review the traits from your thesis statement/summarize main points 2. Connect to the introduction and reflect on the significance or character The Landlady was a cunning and deceitful woman, who could give the appearance of being a sweet, old, loving lady. She was an interesting character who remained cool and calm through the poisoning and stuffing of the boys, and then through Billys questions. The reader can only guess how many more times she will prey on innocent young men before she gets caught.

16 The end Dont write endings, find them, novelist Thomas Williams used to say. Endings grow from beginnings and reveal themselves through clues within the story, characters or ideas. You should have a relationship between your beginning and ending ~ they should be connected and refer back to one another.

17 Sample Conclusions Pay attention to how the conclusions refer back and are connected to the introductions. Introduction: The old man s hour had come! With a loud yell, I threw open the lantern and leaped into the room. He shrieked once – once only. In an instant I dragged him to the floor and pulled the heavy bed over him (205). In the strange story, The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator ends up being a cold-hearted murderer. The narrator tells the reader he is not crazy, but his irrational actions, like obsessing on the old man s eye, convince the readers otherwise. The narrator is quite arrogant and devious, but eventually his cruel insanity overtakes his intentions to appear calm to the police. Conclusion: The narrator is a very disturbed character to kill a defenseless old man because he was bothered by the old man s eye. Furthermore, he felt sure his crime would never be detected, but then his own insanity causes him to confess to the police. The narrator thinks that he is a sane man and that his murder was justified, but the reader knows he is an arrogant, devious, and insane person indeed.

18 Sample Conclusions Introduction: … I made up my mind to take the life of the old man. … But why will you say that I am mad? (81) In the story, The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator is planning and executing the murder of an old man whose eye is bothersome to him. The narrator is so vain and sly that it is safe to say that the old man never had a chance. In the end, though, the narrator s paranoia causes him to confess the crime he had executed so cleverly. Conclusion: The narrator was obviously mentally disturbed, killing an innocent old man for no reason except that he did not like the old man s eye. Although the narrator was sly, his vanity and paranoia revealed his dastardly deed which led to his capture. One can only guess who would have been his next victim if the narrator s insanity had not betrayed his violent nature.

19 Sample conclusions Introduction: The disease had sharpened my senses - not destroyed – not dulled them (203). The Narrator in The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe states that the disease sharpened his senses, but is it really true? After all, he is a madman. He claims he loves the old man, and yet the old man s body was cut up and carefully stored beneath the floor. It is obvious that the narrator had all the traits of a deadly murderer; he is determined, clever, and malicious. Conclusion: The narrator is truly a psychopath to kill a defenseless aged person for absolutely no logical reason. He is determined, clever, and malicious, which means he has all the characteristics of a deadly assassin who kills for no reason. If not for the neighbor s call to the police, the narrator may well have continued his deadly behavior.

20 Sample conclusions Introduction: Have you ever had someone in your life that made you feel accomplished? In Mrs. Flowers by Maya Angelou, Mrs. Flowers meets a young girl named Marguerite. Marguerite is an insecure young girl who needs someone to help change her perspective. She will finally get that and so much more when she meets the elegant, wise, and practical Mrs. Flowers. Conclusion: All in all, Mrs. Flowers is a magnificent person. She is an elegant and wise woman who uses her influence to help Marguerite. Through practical means, she shows Marguerite the intricate beauties of life and the power of words--both written and spoken. Marguerite went through Mrs. Flower s doors as a simple little girl and came out a changed person.

21 Sample conclusions Introduction: Has something ever drawn your attention as if it was like gravity pulling you in? For some, the hidden gravity may grab their attention as they pass by a television or sale rack. For Billy Weaver it was when he caught sight of a printed notice propped up against the upper panes. It said BED AND BREAKFAST (172). Who would have thought that a simple sign would bring so much trouble? Not Billy Weaver, the main character of the short story The Landlady by Roald Dahl. In this story, Billy is tricked into staying at a bed and breakfast by a seemingly sweet landlady who actually has deadly motives for luring him into her home. Mr. Weaver is enthusiastic and curious as he strives to be independent, but in his youth he still tends to be quite naive and suffers dire consequences as a result. Conclusion: All in all, Billy Weaver is the kind of guy that everyone roots for. His independent and earnest nature initially give the reader the impression that he can handle almost anything thrown his way. Throughout the story he is curious enough to keep the reader aware of what is going on, but because of his naivety he misses the landlady s real intent. He is the kind of character that deserves a happily-ever-after ending, but unfortunately, he did not get one.

22 Transition Words and Phrases Use these transitions to help you connect the ideas between your sentences and between your paragraphs. TO INTRODUCE EXAMPLES for example in fact in one instance for instance in one caseas proof to illustrate to begin within one example TO ADD ANOTHER POINT alsoin addition (to)furthermore moreoveranothera second (third, fourth, etc.) besides further TO SHOW TIME RELATIONSHIPS beforesincein the meantime aftermeanwhileto begin with nexteventuallyat the same time thenat lastnot long after finallyafterwardas time passed TO SIGNAL RESULTS OR EFFECTS as a result because (of)for this reason due tothereforein response to thusconsequentlyin conclusion TO SHOW COMPARISON OR CONTRAST similarlyin contrastdifferent from likeunlikeon the other hand just asthe same ason the contrary as well (as)equally important TO CONNECT IDEAS yethowever nevertheless sothoughmoreover

23 Body of Essay Character to be analyzed: The Landlady The Landlady tricks Mr. Weaver. She takes advantage of Mr. Weaver. The Landlady plotted to kill Mr. Weaver. The Landlady tricks Mr. Weaver. She takes advantage of Mr. Weaver. The Landlady plotted to kill Mr. Weaver. Clever

24 Body of Essay Character to be analyzed: The Landlady The Landlady tricks Mr. Weaver by acting friendly and polite to him when he inquired about a room. She is clever by taking advantage of Mr. Weavers youth and innocence. She only picks boarders who are young men. The Landlady was ingenious in her plot to kill Mr. Weaver. She makes the room irresistible by offering it at a ridiculously low price. If that is too much, she added, then perhaps I can reduce it just a tiny bit. (173) The Landlady is clever and tricks Mr. Weaver by acting friendly and polite to him when he inquired about a room. She is also clever by taking advantage of Mr. Weaver s youth and innocence. She only picks boarders who are young men. Finally, she is ingenious in her plot to kill Mr. Weaver. She makes the room irresistible by offering it at a ridiculously low price. If that is too much, she added, then perhaps I can reduce it just a tiny bit. (173) She want to make sure Billy Weaver stays! Clever

25 Body of Essay Character to be analyzed: The Landlady The Landlady tricks Mr. Weaver by acting very polite and friendly to him when he inquired about the room. She tells him to please come in (173) and calls him my dear boy. (173) Thus she presents herself as a motherly figure. She is also clever by taking advantage of Mr.Weaver s youth and innocence. She only picks boarders who are young men. She confirms this when she says she looks for acceptable young men (174) who are exactly right. (174) After she says this she looks him up and down. As we can see in the beginning of the story the Landlady is a clever woman who tricks Billy Weaver by acting polite and friendly to him when he inquires about the room. Please come in (173) she tells him and calls him my dear boy. (173). Thus she presents herself as a motherly figure. Next we see her cleverness as she takes advantage of Mr. Weaver s youth and innocence. She only picks boarders who are young men. She confirms this when she says she looks for acceptable young men (174 who are exactly right. (174) Finally, the Landlady was ingenious in her plot to kill Mr. Weaver. She makes his room irresistible by offering it at a ridiculously low price, half of what he had been willing to pay. (173) Even then, she offers to reduce the price, if that is too much (173) to ensure he will take the room. Clever Finally, the Landlady was ingenious in her plot to kill Mr. Weaver. She makes the room irresistible by offering it at a ridiculously low price. half of what he had been willing to pay. (173) Even then, she offers to reduce the price if that is too much (173) to ensure he will take the room.

26 Tips Miscellaneous things to remember when writing an essay Style *Never refer to yourself in the essay. Dont say things like I think... or I saw... Just make your point. Its obvious that you believe what you say. After all, its your essay. *Avoid the use of contractions in a formal essay. The only exception would be if they appear in a quotation from the text that you are using word for word. Instead, spell out the two words in the contraction. Douglass is not deterred in his plan--not isnt. *Keep your writing in present tense. It seems more alive if you do. Say, Douglass is a man who... rather than Douglass was a man who... Again, you dont want to change the wording of direct quotes, so if they use a verb tense other than present tense, copy it as it appears in the text. * Use standard English when writing. Avoid using slang (sup or could of), texting jargon (ppl, idk, lol, bff), or symbols (&).

27 Tips Using and documenting quotations and passages from the text There are several things to learn about using passages from the text to support your points. *Remember, the majority of the essay is in your words. You need to explain your points clearly and thoroughly enough so that someone not familiar with the text can understand you. *Use quotes/passages from the text to illustrate or support a point you make. They dont have to be long passages. They should not be longer than two sentences. You should weave or blend short, but powerful, quotes or passages from the text into your essay. You want to avoid stringing one quote after another into an essay. *When you weave or blend quotes they should not appear in your essay as a sentence by themselves. Instead, they should fit smoothly into your explanation so if you were reading your essay aloud, listeners wouldnt even know where your words end and the quoted passage begins. (look at the sample essay I gave you to see this). *For each quote or passage used, you must document where it appeared in the text. To do this for an essay in which all of the quotes are from the same source, the story you read, all you have to do is put the page number in parentheses before the final end punctuation. (look at the sample essay I gave you to see this). quote (68). DO NOT PUT page or p.--just the number. * Dont forget to use strong transitions between your quotes and specific examples.

28 Model Essay The Responsibility, the Race, the Friendship Have you ever been so good at something that you always took first place? In Raymonds Run by Toni Cade Bambara, Squeaky is a responsible little girl who takes care of her mentally challenged brother, Raymond, yet she still maintains her title as the swiftest thing in the neighborhood (4). Although Squeaky isnt afraid to speak her mind and can come across as being too candid, she is conscientious and accomplished. Thats right fatso. And the next word out of anybodys mouth and Ill be their mothers too (7) spoken by Squeaky shows that she is not afraid to speak her mind, especially when others are teasing Raymond. Although she may seem rude, Squeakys forthrightness is to protect what she holds dear. When Mr. Pearson asked Squeaky to throw the race and give someone else a chance at winning the race this year, she gave him such a look he couldnt finish putting that idea into words (11). Her candid attitude allows her to always do what she believes is right, whether it deals with her brother or with winning. Squeaky values being the fastest runner in the neighborhood. Maintaining this title takes determination and a conscientious attitude. Squeaky is always training to make herself be the best she can be. She even states, You can see me any time of day practicing running (8). Even through her diligent training, she continues to keep Raymond safe. A sense of accomplishment is very important to many people. Squeaky never settles for less than winning. In first place – Miss Hazel Elizabeth Deborah Parker. For I have won again (11). Because of her desire to win, Squeaky has never lost a race. However, this year she has won more than just a race. She has decided to coach Raymond along with her nemesis, Gretchen. Together, they are going to help Raymond to feel the rush they feel when they are running in a race and winning. Squeaky is a loyal character; the confidence that she has in herself allows her to stand up to others for what she believes is right. Her desire to win and persistence to do what it takes to be successful, will always allow her to feel a sense of accomplishment. One could only hope for a friend or sister like Squeaky.

29 Graphic Organizer

30 Rubric

31 Exemplar1

32 Exemplar 2

33 Exemplar 3

34 Exemplar 4

35 Peer Editing Guidelines What we need to know in order to peer edit What does peer editing mean? Peer editing is when students give each other feedback on writing. Effective feedback is based upon the question, How will my response help the writer? When someone reads my paper, I want them to : 1. Be specific 2. Tell spots or parts to improve 3. Be honest When I read someones paper, I want to: 1. Read the entire paper 2. Compare with the grading rubric 3. Offer constructive criticism We should not use the following words during peer editing 1. Overly Negative 2. Overly Positive 3. Vague

36 Final reminders… 1.Dont use 1 st person. (I, me, you) 2.Dont use your opinion. (I think, I believe) 3.Avoid using contractions 4.Keep your verb tense consistent 5.Keep your verb tense in the present tense to make it seem more alive 6.Leave your reader with something to think about! 7.Be sure to use strong transitions between paragraphs. 8.Be sure to explain your quotes! 9.Broaden your opening question so that it isnt so predictable. 10.Be sure to state the trait you are proving. 11.Avoid saying well, … 12.Spell out numbers 1 – Avoid saying in this essay… 14.Provide a bit more background info. 15.Remember that your job is to ANALYZE the character, not SUMMARIZE the story

37 Quiz yourself! 1.List the FOUR things that need to be included in your introduction. (4 points) What is a thesis statement? (2 points) 3.What should be included in your thesis statement? (2 points) 4.Where is the thesis statement located? (2 points) 5.Yesterday you wrote down 3 ways to grab the reader s attention in the introduction. List TWO of these ways! (2 points) There are three things that need to be included in your conclusion. Please list them. (3 points)


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