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Flower Induction – Hormonal and Substrate Control Karthik-Joseph John Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida.

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Presentation on theme: "Flower Induction – Hormonal and Substrate Control Karthik-Joseph John Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flower Induction – Hormonal and Substrate Control Karthik-Joseph John Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida

2 Monselise and Halevy Chemical Inhibition and Promotion of Citrus Flower Bud Induction.

3 Gibberellic acid inhibits flower formation in apples, pears, peaches and many other plants First paper to study the effect of GA on citrus flower induction Study the GA effect on citrus and to better understand the timing of bud induction Use of anti-GA or other growth regulators to induce flowering in lemons as an alternative to withholding irrigation Introduction

4 Experiment 1: Shamouti oranges – 1 branch/tree on the southern part of each tree Treatments – 200 ppm of GA sprays for 3, 4, 5 or 6 times at 2-week intervals from November 3 4 replications per treatment Flowers were counted on the branches on April 5 Sprouting vegetative buds were recorded on January 1 and February 12 Materials and Methods

5 Experiment 2: Eureka lemons – 2 branches/tree on the south-eastern side Treatments – 2 sprays of 0.2% Cycocel, 0.2% B Nine, 50ppm BTOA or 500ppm GA Flower buds, flowers and fruitlets less than 2 cm in diameter were counted on Nov. 4 Withhold irrigation for 2 months starting mid- august??? Materials and Methods

6 Experiment 1: GA spray inhibited flower formation GA treatment delayed flower differentiation Results and Discussion No statistics

7 Very few flowers differentiate if GA effect lasts during the main induction period Results and Discussion No statistics

8 Experiment 2: No flowering in control and GA treated trees BTOA induced maximum flowering Results and Discussion No statistics

9 Effect of BTOA on citrus leaves Rolling of leaf margins in leaves of the new growth produced under the influence of the chemical Formation of flower clusters at the apex of the young branches Results and Discussion Leaf symptoms found with GA are well known

10 Abstract is missing Experimental design is not mentioned Only southern part of the tree is used – so results may not represent the overall effect What is the basis for selecting the conc. of GA? No statistical analysis In experiment 1, data for measurements on Jan 1 is missing No details on the leaf symptoms due to GA Typing error? Overview

11 Discussion

12 Guardiola et al Gibberellic acid and flower bud development in sweet orange.

13 Introduction The inhibitory effect of GA is used to control alternate bearing The mechanism of the inhibitory action is unknown Earlier hypothesis: GA interferes with flower induction GA may reverse flower bud to a vegetative apex through an indirect mechanism A different mechanism of action of GA on flowering is observed

14 Sweet orange trees – Navelate and Washington navel No other details were given in materials and methods Materials and Methods

15 GA sprays during winter greatly reduced flowering The effect depends on the concentration and time of application Results and Discussion Absolute values were not presented

16 There is decrease in the leafless type of inflorescences with a parallel increase in the vegetative shoots Results and Discussion

17 Number of leaves per shoot increased but there was no change in the number of flowers Results and Discussion

18 Inhibition in flowering is mainly due to decrease in number of shoots of RF and S types Results and Discussion

19 The buds in the more apical nodes started growth earlier and in a greater number than in the more basal GA did not affect the proportion of shoots which abscise during early phases of development Results and Discussion No statistics shown in figure

20 The main effect of GA lies in the inhibition of bud development Insufficient information about the materials and methods Statistical analysis is not show for the figure Results and interpretation were difficult to understand Overview

21 Discussion

22 Davenport Daminozide and Gibberellin Effects on Floral Induction of Citrus latifolia.

23 Tahiti limes grown in southern Florida are ever bearing Heavy flushes of flowers – Jan., Feb. and March Fewer flowers – several times throughout the year Majority of production – summer months It is desirable to induce heavy flowering in any flush to increase off season crop Introduction

24 Materials and Methods 18 year old Tahiti lime trees 3 treatments – 0.1mM GA, 2500 ppm daminozide and distilled water control 4 replications per treatment First experiment: Treatments applied in mid-August at the onset of summer flush 3 sprays in one week period Daminozide concentration – 500 ppm Total number of new shoot and shoot type were observed in mid-September

25 Materials and Methods Second experiment: First spray was done in mid-December, prior to spring flush 2 weekly sprays of 500 ppm daminozide followed by 4 weekly sprays of 1000 ppm These were followed by 2500 ppm daminozide prior to and during the spring flush GA and control were applied at all times

26 The flush was vegetative which is typical for that time of year No tendency to flower in daminozide treatment GA increased the number of shoots produced The morphology of vegetative shoots in the GA treatment was comparable to control and daminozide treatment Results and Discussion

27 GA treatment shifted shoot type from predominantly flowering to mainly vegetative Daminozide inhibited flowering Results and Discussion

28 Materials and methods were not organized together Details of experimental design and statistical analysis were not mentioned The data from the west side of the trees are not reliable – the western side was crowded due to closely placed adjacent rows and so there was shading and also the sprays were unable to cover completely on this side Overview

29 Discussion

30 Garcia-Luis et al Inhibition of flowering in vivo by existing fruits and applied growth regulators in Citrus unshiu

31 Flowering in citrus is inversely related to the previous crop This could be due to an interference in the build- up of reserves and hormonal imbalance This study investigates the time course of flowering inhibition by the fruit This effect is compared to the application of GA Also studied the effect of kinetin, ABA and 2,4-D Introduction

32 10 year old Owari Satsuma mandarin Randomized Block Design with single whole tree replicates 5 µL drop of 200 ppm solution of growth regulator was placed directly on the bud Growth regulators GA, ABA, kinetin and 2,4-D were used 10 most apical buds from each twig from previous summer were selected 20 twigs were selected for each compound Application – from middle Dec. to middle Jan. Whole tree spray was also done using the chemicals Materials and Methods

33 Only GA reduced the number of sprouted nodes Results and discussion

34 Similar response was obtained when GA and kinetin were applied to entire tree instead of locally to the buds Results and discussion

35 Influence of time of GA application on flowering Results and discussion No statistics

36 Results and discussion Influence of time of GA application on spouting

37 Most data support the work done earlier The inhibitory effect of GA and kinetin on bud sprouting contrasts with the promotive effect found when applied to non-flowering seedlings and young trees Good experimental design Statistics is done but no statistics is shown for figure 3 Overview

38 Discussion

39 Koshita et al Involvement of endogenous plant hormones (IAA, ABA, GAs) in leaves and flower bud formation of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.)

40 This paper investigates the effect of the levels of endogenous plant hormones in relation to flowering The relation to other plant hormones was not simultaneously investigated The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between flower bud formation and plant hormones (IAA, ABA, GA 1/3, GA 4/7 ) contents Introduction

41 25 year old satsuma mandarin 8 lateral branches consisting of only vegetative shoots were chosen in each tree 4 of them are ringed 60 fruit bearing shoots are selected in each tree Materials and Methods

42 Results and Discussion

43 IAA and ABA contents in the leaves Results and Discussion

44 GA content in the leaves Results and Discussion

45 In October, higher endogenous GA levels may be one of the reasons for vegetative growth in the following spring In Dec. and Feb. only slight difference was observed in GA content between bearing and vegetative shoots – this supports the work of others Increase of leafless inflorescence and enhancement of ABA in Dec. and Feb. and of IAA in Dec. suggests that endogenous ABA and IAA may affect flower bud development Overview

46 Discussion

47 Jona et al Further Studies on the Effect of Nucleic Acids on Shoot and Flower Formation in Citrus Trees.

48 Introduction FUdR is a specific DNA synthesis inhibitor which promotes flowering in citrus This controls flower formation at the stage of cell division in the growing apex This paper deals with the effects of this chemical on flower and shoot formation The role of cell division in flower formation was studied by applying FUdR and TdR during the induction and differentiation period

49 36 year old Shamouti orange trees TdR and FUdR were applied either alone or in combinations at M Each chemical solution was brushed on leaves, stem and buds of 10 spring branches beginning Oct. 17 Application was repeated at 10 day intervals There were 2 series of treatments. In one the last treatment was applied on Dec. 17 and in another on Jan. 18 Materials and Methods

50 Effects on the number of sprouting buds during the spring flush Results and Discussion No statistics

51 Effects on the number of lateral shoots developing during the spring flush Results and Discussion No statistics

52 Effects on the number of lateral shoots per sprouting internode during the spring flush Results and Discussion No statistics

53 Effects on the type of new lateral shoots No significant difference when FUdR or TdR are applied separately Results and Discussion No statistics

54 Effects on flower formation Results and Discussion

55 Effects on mitotic activity in the apex during floral induction and differentiation Results and Discussion

56 FUdR is a DNA synthesis inhibitor and it can affect RNA synthesis when it is converted to 5- Fluorouracil TdR may counteract the effect of FUdR on DNA but not on RNA So, the inhibition of RNA synthesis is crucial for the promotion and bud opening Thus, FUdR + TdR promotes flower formation by interfering with RNA metabolism No details on experimental design were given They have mentioned the use of std. errors and multiple range test, but they were not shown in the graphs Overview

57 Discussion

58 Goldschmidt et al A Role for Carbohydrate Levels in the Control of Flowering in Citrus.

59 Carbohydrate levels have been suggested as a limiting factor for flower formation in citrus In this study, they examined several lines of evidence for the role of carbohydrates and their possible interaction with other factors in the control of flowering Introduction

60 Materials and Methods Mature, shy bearing Shamouti orange trees Girdling was done in late October Half of control and half of girdled trees were sprayed with 72 µM GA in Nov. and Dec. 3 year old potted Minneola tangelo were used in another experiment in which plants are subjected to various day/night temperatures

61 Effects of girdling on starch and flowering There is correlation between elevated carbohydrate levels and flowering Results and Discussion

62 Starch contents in leaves and twigs as affected by GA and girdling Results and Discussion

63 Effect of GA and girdling on shoot type GA counteracted the girdling effect Results and Discussion

64 Quantitative effects of cool temperatures on the promotion of flowering Starch levels did not correlate well with flowering Intensity of flowering was in accordance with the exposure to cold temperatures Results and Discussion

65 Carbohydrate levels play a role in flower induction but it is not always the limiting factor More details could have been added in the Materials and Methods section e.g.. Light intensities used for the experiments Experimental design and statistical methods were not explained in the Materials and Methods. But statistics is well explained for each table Overview

66 Discussion

67 Monerri and Guardiola Peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profile in buds and leaves in relation to flowering in satsuma mandarin.

68 Changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profiles have been described during flower induction in other species The aim of this work is to determine if the changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profiles can be related to the developmental states of the buds They have compared the seasonal changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzyme pattern in young flowering and in adult flowering trees Introduction

69 1 year old and 30 year old trees of satsuma mandarin were used to study seasonal changes 3 year old potted trees were used to study the changes during low temperature flower induction To study the effect of girdling, adult trees were girdled by mid-September Materials and Methods

70 Fractionation of enzyme activity Results and discussion

71 Isoenzyme patterns of soluble and ionically bound cell wall peroxidases Results and discussion

72 Changes in fresh weight of buds and leaves Results and discussion

73 Changes in peroxidase activity in leaves In adult trees, high peroxidase activities were mostly established by Sep. before the buds acquired competence to flower Results and discussion

74 Isoenzyme patterns in leaves Results and discussion

75 Changes in peroxidase activity in buds

76 Results and discussion Isoenzyme patterns in buds

77 Results and discussion Effect of girdling on peroxidase activity

78 Results and discussion Effect of inductive low temperature conditions

79 Higher peroxidase activities in the leaves from flowering trees compared to non-flowering trees could not be related to the flowering process Consistent differences in peroxidase activity related to flowering was not found in the buds Girdling had no effect on peroxidase activity So, the enzyme fractions and the isoenzyme patterns are not useful markers for developmental flowering stages of the buds Only one parameter was considered in this paper Overview

80 Discussion

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