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Pollination. Pollination Important Terms Pollination – transfer of pollen Pollination – transfer of pollen –Self or cross Fertilization – union of &

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Presentation on theme: "Pollination. Pollination Important Terms Pollination – transfer of pollen Pollination – transfer of pollen –Self or cross Fertilization – union of &"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pollination

2 Pollination

3 Important Terms Pollination – transfer of pollen Pollination – transfer of pollen –Self or cross Fertilization – union of & (ovule) nuclei Fertilization – union of & (ovule) nuclei Fruiting – development of fleshy part around zygote Fruiting – development of fleshy part around zygote Seed dispersal – distribution of mature seeds from parent Seed dispersal – distribution of mature seeds from parent

4 Flower Anatomy petals sepals Pollination= Pollen transfer Fertilization = nuclei union stigma style Connor photo

5 Flower variation Flowers may have pollen Flowers may have pollen –Ripening w/ ovules or before –On anthers below flowers or outside Flowers may be staminate (pollen only) or pistillate (ovule but no pollen) Flowers may be staminate (pollen only) or pistillate (ovule but no pollen) Plants may be monoecious (2 flower types) Plants may be monoecious (2 flower types) –Corn (tassel at top = pollen; silk at ear =stigma) Plants may be dioecious (& plants) Plants may be dioecious (& plants) –Holly trees may have berries () or pollen flowers ()

6 Pollinators Wind Wind Water Water Animals Animals –insectsbirds –mammalsmonkeys –spidersbats –kangaroosmites –humans –+ others

7 Human as pollinators Hand applied pollen Hand applied pollen –dates (since agriculture began) –vanilla Greenhouses (using vibrating toothbrushes) Greenhouses (using vibrating toothbrushes) Apply temporary aids Apply temporary aids –pollen inserts –bouquets No solution-in-a-bottle yet No solution-in-a-bottle yet

8 Insect Pollination antsflies/midges antsflies/midges aphidsmosquitoes aphidsmosquitoes beetlesmoths beetlesmoths butterfliesthrips butterfliesthrips beeswasps beeswasps + many others + many others The Big 3 underlined

9 Insect-pollinated Flowers Produce lots of pollen Produce lots of pollen Secrete sweet smelling, sugary nectar Secrete sweet smelling, sugary nectar Come in colors Come in colors Grow at conspicuous locations on plant Grow at conspicuous locations on plant Feature broken patterns Feature broken patterns Wave in the wind Wave in the wind

10 Bee Pollination Bumble Bee Honey Bee Alkali Bee Leafcutting Bee 4 widely used bees in commercial pollination ALSO: BOB (blue orchard bee); hornfaced bee, carpenter bee; pollen bees

11 Managing Colonies for Pollination Queenright Queenright Forager bee strong Forager bee strong Expanding brood population Expanding brood population Limited super space Limited super space Minimum strength Minimum strength No swarming No swarming Dry & in sun Dry & in sun Distributed in crop Distributed in crop Moved in & out promptly Moved in & out promptly

12 How many? Varies w/ crop Varies w/ crop Varies w/ beekeeper Varies w/ beekeeper 75%+ col minimum strength 75%+ col minimum strength –For example cucumber in eastern US 1 col for every 3-4 acres (small fields near woods) 1 col for every 3-4 acres (small fields near woods) 1-3 col/acre (larger fields in agricultural area) 1-3 col/acre (larger fields in agricultural area) 2 col/acre (high density) 2 col/acre (high density) 1 bee/100 flowers 1 bee/100 flowers 1 col/50,000 plants (w/ appropriate / ratio) 1 col/50,000 plants (w/ appropriate / ratio)

13 Pollination Contracts Pollination Contracts Number & strength of colonies Number & strength of colonies Plan of colony distribution Plan of colony distribution Time of delivery and removal Time of delivery and removal Beekeepers right of entry Beekeepers right of entry Degree of protection from pesticides Degree of protection from pesticides Plan for payment(s) Plan for payment(s) Penalities for poor colonies/service Penalities for poor colonies/service Bonus for excellent service Bonus for excellent service

14 Pollination 4 major crops 4 major crops –Alfalfa seed –Almond –Fruits apples, berries, etc) –Vegetables (+ seeds) Over 90 crops Over 90 crops Value. $14 billion annually Value. $14 billion annually 1/3 rd of our diet from bee pollinated crops 1/3 rd of our diet from bee pollinated crops Increasing, not diminishing, demand Increasing, not diminishing, demand

15 Fruit trees Traditional rental income Traditional rental income –Pears –Apples –Cherries –others Early bloom in season – set of king bloom Early bloom in season – set of king bloom Bees often insurance for bad weather year Bees often insurance for bad weather year Other fruit major nectar source Other fruit major nectar source –citrus

16 Pollination Poor Pollination Desired Pollination

17 References: Images: ee/ ee/


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