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born 13 Sept.1924 (died 25 June 2010) the son of a noted Welch preacher, the Rev. Harold Flowers and his wife Marian in Blackburn, Lancashire

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Before he was 20 he was recruited by John Cockroft to the Anglo – Canadion atomic bomb project at Chalk River, Ontario

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Cockroft brought him back to Brittain to work in Otto Frischs group of the Atomic Research Establishment at Harward in Fuchs theoretical section in 1946

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in 1950 Fuchs was arrested as a Soviet agent and Flowers went to Birmingham University to work under Rudof Peiersls

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in 1958 (till 1967) he was appointed professor of theoretical physics in Manchester University at the age of 34 in 1961 elected as a fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) at the age of 36

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in 1964 in 1973 (till 1985) Chairman of the Science Research Council (SRC) Rector of Imperial College of London University

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in in 1969 in 1979 Vice-Chancellor of London University He was knighted (Sir Brian Flowers) Lord Flowers of Queens Gate

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President of the Institute of Physics President of the European Science Foundation President of the National Society for Clean Air President of the Parliamentary Scientific Committee Chairman of the House of Lords Selected Committee on Science and Technology Chairman of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Officier of the (France) Legion dHonneur Meantime

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, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 210 (1951) 197 Proc. Roy. Soc. A 212 (1952) 248 Group – theory classification of nuclear shell states Link between results (a and b) (a ) (b )

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and (b – 1964), Proc. Phys. Soc. 84 (1964) 193, Proc. Phys. Soc. 84 (1964) 673

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Group structure for example:, n =8, N=12.870

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Infinitesimal operators Resulting states

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In the new basis – diagonalization of the pairing Hamiltonian:

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the classification of l nuclear configurations was also given in the new qausi – spin classification: Moreover: n

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with energy diagonalization :

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born 17 July 1929 (died 21 October 2008) in Gospart, Hampshire of an engine driver and schoolteacher

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He read mathematics at University College Southampton, graduating in 1949 and remaining to do postgraduate work He obtained his doctorate in theoretical nuclear physics under the supervision of Hermann Jahn. He joined the theoretical division of Atomic Energy Research Establishment in Harwell when Dr Brian (later Lord) Flowers was appointed director.

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After a year in the USA at the University of Rochester he returned to Southampton. In 1962 he moved to the School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the new University of Sussex, Brighton, remaining there until his retirement in 1994.

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Phil Elliott achieved global recognition in 1958 with the publication of an application of the symmetry group SU (3) to nuclear structure. This work become one of the most frequently cited references in the field. In 1998 – in the 40th anniversary of the SU (3) model – a nuclear physics conference held in Brighton with over 100 delegates from over the world.

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The conference began with keynote talks by Phil Elliott himself and Akito Arima on the origin and development of the SU(3) model. The advent of the Interacting Boson Model of nuclear structure introduced by Arima and Iachello gave his research new impetus in establishing a firm connection between it and more familiar shell model.

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This aim was achieved in series of papers in 1980s on neutron – proton pairs and isotopic spin in collective nuclear motion. Phil Elliott was elected to the Royal Society (FRS) in In 1994 he was awarded The Rutherford medal and prize by the Institute of Physics.

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In 2002 the European Physical Society awarded its prestigious Lise Meitner prize jointly to Elliott and Iachello for their innovative applications of group theoretical methods to the understanding of atomic nuclei.

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(a) (a) The famous SU(3) Elliott model and (b) The Interacting Boson Model: IBM 3 and IBM 4 Link between (a) – 1958 and (b) – 1980: the symmetry consideration with group theory methods

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(a)(a), Proc. Roy. Soc. A 245 (1958) 229, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 245 (1958) 562 (b)(b), Phys. Lett. 97B (1980) 169, Phys. Lett. 101B (1981) 216, Nucl. Phys. A 435 (1985) 317

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N = 0,1,2,... = N, N-2,..., 0 or 1 For a given N there is a (N +1) (N+2) multiplet of states with the same energy.

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Conclusion: there must be a higher symmetry then SO (3). It is the famous Elliotts symmetry SU (3). and

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Elliott proved then the nine operators H, L, and Q form a basis for Lie- algebra of the U(3) unitary group and U(3) = U(1) SU(3) This is the famous Elliotts SU(3). (L, Q )

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Under the same symmetry group SU(3) we can consider the mixing configuration of states belonging to the same IR of SU(3) on different l – shells as Elliott in his original paper considered for N=2 and 2p and 1f shells.

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Main assumption of Arima and Iachello: In even nuclei for ground and low excited states nucleons form pairs coupled to lowest J only,i.e. J =0 and J =2

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,, and form a 36 – member set which can be considered as the infinitesimal generators of the U(6) unitary transformation group. Then, the operators

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The full application of the IBM model follows the description of different multiples of atomic nuclei with the help of symmetries starting with U(6) To make the model more realistic, Elliott introduced to IBM the isospin labels: (T=0 is not allowed) and

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Then the operators are generators of the symmetry group U(18)> U(6) U(3) That is the starting point of the Elliott IBM 3 model

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and ; S=1,T=0 or S=0 T=1 To include T=0 to bosons, Elliott introduced the intrinsic spin to bosons: The symmetry starting group, the IBM 4 model, is which is the Elliott IBM4 model

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With these models Elliott was able to analyse the neutron – proton on l or j shell configurations.

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Thank you for your attention

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