Presentation on theme: "Anthropology Workshop Presentation: Media Analysis."— Presentation transcript:
1Anthropology Workshop Presentation: Media Analysis. NATUREBy Barbara Cooper.
2Ikebana “The way of the flower” Japanese culture holds nature in high regard. Seasonal variations are much appreciated and many flowers and trees are imbued with specific meanings. There are around 3,000 schools of Ikebana in Japan and the art is practised by approximately 15 million people.
3History of Ikebana In the 6th century, Chinese monks who used flowers in religious offerings,brought the concepts of flower arranging to Japan.The principles of this art form were taught bymonks to royalty and Samurai families only.Thus it was not available to common peoplefor many centuries.
4SchoolsTim Cooper:There are many schools of Ikebana. The oldest, Ikenobo, has records dating back to the 15th century. The Ohara school was started in the late 19th century by a would-be sculptor, Unshin Ohara, who found the Ikebono school rather formal and who also wanted to use the Western flowers that were being introduced to Japan. He developed his own containers and started the Moribana type of arrangements.The Sogetsu school was started in 1927 by Sofu Teshigahara,who saw Ikebana, not merely as decoration, but rather as a form of art. His school was available to all levels of society and his work was influenced by contemporary artists, such as Picasso, Dali and Miro. As a consequence of the second World War and the interest of the wives of US servicemen, Ikebana was introduced world-wide.
5LayeringThis is an important aspect of Ikebana, but there are no thick layers as in Western flower arrangements. The aim is to minimally use flowers and stems to accentuate the beauty of each. There must be balance between all the elements in the arrangement, including the container. The arrangement should point towards heaven, reflecting Buddhist spirituality. Heaven is represented by the uppermost layer; man by the middle layer and earth by the lowest layer. Adherence to the principles of nature are depicted by rules which, for example, state that a plant found in mountains, would never be placed lower than one found in a meadow.
6StylesHeads of different schools create new styles of Ikebana and it can takeup to 5 years to learn the techniques for fastening and positioning thestems and flowers that are used. The most common arrangements areRikka (standing)Nageire (flung flowers)Moribana(piled-up flowers)
7RikkaAlso known as Shoka or Seika, this form of arrangement uses tallvases and positions the flowers to highlight vertical lines.Rules guide the length, proportions and angles of stems.NageireThis is an old form of Ikebana arrangement, whichis used in the Japanese Tea Ceremony.The style of arrangementmay be ‘upright’,‘slanting’or ‘cascading
8Moribana This style uses shallow containers and a holder called a kenzan. This has sharp points to holdthe flowers in place. Moribana arrangements reflect natural shapes.This more modern style permits the use of Western flowers. Thearrangement should take the form of a triangle.
9SymmetryUnlike Western flower arrangements, Ikebana is not symmetrical.This is based on Buddhists beliefs that the mind should be left tofurther imagine form. For this reason, an odd number of brancheswill be used and the kenzan (holding pin) is placed asymmetrically.Stems are therefore varied in length.Shin = HeavenSoe = ManHikae = Earth
10Position In the 15th century, the ruling Muromachi shogun built simple homes, which contained a spiritualcentre, such as an alcove, to houseobjects of art. This area was knownas the toko-no-ma and was to be found in rooms used to receive guests.A shelf might be used if the home had no toko-no-ma and traditionallythe floral arrangements were viewed only from the front. Nowadays,this form of media, which so beautifully depicts the splendour of nature,is to be found decorating many different areas, for example, living rooms and tables, as well as public places, such as entrances to large buildings and shop windows. Arrangements are now designed to complement their surroundings and to be viewed from all perspectives.
11Bibliography Goodman, Liz. (ed.) (1984). “Arranging FLOWERS & PLANTS” London: Marshall Cavendish.Grosser, Ruth. (2003). “The History of Ikebana”. The AICCollege of Art.Accessed 1/09/04.“Horace Mann’s Webpage on Japanese Flower Arranging”“Japanese Culture - Ikebana (Flower Arrangement)”Accessed 24/10/04.Takenaka, Reiko. (1995 by JOIE, Inc.,Japan) Last modified May 16, 2001.“Mastering Basic Styles of Ikebana”.Accessed 26/10/04.Yanagi-Kenny, Tamoko in London. “Ikebana World”.“What is Ikebana?”
12Images Used Google Cache Ikebana Images Reiko Takenaka