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Basket of Measures ICAO Secretariat.

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Presentation on theme: "Basket of Measures ICAO Secretariat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basket of Measures ICAO Secretariat

2 Basket of Measures The High-level Meeting on International Aviation and Climate Change in October 2009 (HLM-ENV/09) endorsed the Programme of Action on International Aviation and Climate Change, which included: global aspirational goals in the form of fuel efficiency; a basket of measures; and the means to measure progress.

3 Global Aspirational Goals

4 Basket of measures Aircraft technology Reducing fuel consumption
Air Traffic Management Infrastructure Aircraft operations Introducing low carbon footprint fuels Sustainable alternative fuels Compensating emissions Market Based Measures

5 Aircraft-related Technology Development
Aircraft minimum fuel efficiency standards; Aggressive aircraft fuel efficiency standards, setting standards for the future; Purchase of new aircraft; Retrofitting and upgrade improvements on existing aircraft; Optimizing improvements in aircraft produced in the near to mid-term; Avionics; and Adoption of revolutionary new designs in aircraft/engines.

6 Aircraft-related Technology Development

7 Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology

8 Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology

9 Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology

10 Aircraft-related Technology Development Aerodynamics

11 Aircraft-related Technology Development Aerodynamics

12 Aircraft-related Technology Development Airframe
Information courtesy of ICCAIA

13 Aircraft-related Technology Development Green Taxiing
EGTS Wheel tug Wheel tug Taxi-bot

14 Aircraft-related Technology Development
Lead to significant emissions reductions Require substantial investment Medium-term, long-term, longer-term In some cases, cannot be justified solely on the grounds of environmental goals May be more feasible and attractive should funding and other assistance be made more accessible

15 Aircraft-related Technology Development
ICAO global CO2 Certification Standard for aeroplanes: agreement on a metric system that can be used to characterize the CO2 emissions from aircraft of varying types and technologies (July 2012) agreement on the certification requirement and procedures supporting a new CO2 standard for aeroplanes (February 2013) Next steps: Development of stringency options Applicability of the standard Environmental Benefit and Cost effectiveness analysis The Aeroplane CO2 Emissions Standard is aiming for completion in 2016.

16 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use
More efficient ATM planning, ground operations, terminal operations (departure, approach and arrivals), en-route operations, airspace design and usage, aircraft capabilities; More efficient use and planning of airport capacities; Installation of airport infrastructure, such as Fixed Electrical Ground Power and Pre-Conditioned Air to allow aircraft APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) switch-off; Construction of additional runways and taxiways to relieve traffic congestion; and Collaborative research endeavours.

17 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use
Lead to moderate emissions reductions (significant in some cases) Involve substantial investments (ANSPs, air carriers) Other performance dimensions (safety, reliability, cost, capacity, etc.)

18 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use
ICAO’s Global Air Navigation Plan ICAO’s PIRGs’ environmental initiatives ICAO’s Aviation System Block Upgrades

19 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use
Departure Climb Cruise Approach Arrival B0-NOPS Network operations B0-FRTO Free route Operations B0-ASUR Alternative surveillance B0-OPFL Optimum flight levels B0-WAKE Wake turbulence separation B0-CCO Continuous climb operations B0-CDO Continuous descent operations B0-ACDM Airport collaborative decision making B0-RSEQ Runway sequencing

20 More Efficient Operations
Best practices in operations; Optimized aircraft maintenance (including jet engine cleaning/washing); and Selecting aircraft best suited to mission.

21 More efficient operations
Engine washing Use of Ground Power Units

22 More efficient operations Cost Index

23 More Efficient Operations
Short-term Lead to moderate emissions reductions (significant in some cases) Require minimal (or no) investment ICAO Manual on Operational Opportunities to Minimize Fuel Use and Reduce Emissions IATA’s Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and Environmental Management, Fourth edition

24 Sustainable alternative fuels
“Low carbon footprint” fuel Example: biofuels CO2 CO2 emitted by combustion up- taken by plant growth Neutral Only CO2 emitted for fuel production is accounted for in a Life Cycle Approach

25 Sustainable alternative fuels
Potential for significant emissions reductions Depends on feedstock type and cultivation, conversion process… Emissions reductions achievable with existing aircraft Benefits will depend on: the availability of such fuels and the time profile of their deployment; their actual lifecycle emissions reduction Challenges Decreasing production cost Investment in feedstock production and conversion facilities Ensuring a sustainable deployment States’ policy support is required

26 Sustainable alternative fuels
Global Framework on Aviation Alternative Fuels (GFAAF) A database on aviation alternative fuels (http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/GFAAF/Pages/default.aspx) ICAO’s conference and workshops Rio de Janeiro 2009 Montréal 2009 & 2011 Rio+20: the ICAO’s “Flightpath” initiative Four connecting flights using biofuels from Montréal to Rio de Janeiro ICAO’s SUSTAF Experts Group Analysis of the challenges and recommendations Outcomes available on the GFAAF

27 Market-based Measures
Policy tools to achieve environmental goals at a lower cost and in a more flexible manner. ICAO has been: developing policies and guidance material; and collecting information on various market-based measures, including: emissions offsetting emissions trading; and emission-related levies (charges and taxes);

28 Market-based Measures
ICAO policies make a conceptual distinction between a “charge” and a “tax” (Doc 9082). The ICAO Council strongly recommended that any emission-related levies be in the form of charges (1996). ICAO developed Doc 9885 Guidance on the Use of Emissions Trading for Aviation (2009). ICAO developed a globally accepted Carbon Emissions Calculator, which is available on the ICAO website (2008). ICAO study – Doc 9951 Emissions Offsetting from Aviation (2010).

29 Market-based Measures
The 37th Assembly requested the development of a framework for MBMs, and the exploration of a global MBM scheme Substantial effort by ICAO in responding to requests for a global scheme and a framework for MBMs Feasibility of three options for a global MBM scheme recognized by the ICAO council Next steps for a global MBM scheme and proposal on the framework for MBMs are to be considered by the 38th Assembly

30 Additional information
For more information on our activities, please visit ICAO’ website:


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