2Basket of MeasuresThe High-level Meeting on International Aviation and Climate Change in October 2009 (HLM-ENV/09) endorsed the Programme of Action on International Aviation and Climate Change, which included:global aspirational goals in the form of fuel efficiency;a basket of measures; andthe means to measure progress.
4Basket of measures Aircraft technology Reducing fuel consumption Air Traffic ManagementInfrastructureAircraft operationsIntroducing low carbonfootprint fuelsSustainablealternative fuelsCompensatingemissionsMarket Based Measures
5Aircraft-related Technology Development Aircraft minimum fuel efficiency standards;Aggressive aircraft fuel efficiency standards, setting standards for the future;Purchase of new aircraft;Retrofitting and upgrade improvements on existing aircraft;Optimizing improvements in aircraft produced in the near to mid-term;Avionics; andAdoption of revolutionary new designs in aircraft/engines.
7Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology
8Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology
9Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology
10Aircraft-related Technology Development Aerodynamics
11Aircraft-related Technology Development Aerodynamics
12Aircraft-related Technology Development Airframe Information courtesy of ICCAIA
13Aircraft-related Technology Development Green Taxiing EGTSWheel tugWheel tugTaxi-bot
14Aircraft-related Technology Development Lead to significant emissions reductionsRequire substantial investmentMedium-term, long-term, longer-termIn some cases, cannot be justified solely on the grounds of environmental goalsMay be more feasible and attractive should funding and other assistance be made more accessible
15Aircraft-related Technology Development ICAO global CO2 Certification Standard for aeroplanes:agreement on a metric system that can be used to characterize the CO2 emissions from aircraft of varying types and technologies (July 2012)agreement on the certification requirement and procedures supporting a new CO2 standard for aeroplanes (February 2013)Next steps:Development of stringency optionsApplicability of the standardEnvironmental Benefit and Cost effectiveness analysisThe Aeroplane CO2 Emissions Standard is aiming for completion in 2016.
16Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use More efficient ATM planning, ground operations, terminal operations (departure, approach and arrivals), en-route operations, airspace design and usage, aircraft capabilities;More efficient use and planning of airport capacities;Installation of airport infrastructure, such as Fixed Electrical Ground Power and Pre-Conditioned Air to allow aircraft APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) switch-off;Construction of additional runways and taxiways to relieve traffic congestion; andCollaborative research endeavours.
17Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use Lead to moderate emissions reductions (significant in some cases)Involve substantial investments (ANSPs, air carriers)Other performance dimensions (safety, reliability, cost, capacity, etc.)
18Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use ICAO’s Global Air Navigation PlanICAO’s PIRGs’ environmental initiativesICAO’s Aviation System Block Upgrades
19Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use DepartureClimbCruiseApproachArrivalB0-NOPS Network operationsB0-FRTOFree route OperationsB0-ASUR Alternative surveillanceB0-OPFL Optimum flight levelsB0-WAKE Wake turbulence separationB0-CCO Continuous climb operationsB0-CDO Continuous descent operationsB0-ACDM Airport collaborative decision makingB0-RSEQ Runway sequencing
20More Efficient Operations Best practices in operations;Optimized aircraft maintenance (including jet engine cleaning/washing); andSelecting aircraft best suited to mission.
21More efficient operations Engine washingUse of Ground Power Units
23More Efficient Operations Short-termLead to moderate emissions reductions (significant in some cases)Require minimal (or no) investmentICAO Manual on Operational Opportunities to Minimize Fuel Use and Reduce EmissionsIATA’s Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and Environmental Management, Fourth edition
24Sustainable alternative fuels “Low carbon footprint” fuelExample: biofuelsCO2CO2 emitted by combustion up- taken by plant growth NeutralOnly CO2 emitted for fuel production is accounted for in a Life Cycle Approach
25Sustainable alternative fuels Potential for significant emissions reductionsDepends on feedstock type and cultivation, conversion process…Emissions reductions achievable with existing aircraftBenefits will depend on:the availability of such fuels and the time profile of their deployment;their actual lifecycle emissions reductionChallengesDecreasing production costInvestment in feedstock production and conversion facilitiesEnsuring a sustainable deploymentStates’ policy support is required
26Sustainable alternative fuels Global Framework on Aviation Alternative Fuels (GFAAF)A database on aviation alternative fuels(http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/GFAAF/Pages/default.aspx)ICAO’s conference and workshopsRio de Janeiro 2009Montréal 2009 & 2011Rio+20: the ICAO’s “Flightpath” initiativeFour connecting flights using biofuelsfrom Montréal to Rio de JaneiroICAO’s SUSTAF Experts GroupAnalysis of the challenges and recommendationsOutcomes available on the GFAAF
27Market-based Measures Policy tools to achieve environmental goals at a lower cost and in a more flexible manner.ICAO has been:developing policies and guidance material; andcollecting information on various market-based measures, including:emissions offsettingemissions trading; andemission-related levies (charges and taxes);
28Market-based Measures ICAO policies make a conceptual distinction between a “charge” and a “tax” (Doc 9082).The ICAO Council strongly recommended that any emission-related levies be in the form of charges (1996).ICAO developed Doc 9885 Guidance on the Use of Emissions Trading for Aviation (2009).ICAO developed a globally accepted Carbon Emissions Calculator, which is available on the ICAO website (2008).ICAO study – Doc 9951 Emissions Offsetting from Aviation (2010).
29Market-based Measures The 37th Assembly requested the development of a framework for MBMs, and the exploration of a global MBM schemeSubstantial effort by ICAO in responding to requests for a global scheme and a framework for MBMsFeasibility of three options for a global MBM scheme recognized by the ICAO councilNext steps for a global MBM scheme and proposal on the framework for MBMs are to be considered by the 38th Assembly
30Additional information For more information on our activities, please visit ICAO’ website: