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Crop Plant Reproduction (p. 83-94 and chapter 4) Flower Anatomy Components Terminology Legume Grass Types Different management requirements Pollination.

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Presentation on theme: "Crop Plant Reproduction (p. 83-94 and chapter 4) Flower Anatomy Components Terminology Legume Grass Types Different management requirements Pollination."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crop Plant Reproduction (p. 83-94 and chapter 4) Flower Anatomy Components Terminology Legume Grass Types Different management requirements Pollination Fertilization Yield Components Flower growth crucial for maximum yield. Harvest Index

2 Crop Flower Components Flowers = inflorescences Components: Sepals: Protect flower bud Petals: Colorful attract insects Stamens (male): Anther: produces pollen Filament: supports anther Carpel (female): Stigma: sticky - collects pollen Style: connects stigma to ovary Ovary: fruit, contains ovules Ovule: seed, contains egg Wheat Soybean

3 Flower Terminology Complete Flower: Sepals, petals, stamen, carpel. Incomplete Flower: Missing one of 4 components. Perfect Flower: Stamens and carpel (soybeans). Imperfect Flower: Male or female flower (corn). Monoecious: Male and female on same plant (most crops, corn, cucurbits, oak). Dioecious: Male or female plant (waterhemp, cannabis, ginko, holly). Waterhemp

4 Flower Type and Farming Flower type affects how a crop is grown and what is harvested. Perfect flowers tend to be self-pollinated. Soybeans, wheat, oats, barley, rye Saving seed can be done according to seed trade laws. Genetics of plant does not change. Imperfect flowers require cross- pollination (wind, bees, etc.) Corn Seed can nor be saved – performance declines each generation. Inbreeding reduces performance.

5 Legume (Dicot) Flower Complete and Perfect Flower parts in 5s Sepals (5): Petals: (5) 1 standard 2 wings 2 fused into keel Stamens (10): 1 free 9 fused (most) Carpel/pistil (1): Stigma: Style: Ovary: Ovule:

6 Grass (Monocot) Flower Anatomy Flower parts in 3s Incomplete (no sepals, petals) Spikelet: Florets: Rachis: central axis Rachilla: attaches florets to rachis Glumes: protect spikelet Lemma: modified sepals Palea: modified sepals Stamen: Anthers (3): Filaments (3): Carpel/pistil (1): Stigma (2): feathery Style: Ovary: Ovule:

7 Flower and Inflorescence Types Flower Type: Spike: Spikelet attached to rachis (Wheat) Panicle: Spikelets attached to branches attached to rachis (Oats) Raceme: Flowers attach at leaf axil to stem (Velvetleaf) Head: Flowers attach to receptacle (Sunflower) Umbel: Flowers attach to receptacle(Queen Annes Lace). Inflorescence Type: Determinant: meristem terminates inflorescence Indeterminant: new inflorescences continuously develop

8 Factors Affecting Flowering Plant Nutrition: >N 2 > flowering delay Light: Photoperiodism: Short-Day: respond to longer nights Soybeans, corn, warm-season Long-Day: respond to shorter nights Small grains and cool-season Day-Neutral: no response alfalfa, cotton Temperature: Vernalization: cold temps required winter wheat, barley, rye Cool temperature delays flowering

9 Asexual Reproduction Reproduction and propagation from vegetative parts. Types: Apomixis: seed without fertilization bluegrass, citrus, dandelions Cuttings: sugarcane Layering: develop plant while attached raspberry, blackberry Division: parts divided potato, bermudagrass, pineapple, bluegrass Grafting: joining plant parts fruit trees

10 Sexual Reproduction Production of Pollen: Production of sperm cells. Production of Embryo Sac: Production of egg cell. Pollination: Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma. Double Fertilization: 1.Egg + Sperm = Embryo 2.Sperm + Polar Nuclei = Endosperm

11 Male: Sperm Cell Development Pollen Sac: –In anther –Microspores produced by meiosis –Pollen grain produced by mitosis Tube cell Generative cell –Produce 2 sperm by mitosis Pollen Anther Filament

12 Female: Egg Cell Development Megaspores produced by meiosis. 1 of 4 megaspores lives 2 4 8 nuclei of 7 celled embryo sac (female gametophyte). 3 antipodal cells 1 central cell with 2 polar nuclei 2 synergid cells 1 egg cell

13 Flower Embryo Sac Double Fertilization Sperm 1 Sperm 2 Sperm enter embryo sac Pollen Grain: lands on stigma germinates forms pollen tube grows between cells to the ovule. 1 sperm + 2 polar nuclei = 3N endosperm cell 1 sperm + egg = zygote (2N)

14 Pollination Transfer pollen from anther to stigma. –Artificial: –Cross-pollination: Pollen from different plant By insects, wind Corn, alfalfa, clover, sorghum –Self-pollination: Pollen from same plant Wheat, oats, soybeans, rice

15 Terminator Technology Seed is unable to grow. Genetically controlled. Crops: corn Uses: Reduces volunteer the next year. Seed can be stored for longer periods of time. Reduce outcrossing – biotech traits Patent Protection for developer. Opposition

16 Yield Components Three components determine yield. Plants Per Acre: planting time Seeds Per Plant: floral initiation and pollination Seed Weight: grain filling period Yield = (ppa)(seeds/plant)(seed weight) (28,000ppa)(586k/p)(.314g/k) = 202.6 bu/A Yield Compensation: Components adjust for each other. (33,000ppa)(500k/p)(.312g/k) = 202.4 bu/A

17 Harvest Index Crops differ in amount of photosynthate and nutrients diverted to yield vs growth. Harvest Index = economic yield / biological yield Corn for grain =.50 Corn for silage =.80


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