Presentation on theme: "Page 1 Basket of Measures ICAO Secretariat. Page 2 Basket of Measures The High-level Meeting on International Aviation and Climate Change in October 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Page 1 Basket of Measures ICAO Secretariat
Page 2 Basket of Measures The High-level Meeting on International Aviation and Climate Change in October 2009 (HLM-ENV/09) endorsed the Programme of Action on International Aviation and Climate Change, which included: – global aspirational goals in the form of fuel efficiency; – a basket of measures; and – the means to measure progress.
Page 3 Global Aspirational Goals
Page 4 Basket of measures Reducing fuel consumption Aircraft technology Air Traffic Management Infrastructure Aircraft operations Compensating emissions Market Based Measures Introducing low carbon footprint fuels Sustainable alternative fuels
Page 5 Aircraft minimum fuel efficiency standards; Aggressive aircraft fuel efficiency standards, setting standards for the future; Purchase of new aircraft; Retrofitting and upgrade improvements on existing aircraft; Optimizing improvements in aircraft produced in the near to mid-term; Avionics; and Adoption of revolutionary new designs in aircraft/engines. Aircraft-related Technology Development
Page 6 Aircraft-related Technology Development
Page 7 Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology
Page 8 Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology
Page 9 Aircraft-related Technology Development Engine technology
Page 10 Aircraft-related Technology Development Aerodynamics
Page 11 Aircraft-related Technology Development Aerodynamics
Page 12 Aircraft-related Technology Development Airframe Information courtesy of ICCAIA
Page 13 Aircraft-related Technology Development Green Taxiing Wheel tug and-wheeltug-sign-electric-taxiing-partnership Wheel tug causes-zero-fuel-emission-and-zero-noise-pollution-html Taxi-bot EGTS
Page 14 Lead to significant emissions reductions Require substantial investment Medium-term, long-term, longer-term In some cases, cannot be justified solely on the grounds of environmental goals May be more feasible and attractive should funding and other assistance be made more accessible Aircraft-related Technology Development
Page 15 ICAO global CO 2 Certification Standard for aeroplanes: agreement on a metric system that can be used to characterize the CO 2 emissions from aircraft of varying types and technologies (July 2012) agreement on the certification requirement and procedures supporting a new CO 2 standard for aeroplanes (February 2013) Next steps: Development of stringency options Applicability of the standard Environmental Benefit and Cost effectiveness analysis Aircraft-related Technology Development The Aeroplane CO 2 Emissions Standard is aiming for completion in 2016.
Page 16 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use More efficient ATM planning, ground operations, terminal operations (departure, approach and arrivals), en-route operations, airspace design and usage, aircraft capabilities; More efficient use and planning of airport capacities; Installation of airport infrastructure, such as Fixed Electrical Ground Power and Pre-Conditioned Air to allow aircraft APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) switch-off; Construction of additional runways and taxiways to relieve traffic congestion; and Collaborative research endeavours.
Page 17 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use Lead to moderate emissions reductions (significant in some cases) Involve substantial investments (ANSPs, air carriers) Other performance dimensions (safety, reliability, cost, capacity, etc.)
Page 18 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use ICAOs Global Air Navigation Plan ICAOs PIRGs environmental initiatives ICAOs Aviation System Block Upgrades
Page 19 Improved Air Traffic Management and Infrastructure Use B0-ACDM Airport collaborative decision making B0-RSEQ Runway sequencing B0-FRTO Free route Operations B0-NOPS Network operations B0-ASUR Alternative surveillance B0-OPFL Optimum flight levels B0-CDO Continuous descent operations B0-WAKE Wake turbulence separation B0-CCO Continuous climb operations DepartureClimbCruiseApproachArrival
Page 20 More Efficient Operations Best practices in operations; Optimized aircraft maintenance (including jet engine cleaning/washing); and Selecting aircraft best suited to mission.
Page 21 More efficient operations Engine washing Use of Ground Power Units
Page 22 More efficient operations Cost Index
Page 23 More Efficient Operations Short-term Lead to moderate emissions reductions (significant in some cases) Require minimal (or no) investment ICAO Manual on Operational Opportunities to Minimize Fuel Use and Reduce Emissions IATAs Guidance Material and Best Practices for Fuel and Environmental Management, Fourth edition
Page 24 Sustainable alternative fuels Low carbon footprint fuel CO 2 CO 2 emitted by combustion up- taken by plant growth Neutral Only CO 2 emitted for fuel production is accounted for in a Life Cycle Approach Example: biofuels
Page 25 Sustainable alternative fuels Potential for significant emissions reductions – Depends on feedstock type and cultivation, conversion process… Emissions reductions achievable with existing aircraft Benefits will depend on: – the availability of such fuels and the time profile of their deployment; – their actual lifecycle emissions reduction Challenges – Decreasing production cost – Investment in feedstock production and conversion facilities – Ensuring a sustainable deployment States policy support is required
Page 26 Sustainable alternative fuels Global Framework on Aviation Alternative Fuels (GFAAF) – A database on aviation alternative fuels (http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/GFAAF/Pages/default.aspx)http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/GFAAF/Pages/default.aspx ICAOs conference and workshops – Rio de Janeiro 2009 – Montréal 2009 & 2011 Rio+20: the ICAOs Flightpath initiative – Four connecting flights using biofuels from Montréal to Rio de Janeiro ICAOs SUSTAF Experts Group – Analysis of the challenges and recommendations – Outcomes available on the GFAAF
Page 27 Policy tools to achieve environmental goals at a lower cost and in a more flexible manner. ICAO has been: – developing policies and guidance material; and – collecting information on various market-based measures, including: emissions offsetting emissions trading; and emission-related levies (charges and taxes); Market-based Measures
Page 28 ICAO policies make a conceptual distinction between a charge and a tax (Doc 9082). The ICAO Council strongly recommended that any emission-related levies be in the form of charges (1996). ICAO developed Doc 9885 Guidance on the Use of Emissions Trading for Aviation (2009). ICAO developed a globally accepted Carbon Emissions Calculator, which is available on the ICAO website (2008). ICAO study – Doc 9951 Emissions Offsetting from Aviation (2010). Market-based Measures
Page 29 The 37 th Assembly requested the development of a framework for MBMs, and the exploration of a global MBM scheme Substantial effort by ICAO in responding to requests for a global scheme and a framework for MBMs Feasibility of three options for a global MBM scheme recognized by the ICAO council Next steps for a global MBM scheme and proposal on the framework for MBMs are to be considered by the 38 th Assembly Market-based Measures
Page 30 For more information on our activities, please visit ICAO website: