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Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterids Michael G. Simpson.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterids Michael G. Simpson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterids Michael G. Simpson

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5 Asterids Very large, diverse group 10 orders, many families Putative apomorphies: –iridoid compounds –sympetalous corolla –ovules: unitegmic (one integument), tenuinucellate (megasporangium 1-cell thick)

6 Ovules unitegmic, tenuinucellate

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12 Apiaceae (=Umbelliferae) - Carrot family (Apium, used in Pliny for a celery-like plant). 446 genera / 3,540 spp. The Apiaceae are distinctive in being herbs, with sheathing leaves, (compound or simple. often decompound), the inflorescence usually an involucrate compound umbel [rarely a head, simple umbel, or reduced] with actinomorphic flowers having a 2-carpellate and 2-loculate, inferior ovary, each carpel with one, axile-apical, pendulous ovule, the fruit a schizocarp of mericarps. K 5 or 0 C 5 [0] A 5 G (2), inferior, hypanthium absent.

13 Economically important members include a number of food, herb, and spice plants, such as Anethum, dill; Apium, celery; Carum, caraway; Coriandrum, coriander; Cuminum, cumin; Daucus, carrot; Foeniculum, fennel; and Petroselinum, parsely; some species are poisonous, such as Conium maculatum, poison- hemlock; others are used as ornamental cultivars.

14 Leaves sheathing

15 Inflorescence an umbel, compound umbel, or head

16 ovary inferior placentation apical-axile stylopodium

17 Fruit a schizocarp of mericarps

18 Araliaceae - Ginseng family (possibly from French Canadian Aralie). 47 genera / 1,325 species. The Araliaceae are distinctive in being mostly tropical trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs with palmate or pinnate (rarely simple, then usually divided) leaves, an inflorescence of heads, umbels, or with umbel units, the flowers with often reduced calyx, apopetalous to sympetalous corolla, and a 1-- carpellate inferior ovary with usually apical-axile placentation, the fruit a berry, drupe, or schizocarp. K 0-5 C 5 [3-12] A 5-10 [3-] G (2-5) [(-)], inferior, rarely superior.

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23 Asteraceae (Compositae) Characteristics: Vegetatively variable. Inflorescence a head (capitulum): (usu.) many flowers arising from a compound receptacle, subtended by inflorescence bracts: involucral bracts or phyllaries, collectively termed the involucre. Calyx modified as pappus. Stamens syngenesious. K pappus C 5 A (5) G(2), inferior, 1 basal ovule Fruit an achene.

24 Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family (after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species. The Asteraceae are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, vines, or trees, the inflorescence a head (capitulum) subtended by an involucre of phyllaries, flowers either bilabiate, disk, or ray/ligulate, (heads of many taxa a mixture of central disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers), with the calyx, termed a pappus, modified as scales, awns, or capillary bristles (or absent), the androecium syngenesious, and with an inferior ovary with a single, basal ovule, the fruit a multiple of achenes.

25 Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family (after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species. Economic importance includes some food plants (e.g., Cynara scolymus, artichoke, and Helianthus annuus, sunflower), a number of ornamental cultivars, and various species used locally or industrially; the prickly fruits of Arctium lappa (burdock) are purported to have been the model for invention of velcro.

26 Argyroxiphium sandwicense, Silversword Maui

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28 Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family (after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species. K 0- (pappus) C (5) [(4)] or (3) in some ray flowers A (5) [(4)] G (2), inferior, hypanthium absent.

29 Asteraceae: floral variation Three types of flowers: 1) Bilabiate: zygomorphic (bilateral) with 2 lips 2) Ray (ligulate): zygomorphic (bilateral) with 1 lobe 3) Disk: actinomorphic (radial), usu. 5-lobed

30 Five types of heads: 1) discoid, with only disk flowers; 2) disciform, with central disk flowers and marginal, eligulate female flowers; 3) radiate, with central (bisexual or male) disk flowers and peripheral (female or sterile) ray flowers; 4) ligulate, with all ray flowers (typically with 5-toothed corolla apices); 5) bilabiate, with all bilabiate flowers.

31 Bilabiate flower Acourtia microcephalaTrixis californica posterior lip anterior lip

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34 Ray flowers ( heads ligulate = all rays) Rafinesquia neomexicanaMalacothrix californica ligulate corolla

35 Disk flower: heads discoid Palafoxia arida Psathyrotes ramosissima disk corolla Chaenactis gabriuscula

36 Disk flowers: heads disciform (2 types of disk fls., same or different heads) male heads Ambrosia chamissonis female heads

37 Xylorhiza orcuttiiEncelia farinosa Heads radiate: inner disk & outer ray fls. ray flowersdisk flowers

38 Encelia californica ovary Some heads are "chaffy" chaff : bracts subtending flowers disk flower

39 Involucre morphology one whorltwo whorlsmany whorls Senecio vulgarisCoreopsis maritimaEncelia californica

40 Circium vulgareSilybum marianum Phyllaries spiny Involucre morphology Phyllaries spiny & squarrose

41 Pappus: modified calyx capillary bristles: barbellate capillary bristles: plumose beak capillary bristles, borne atop "beak"

42 Pappus: modified calyx

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