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Dr. Stanley Kabala Duquesne University Click here to begin.

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1 Dr. Stanley Kabala Duquesne University Click here to begin.

2 Navigation through the course will occur by clicking on the following action buttons located in the lower right corner of each screen: The HOME button will be placed in the center of each slide and will bring you to the Table of Contents for further navigation. The NEXT and BACK buttons will move you through the course content. The EXIT button will be placed at the end of each unit and will exit the unit and return you to the course menu.

3 This course is meant to be self-paced, though there will be opportunities to interact with your local and global JPIC groups. Course content and activities should be completed in the order that they are presented to maximize student success. The Table of Contents will be your starting point for each Unit

4 Each type of course activity has a unique icon located in the upper right corner of the screen. In this course you will: Global discussion Watch video Online journal Local discussion Read online ReflectCreate doc Quiz/test

5

6 This unit is divided into several sections. Start with the Learning Objectives, OR click on the link below to navigate to the component where you left off. Revisit as needed. Section 1: Learning Objectives Unit Key-Terms Section 2: Creating Availability Section 3: Activities & Readings

7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

8 At the conclusion of this unit, students will be able to: Recognize the need for and relevance of the defining elements of appropriate technology: affordable and low capital, basic low-level technology, utilization of available unskilled labor (labor intensiveness), job creation, and affordable products Utilize these concepts to assess water supply improvement options Assess the impact on water resources and availability caused by the commodification and/or privatization of water.

9 Review the key-terms for this section before you continue. Click Here for Key-Terms

10 CREATING AVAILIBILITY

11 This unit takes us in three directions that initially appear to be divergent. These themes are appropriate technology, current transformations in water management regimes, and the special relationship of women and water in Less Developed Countries (LDC). As you work through the material on these themes, consider how they can be seen as interrelated.

12 You no doubt observe that the activities for this unit move you toward developing your project portfolio, a document in which you will incorporate all of the elements of our course as a whole. This portfolio will assess and define problems and needs; identify potential solutions of a technical nature; evaluate the technical, financial, and social resources required to implement those solutions; find sources of technical expertise needed to craft those solutions; and begin to assemble the array of individual, community, governmental, and institutional partners necessary to bring projects to fruition. project portfolio

13 Appropriate technology emerged in the 1970s as a distinctive alternative to large-scale, capital-intensive technology. Appropriate technology (also known as intermediate technology) is small-scale, requires, only modest investment capital, relies on simple, basic technologies, uses readily available (usually underutilized) unskilled labor, creates jobs for underemployed people, and produces products that are affordable to low- income local people. It was conceived as a means of addressing poverty that persisted (and still persists) despite the presence of large-scale development projects that required very large capital investment, relied on advanced technologies, created relatively few workplaces, and produced goods that were priced out of reach of poor local residents.

14 If modern technology had shown itself capable of lifting the majority of people in poor countries out of poverty, there would have been no need to frame an alternative sort of technology to tackle that task. That need remains today. Sadly, even after decades of development, great swathes of population have neither clean drinking water nor good sanitation. Hence the need remains to explore other approaches.

15 Finally, this unit also presents a special case that weaves together a great number of the themes of the coursethe technical, cultural, social dimensions of good water for poor people – by considering the matter of women and water. The relationship of women and water is of great significance to vast numbers of people worldwide. That relationship with water is distinct from that of communities or people in general. In much of the developing world, it is women who manage water, and as a result of this, the lives of women are affected by declines in or limits to the supply of clean, affordable, and accessible water. In Unit 5, we observed that water issues are not only technical but political as well. Now, looking at this new dimension, we can posit that water issues are also social and cultural.

16 The two activities proposed for this unit aim to get at all of these issues. As you prepare for them, consider whether the main problem of water in your community is one of inadequate technology; or of access, that is, cost, excessive withdrawal, rights to access; or how communities allocate the burden of supplying water, that is, who actually must get water. The activities thus address intermediate technology, with its typical low-capital, labor-intensive characteristics; institutions; and the role of women.

17 ACTIVITIES

18 Schumacher, E.F., Social and Economic Problems Calling for the Development of Intermediate Technology. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper Perennial, Print. CLICK HERE TO ACCESS THROUGH DUQUESNE E-RES Darrow, Ken, and Mike Saxenian, Water Supply and Sanitation. Appropriate Technology Sourcebook. Village Earth. Village Earth. n.d. Web. 22 Apr supply-and-sanitation

19 Assess the extent to which the availability of water in your community or region is accessiblethat is, available over relatively short distances, affordablethat is, within the financial grasp of those who need it, and is affected by policy and business arrangements that pose obstacles to either the cost or sufficiency of the resource itself. Identify the root of the problem in both technical and institutional terms. Use the following questions on the next slide to guide your analysis.

20 Is the cost of water an issue of concern in your community and region? To what degree? If so, what is the reason for its relative unaffordability? Is withdrawal by water by large firms a matter of concern in your region? Which institutions have authority over it? From where do these institutions derive their authority? Evaluate whether and how privatization of water supply is or is likely to become a matter of concern in your community or region. If it appears that this is the case, who, or what sort of entity, is becoming the owner of water supplies? What are the implications of this privatization for the people of your community?

21 Rosenberg, Tina. The Burden of Thirst. ngm.com. National Geographic, Apr Web. 23 Apr slaves/rosenberg-text Shiva, Vandana. Interview. Women and Water Rights. Women and Water Rights. n.d. Web. 23 Apr http://womenandwater.net/

22 Answer the following four questions: 1.Delve deeper into the critical issue of women and water by viewing at least one of these videos and extracting from them the core factors that can enhance quality of life for village women. 2.Determine how far women in your community must walk to collect water, and how much water each women carries on average each day. A very instructive and enlightening way to do this is to interview women in different walks of life and different living conditions on a.) how much water they use, and for what; b.) how they get that water and who actually gets that water; c.) whether they needor could usemore water; d.) why they do not have and use that greater quantity of water; and e.) the costs, losses, or damage resulting from having too little water.

23 3.Identify how more water could affordably be made available to the women you have interviewed. Be careful to recognize different degrees of need and different levels of ability to engage in constructive change. 4.Determine what sort of new technology or equipment, what level of financial assistance, and what type of management arrangements would deliver that water.

24 Global Womens Water Initiative. Womens Earth Alliance. n.d. Web. 23 Apr http://globalwomenswater.org/ Pacific Institute and Partners Publish Report from Shared Learning Dialogue in Water Management in India. Pacific Institute. Pacific Institute. n.d. Web. 23 Apr water_management.htm Water Use in Business. Pacific Institute. Pacific Institute. n.d. Web. 23 Apr Women for Water Partnership. Women for Water. n.d. Web. 23 Apr


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