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Unit B2-2 Floriculture Horticulture CD. Problem Area 2 Floral Design.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit B2-2 Floriculture Horticulture CD. Problem Area 2 Floral Design."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit B2-2 Floriculture Horticulture CD

2 Problem Area 2 Floral Design

3 Lesson 2 Caring for Fresh Flowers and Foliage

4 Interest Approach Here is a package of flowers I purchased from a florist. Inside is a packet of preservative. What do you think the preservative is made out of? Why do the flowers need it? Notice that some of my flowers are not looking so healthy. What do you think is the cause of their deterioration?

5 Student Objectives §1. Explain the basic requirements of cut flowers. §2. Understand the causes of deterioration and death of flowers. §3. Describe the steps of effective conditioning of flowers and foliage. §4. Explain the importance of using floral preservatives. §5. Learn about commercial packing and shipping.

6 Vocabulary §Acidic §Alkaline §Bent necks §Conditioning §Ethylene inhibitors §Graded §Hard water §Hardened §Photosynthesize § Precooled § Respiration § Salinity § Senescence § Soft water § Stem blockage § Transpiration § Turgid

7 When a Flower Is Cut, What Are Its Needs? §Even though flowers have been removed from a plant, it still photosynthesizes - produces food from sunlight §There are certain requirements that are needed by the flowers in order to survive: water, food/sugar, healthy environment and sanitation

8 §High quality water ¦ A flower is 90% water. When a plant has enough water it is said to be turgid. As flowers photosynthesize, they need water ¦ Flowers like acidic water (pH below 7). This allows for better water uptake. Perform a pH test to determine if the water is acidic or basic (pH above 7) ] Ph is the amount of hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions in the water ] Preservatives make the water more acidic

9 ¦ Water is classified as either hard water (which contains a high level of minerals), or soft water (which has been treated to lower mineral levels) ] Hardness effects the pH ¦ Salinity is the measurement of the total dissolved salts in water ] Salt clogs the xylem of the stem preventing water movement –Causes wilting and weakening of stem ] Must be less than 200 ppm

10 §Food and sugar ¦ Cut flowers are in need of sucrose and dextrose (glucose) ] The flower gets these from the stored sugar it has and from the provided preservatives §Healthy environment ¦ Flowers need an environment free of ethylene gases, which causes deterioration of flowers ¦ Fruit should not be stored in a cooler because they give off ethylene gas

11 ¦ Conditioning (the process of treating flowers in order to extend their life) occurs when the flowers and foliage arrive at the design site ] Warm water should be used - between 100 to F; Better for uptake ] Recut stems and remove lower foliage ] Leave flowers out at room temperature for 2-3 hours; Again it is better for water/food uptake ¦ Once the flowers are hardened off (full of water after conditioning), they can be put into a cooler of F ] Coolers provide better humidity control than regular refrigerators

12 §Sanitation ¦ These are procedures used when handling fresh flowers that will ensure they last longer ¦ Hands, knives, shears, containers and work area need to be kept sanitary ] Use a disinfectant soap to clean tools and work area; Also use bleach to clean the buckets ¦ Bacteria can be reduced by continual cleaning of work areas, coolers and containers on a regular basis

13 What Causes a Flower to Deteriorate and Die? §When a flower is cut from the mother plant, it starts to die because the flower no longer has a water or food source ¦ Death of a flower is called senescence ¦ Humans must intervene to provide the necessary water and food §There are five causes of flower deterioration: genetic life, wilting, harvest time, ethylene gas and disease/damage

14 §Genetic life: ¦ Each flower has a certain inherent life span based on its genetics ¦ Our goal is to achieve the maximum life span allowed by nature Flower:life span: Daylily1 day Dutch iris3-5 days Rose5-7 days Carnations10-14 days Chrysanthemums14-21 days

15 §Wilting: ¦ Caused by either excessive water loss or lack of absorption ¦ Blocked vascular tissue could be another cause ¦ Transpiration (water loss in the process of respiration) is caused by warmer temperatures and lower humidity ] Respiration is the process of burning glucose to create energy ¦ Stem blockage is the most common cause of poor absorption; Due to clogged xylem

16 §Timing of harvest: ¦ This is the time the flowers are cut from the mother plant ¦ Time of day - flowers should never be cut when they are wilted ] Avoid cutting in the heat of day ] Evening time is best because there is a decrease in photosynthesis ] Morning time is second best because the plant is full of water ¦ Stage of flowering - best time to harvest is right before the flower fully opens ] Exceptions include the daisy and flowering bulbs (harvested as bulbs) and the calla lily (develops after it is cut)

17 §Ethylene gas exposure: ¦ Ethylene gas is a natural plant hormone produced by aging flowers, fruits and vegetables ¦ Common signs of ethylene exposure include large amounts of fallen petals, dropped florets and yellowing leaves ¦ Growers and wholesales prevent this by using ethylene inhibitors - products that block or tie up the gas §Disease or damage: ¦ Flowers grown/cut should be of the highest quality ¦ Must always be inspected for disease/damage

18 Flowers Sensitive to Ethylene §Alstroemeria ¦ Peruvian lily §Anemone §Babys breath §Bouvardia §Carnations § Cornflower § Delphinium § Freesia § Lily § Snapdragon

19 How Are Cut Flowers and Foliage Conditioned to Maximize Vase Life? §Conditioning plant materials include the following steps: ¦ 1. Flowers should be unpacked and inspected upon receiving ¦ 2. Prioritize the order of processing; Wilt-prone and expensive flowers first ¦ 3. Remove sleeves, ties and any foliage that might contact water in the container ¦ 4. Under warm water, re-cut all stems, removing 1-2 inches ] Warm water has less air bubbles than cold

20 ¦ 5. Use specific treatment solutions as needed ] Ex. Roses should be treated with an additional preservative ¦ 6. Place cut flowers in a floral preservative solution mixed at the proper concentration ] Too little preservative encourages bacterial growth; Too much can cause toxicity ¦ 7. Let the flowers remain at room temperature for 2-3 hours to increase water uptake ¦ 8. Place the flowers in a cooler set at F with a high humidity level and constant light

21 ¦ 9. Milky stems should be treated quickly by dipping them in boiling water for five seconds; Then place them in the floral preservative ] You can also burn them with a match or put them in a warm preservative solution ¦ 10. Roses that have lost turgidity near the flower head are called bent necks ] They can be revived by placing the stems in a warm preservative solution and recutting them under water

22 Reviving a Bent Neck Courtesy of Interstate Publishing

23 Review of Conditioning Process 1. Be sure to start with clean buckets. 2. Unpack flowers immediately. 3. Remove lower foliage. 4. Re-cut 1-2 off old stem under warm water. 5. Place flowers in plastic bucket with floral preservative. 6. Leave flowers out for 2-3 hours. 7. Put flowers into the cooler to complete the process. Courtesy of Corinne Banowski

24 Review of the Basic Needs of Fresh Cut Flowers Courtesy of Interstate Publishing

25 How Does a Floral Preservative Extend the Life of Cut Flowers? §Floral preservatives will extend the life of cut flowers as opposed to using plain water §A preservative contains sugar as a supplemental food source, an acidifier to decrease the pH, and a bactericide to kill bacteria in a vase or stem §Pre-treatments are used before preservatives to reduce ethylene exposure and to hydrate flowers that are wilt prone ¦ All flowers can benefit from hydration solution treatment

26 How Are Flowers Sent From the Field to the Florist? §The majority of cut flowers used in the united states are produced in foreign countries ¦ The commercial packing and shipping process affects the life span of the flowers §Flowers are graded - separated into groups based on factors such as quality, uniformity and size ¦ Also graded by stem quality, length and strength §Flowers are then placed in bundles and sleeved for shipping

27 Common Bunch Sizes for Major Floral Crops Courtesy of Interstate Publishing

28 ¦ Some flowers are packaged individually; For example, gerbera daisies ¦ After bundling, the flowers are boxed for shipment and precooled - a method of quickly replacing the warm air with cool air inside the box; Also known as dry packed ¦ Flowers such as snapdragons and gladioli are packed in hampers and stored upright ¦ Then the flowers are shipped via air and then truck to the marketplace

29 Examples of Flower Packaging Some flowers are packaged in sleeves, like carnations; some are packaged individually, like Gerbera daisies. Here, workers are packaging flowers in bunches, like statice. Courtesy of Delmar Publishing

30 Summary § What do cut flowers need in order to survive once they are cut from the mother plant? § What are some causes of flower deterioration? § What causes a flower to wilt? § List the steps involved in processing cut flowers. § Why are floral preservatives added to the water? § How are cut flowers packaged by the growers and shipped to the wholesalers?

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