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Flower Induction – Hormonal and Substrate Control

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1 Flower Induction – Hormonal and Substrate Control
Karthik-Joseph John Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida

2 Monselise and Halevy. 1964. Chemical Inhibition and Promotion of Citrus Flower Bud Induction.

3 Introduction Gibberellic acid inhibits flower formation in apples, pears, peaches and many other plants First paper to study the effect of GA on citrus flower induction Study the GA effect on citrus and to better understand the timing of bud induction Use of anti-GA or other growth regulators to induce flowering in lemons as an alternative to withholding irrigation

4 Materials and Methods Experiment 1:
Shamouti oranges – 1 branch/tree on the southern part of each tree Treatments – 200 ppm of GA sprays for 3, 4, 5 or 6 times at 2-week intervals from November 3 4 replications per treatment Flowers were counted on the branches on April 5 Sprouting vegetative buds were recorded on January 1 and February 12

5 Materials and Methods Experiment 2:
Eureka lemons – 2 branches/tree on the south-eastern side Treatments – 2 sprays of 0.2% Cycocel, 0.2% B Nine, 50ppm BTOA or 500ppm GA Flower buds, flowers and fruitlets less than 2 cm in diameter were counted on Nov. 4 Withhold irrigation for 2 months starting mid-august???

6 Results and Discussion
Experiment 1: GA spray inhibited flower formation GA treatment delayed flower differentiation No statistics

7 Results and Discussion
Very few flowers differentiate if GA effect lasts during the main induction period No statistics

8 Results and Discussion
Experiment 2: No flowering in control and GA treated trees BTOA induced maximum flowering No statistics

9 Results and Discussion
Effect of BTOA on citrus leaves Rolling of leaf margins in leaves of the new growth produced under the influence of the chemical Formation of flower clusters at the apex of the young branches “Leaf symptoms found with GA are well known”

10 Overview Abstract is missing Experimental design is not mentioned
Only southern part of the tree is used – so results may not represent the overall effect What is the basis for selecting the conc. of GA? No statistical analysis In experiment 1, data for measurements on Jan 1 is missing No details on the leaf symptoms due to GA Typing error?

11 Discussion

12 Guardiola et al. 1977. Gibberellic acid and flower bud development in sweet orange.

13 Introduction The inhibitory effect of GA is used to control alternate bearing The mechanism of the inhibitory action is unknown Earlier hypothesis: GA interferes with flower induction GA may reverse flower bud to a vegetative apex through an indirect mechanism A different mechanism of action of GA on flowering is observed

14 Materials and Methods Sweet orange trees – Navelate and Washington navel No other details were given in materials and methods

15 Results and Discussion
GA sprays during winter greatly reduced flowering The effect depends on the concentration and time of application Absolute values were not presented

16 Results and Discussion
There is decrease in the leafless type of inflorescences with a parallel increase in the vegetative shoots

17 Results and Discussion
Number of leaves per shoot increased but there was no change in the number of flowers

18 Results and Discussion
Inhibition in flowering is mainly due to decrease in number of shoots of RF and S types

19 Results and Discussion
The buds in the more apical nodes started growth earlier and in a greater number than in the more basal GA did not affect the proportion of shoots which abscise during early phases of development No statistics shown in figure

20 Overview The main effect of GA lies in the inhibition of bud development Insufficient information about the materials and methods Statistical analysis is not show for the figure Results and interpretation were difficult to understand

21 Discussion

22 Davenport. 1983. Daminozide and Gibberellin Effects on Floral Induction of Citrus latifolia.

23 Introduction Tahiti limes grown in southern Florida are ever bearing
Heavy flushes of flowers – Jan., Feb. and March Fewer flowers – several times throughout the year Majority of production – summer months It is desirable to induce heavy flowering in any flush to increase off season crop

24 Materials and Methods 18 year old Tahiti lime trees
3 treatments – 0.1mM GA, 2500 ppm daminozide and distilled water control 4 replications per treatment First experiment: Treatments applied in mid-August at the onset of summer flush 3 sprays in one week period Daminozide concentration – 500 ppm Total number of new shoot and shoot type were observed in mid-September

25 Materials and Methods Second experiment:
First spray was done in mid-December, prior to spring flush 2 weekly sprays of 500 ppm daminozide followed by 4 weekly sprays of 1000 ppm These were followed by 2500 ppm daminozide prior to and during the spring flush GA and control were applied at all times

26 Results and Discussion
The flush was vegetative which is typical for that time of year No tendency to flower in daminozide treatment GA increased the number of shoots produced The morphology of vegetative shoots in the GA treatment was comparable to control and daminozide treatment

27 Results and Discussion
GA treatment shifted shoot type from predominantly flowering to mainly vegetative Daminozide inhibited flowering

28 Overview Materials and methods were not organized together
Details of experimental design and statistical analysis were not mentioned The data from the west side of the trees are not reliable – the western side was crowded due to closely placed adjacent rows and so there was shading and also the sprays were unable to cover completely on this side

29 Discussion

30 Garcia-Luis et al Inhibition of flowering in vivo by existing fruits and applied growth regulators in Citrus unshiu

31 Introduction Flowering in citrus is inversely related to the previous crop This could be due to an interference in the build-up of reserves and hormonal imbalance This study investigates the time course of flowering inhibition by the fruit This effect is compared to the application of GA Also studied the effect of kinetin, ABA and 2,4-D

32 Materials and Methods 10 year old Owari Satsuma mandarin
Randomized Block Design with single whole tree replicates 5 µL drop of 200 ppm solution of growth regulator was placed directly on the bud Growth regulators GA, ABA, kinetin and 2,4-D were used 10 most apical buds from each twig from previous summer were selected 20 twigs were selected for each compound Application – from middle Dec. to middle Jan. Whole tree spray was also done using the chemicals

33 Results and discussion
Only GA reduced the number of sprouted nodes

34 Results and discussion
Similar response was obtained when GA and kinetin were applied to entire tree instead of locally to the buds

35 Results and discussion
Influence of time of GA application on flowering No statistics

36 Results and discussion
Influence of time of GA application on spouting

37 Overview Most data support the work done earlier
The inhibitory effect of GA and kinetin on bud sprouting contrasts with the promotive effect found when applied to non-flowering seedlings and young trees Good experimental design Statistics is done but no statistics is shown for figure 3

38 Discussion

39 Koshita et al Involvement of endogenous plant hormones (IAA, ABA, GAs) in leaves and flower bud formation of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.)

40 Introduction This paper investigates the effect of the levels of endogenous plant hormones in relation to flowering The relation to other plant hormones was not simultaneously investigated The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between flower bud formation and plant hormones (IAA, ABA, GA1/3, GA4/7) contents

41 Materials and Methods 25 year old satsuma mandarin
8 lateral branches consisting of only vegetative shoots were chosen in each tree 4 of them are ringed 60 fruit bearing shoots are selected in each tree

42 Results and Discussion

43 Results and Discussion
IAA and ABA contents in the leaves

44 Results and Discussion
GA content in the leaves

45 Overview In October, higher endogenous GA levels may be one of the reasons for vegetative growth in the following spring In Dec. and Feb. only slight difference was observed in GA content between bearing and vegetative shoots – this supports the work of others Increase of leafless inflorescence and enhancement of ABA in Dec. and Feb. and of IAA in Dec. suggests that endogenous ABA and IAA may affect flower bud development

46 Discussion

47 Jona et al Further Studies on the Effect of Nucleic Acids on Shoot and Flower Formation in Citrus Trees.

48 Introduction FUdR is a specific DNA synthesis inhibitor which promotes flowering in citrus This controls flower formation at the stage of cell division in the growing apex This paper deals with the effects of this chemical on flower and shoot formation The role of cell division in flower formation was studied by applying FUdR and TdR during the induction and differentiation period

49 Materials and Methods 36 year old Shamouti orange trees
TdR and FUdR were applied either alone or in combinations at 10-3 M Each chemical solution was brushed on leaves, stem and buds of 10 spring branches beginning Oct. 17 Application was repeated at 10 day intervals There were 2 series of treatments. In one the last treatment was applied on Dec. 17 and in another on Jan. 18

50 Results and Discussion
Effects on the number of sprouting buds during the spring flush No statistics

51 Results and Discussion
Effects on the number of lateral shoots developing during the spring flush No statistics

52 Results and Discussion
Effects on the number of lateral shoots per sprouting internode during the spring flush No statistics

53 Results and Discussion
Effects on the type of new lateral shoots No significant difference when FUdR or TdR are applied separately No statistics

54 Results and Discussion
Effects on flower formation

55 Results and Discussion
Effects on mitotic activity in the apex during floral induction and differentiation

56 Overview FUdR is a DNA synthesis inhibitor and it can affect RNA synthesis when it is converted to 5-Fluorouracil TdR may counteract the effect of FUdR on DNA but not on RNA So, the inhibition of RNA synthesis is crucial for the promotion and bud opening Thus, FUdR + TdR promotes flower formation by interfering with RNA metabolism No details on experimental design were given They have mentioned the use of std. errors and multiple range test, but they were not shown in the graphs

57 Discussion

58 Goldschmidt et al. 1985. A Role for Carbohydrate Levels in the Control of Flowering in Citrus.

59 Introduction Carbohydrate levels have been suggested as a limiting factor for flower formation in citrus In this study, they examined several lines of evidence for the role of carbohydrates and their possible interaction with other factors in the control of flowering

60 Materials and Methods Mature, shy bearing Shamouti orange trees
Girdling was done in late October Half of control and half of girdled trees were sprayed with 72 µM GA in Nov. and Dec. 3 year old potted Minneola tangelo were used in another experiment in which plants are subjected to various day/night temperatures

61 Results and Discussion
Effects of girdling on starch and flowering There is correlation between elevated carbohydrate levels and flowering

62 Results and Discussion
Starch contents in leaves and twigs as affected by GA and girdling

63 Results and Discussion
Effect of GA and girdling on shoot type GA counteracted the girdling effect

64 Results and Discussion
Quantitative effects of cool temperatures on the promotion of flowering Starch levels did not correlate well with flowering Intensity of flowering was in accordance with the exposure to cold temperatures

65 Overview Carbohydrate levels play a role in flower induction but it is not always the limiting factor More details could have been added in the Materials and Methods section e.g.. Light intensities used for the experiments Experimental design and statistical methods were not explained in the Materials and Methods. But statistics is well explained for each table

66 Discussion

67 Monerri and Guardiola Peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profile in buds and leaves in relation to flowering in satsuma mandarin.

68 Introduction Changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profiles have been described during flower induction in other species The aim of this work is to determine if the changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzyme profiles can be related to the developmental states of the buds They have compared the seasonal changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzyme pattern in young flowering and in adult flowering trees

69 Materials and Methods 1 year old and 30 year old trees of satsuma mandarin were used to study seasonal changes 3 year old potted trees were used to study the changes during low temperature flower induction To study the effect of girdling, adult trees were girdled by mid-September

70 Results and discussion
Fractionation of enzyme activity

71 Results and discussion
Isoenzyme patterns of soluble and ionically bound cell wall peroxidases

72 Results and discussion
Changes in fresh weight of buds and leaves

73 Results and discussion
Changes in peroxidase activity in leaves In adult trees, high peroxidase activities were mostly established by Sep. before the buds acquired competence to flower

74 Results and discussion
Isoenzyme patterns in leaves

75 Results and discussion
Changes in peroxidase activity in buds

76 Results and discussion
Isoenzyme patterns in buds

77 Results and discussion
Effect of girdling on peroxidase activity

78 Results and discussion
Effect of inductive low temperature conditions

79 Overview Higher peroxidase activities in the leaves from flowering trees compared to non-flowering trees could not be related to the flowering process Consistent differences in peroxidase activity related to flowering was not found in the buds Girdling had no effect on peroxidase activity So, the enzyme fractions and the isoenzyme patterns are not useful markers for developmental flowering stages of the buds Only one parameter was considered in this paper

80 Discussion


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