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1 Adornments, Flowers, and Kneser-Poulsen Bob Connelly Cornell University (visiting University of Cambridge)

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2 Part I Carpenters Rule Question with Erik Demaine and Günter Rote 2000

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3 Carpenters rule result Given a closed polygon in the plane that does not intersect itself there is a continuous motion that moves it in such a way that no edges cross and all the edges stay the same length and the final configuration is convex.

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4 Carpenters rule result Given a closed polygon in the plane that does not intersect itself there is a continuous motion that moves it in such a way that no edges cross and all the edges stay the same length and the final configuration is convex.

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5 Two cases The opening result applies to the case of an open chain or a simple closed chain.

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6 Moral of this story The polygon opens by expanding. In other words, each pair of vertices of the polygon, that can conceivably get further apart during the motion, do. Expanding polygons cant have self- intersections. The only way to stop is when it becomes convex.

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7 Methods (CDR 2000) Canonical expansion which varies continuously as the data is varied. (I. Streinu 2000) Series of one-parameter expansive motions using pseudo- triangulations. (J. Canterella, E. Demaine, H. Iben, J. Obrien 2004) Energy driven opening, but not necessarily expansive.

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8 Part II Adornments with E. Demaine, M. Demaine, S. Fekete, S. Langerman, J. Mitchell, A. Ribo Mor, G. Rote.

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9 What about a chain of shapes other than line segments? Some shapes can lock preventing them from opening, such as the following:

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10 Is there an interesting class of shapes that do open? Attach non-overlapping adornments to each line segment. As the chain opens, carry the adornments along. How daring can you be in allowing adornments so they dont bump into each other? The following is a somewhat timid example.

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11 Slender Adornments We propose that each adornment be a region bounded by a curve on each side of the line segment such that the distance along the curve to each end point of the line segment be (weakly) monotone. Call these slender adornments.

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12 Symmetric Slender Adornments An adornment attached to a line segment is symmetric if it is symmetric about the line.

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13 Adornment Result Theorem (CDDFLMRR): Any closed or open polygonal chain with non-overlapping slender adornments piece-wise smoothly opens without overlapping to a configuration with the core chain convex.

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14 Adornments might not expand Remark: Even when the underlying chain is expanding, some points of the adornment may get closer together. The red points expand, but the blue points contract in the Figure.

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15 Part III Kneser-Poulsen questions with K. Bezdek

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16 Unions of circular disks Suppose that we have a union of circular disks, and we rearrange the disks so that their centers expand.

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17 Unions of circular disks Suppose that we have a union of circular disks, and we rearrange the disks so that their centers expand.

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18 Kneser-Poulsen Conjecture (Kneser 1955, Poulsen 1954): The volume/area of the union (or intersection) of a finite collection of disks in E d does not get smaller (or larger) when they are rearranged such that each pair of centers p does not get smaller.

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19 History Kirszbraun (1934): If a finite number of disks have an empty intersection, and their centers p are expanded to q, then the new set of disks with centers at the configuration q and the same radii also have an empty intersection. (In any E d.) B. Bollobás (1968): K-P for the plane for all radii equal, and q a continuous expansion of p. M. Gromov (1987): K-P for any dimension d, but only for d+1 disks. V. Capoyleas and J. Pach (1991): K-P for any dimension d, but only for d+1 disks. H. Edelsbrunner (1995): Introduces Voronoi regions to aid in the calculation.

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20 History (continued) M. Bern and A. Sahai (1998): K-P for the plane for any radii, and q is a continuous expansion of p inspired by Edelsbrunners remarks. B. Csikós (1995): K-P for all dimensions, any radii, but only when q is a continuous expansion of p. (Inspired by Bern and Sahai?) K. Bezdek and R. Connelly (2001): The K-P conjecture is correct in the plane when the configuration of centers q is any discrete expansion of p. (Inspired by all the above.)

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21 Flowers Gordon and Meyer (1995) and Gromov (1987) suggested a K-P conjecture for combinations of unions and intersections of balls. For example for the expression, (B 1 B 2 ) U (B 3 B 4 ) U (B 5 B 6 ) U B 7 Centers of the disks are only allowed to move together or apart as a function of their position in the expression. This is shown with solid or dashed lines in the figure. Area monotonicity follows from Csikóss formula and/or our results.

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22 Symmetric slender adornments are flowers Symmetric slender adornments are the (possibly infinite) union U x [D a (x) D b (x)], where the disks D a (x) and D b (x) are centered at the two end points a and b respectively, and x, on the boundary of each disk, runs over the boundary of the adornment.

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23 Intersecting slender adornments Two slender adornments intersect if and only if four circular disks corresponding to the four end points of the two line segments intersect.

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24 Adorned chains again Theorem: If a chain, which has non-overlapping symmetric slender adornments attached, is expanded (discretely) to another chain, the corresponding adornments are still non- overlapping. Proof: If the expanded chain has overlapping adornments, some 4 circular disks about the end points must intersect, while the original disks did not. This contradicts Kirszbrauns Theorem.

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25 Discrete non-symmetric adornments can intersect If the slender adornment is not symmetric, a discrete expansion can create intersections.

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26 Continuous expansions Theorem (CDDFLMRR): If slender, non- overlapping, but not necessarily symmetric, adornments are attached to a chain, and the expansion is continuous, then the adornments on the expanded chain will not overlap. Proof: For each pair of adornments wait until the symmetric other half can be attached disjointly and apply the discrete result. It is enough to look at the two pairs of intersecting disks on each side.

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27 Some cases

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28 Extra flowers If symmetric slender adornments do intersect, then under a discrete expansion of plane, the area of the union does not decrease. (C-B applied to flowers.) This works in any dimension if the assumed expansion is continuous (Csikós applied to flowers).

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29 Best possible? There are examples of adornments to chains that are slightly larger than slender, and the chains cannot open in any way without the adornments colliding.

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