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Created By Manish Mathur

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1 Created By Manish Mathur
Information Technology Created By Manish Mathur

2 Created By Manish Mathur
Table of Contents S. No. Chapter Name 1. Computer Software 2. Data Storage, Retrieval and DBMS 3. Computer Network and Network Security 4. Internet and Other Technologies 5. Flowchart 6. Decision Table Created By Manish Mathur

3 Chapter [1] Computer Software
Created By Manish Mathur

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Software are the means by which hardware of the computer can be controlled. In other words whatever we feed to computer as input and obtain from computer as output is called software. Created By Manish Mathur

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System Software A set of programs designed ~ To operate and control computer hardware. To provide platform for running the application software. Created By Manish Mathur

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Computer Language [1] Machine Language Language of 0’s and 1’s. Regarded as first generation language Machine dependent Advantages :~ No Translation Required. Speed of processing is fast. Disadvantages :~ Difficult to learn, understand and use. Very Bulky. Not common to all types of computers. [2] Assembly Language Language of codes & symbols. Regarded as second generation language Machine dependent Advantages :~ Relatively easy to learn & use. Less bulky. Disadvantages :~ Requires translation. Slow processing speed. Not common to all types of computers. Created By Manish Mathur

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[4] 4GLs Non-Procedural Language. Types :~ Product Oriented 4GLs User Oriented 4GLs Product User Technical Non-technical Complex Simple Used by both end-user & Professionals Professional To make large To make small software programs Ideal, Natural-2 Focus, RAMIS [3] High Level Language No codes, only symbols Procedural Language. Regarded as third generation language Machine independent Advantages :~ Very easy to learn & use. Very less bulky. Common to all types of computers Disadvantages :~ Requires translation. Slow processing speed. Created By Manish Mathur

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[5] 5GLs Based on solving the problem using factors/constraint given to the program. Used mainly in Artificial Intelligence, neural network and draw inferences from the large databases. ProLog, Mercury etc Created By Manish Mathur

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Other Programming Language In the traditional approach software development suffer from the following problems – Takes years to complete Programmer’s productivity is low Debugging is difficult Large program, needs large memory and are slow Solution to these problems is in the dev. of S/w using OOP approach. In OOP the problem is divided into pieces and a separate program is written for each piece of the problem. The program so written is called object and the approach is called OOP. Object is a small program code written and tested separately and provide “Re- usability”. Advantages :~ Provide GUI Faster development of program Increased productivity Less programming staff needed Less errors Re-usability Disadvantage :~ High development cost High startup time Slow program High memory consumption Created By Manish Mathur

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Operating System Also known as Executive system, Control system, Monitor system. Large collection of programs readymade available. Most important program which must be present in the memory of computer when it is ON. Loading OS in the computer’s memory is called “Booting”. It acts as a bridge between user and computer. MS-DOS, Windows, UNIX, LINUX, OS/2 etc. Created By Manish Mathur

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Functions :~ Program Execution Enabling Multi-user Memory Management Interrupt Handling System Security Fault Monitoring File Management Job Scheduling Processor Management Usage record User Interface Virus checking Created By Manish Mathur

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OS for Micro Computers PC/MS-DOS :~ Originally developed by Seatle Computer Products, USA Taken over by Microsoft and IBM, launched in 1980 by the name PC-DOS. Re-launched by Microsoft alone by the name MS-DOS. Features – 16 bit OS Single user Single tasking CUI MS-Windows :~ Initially launched in 1983 then re-launched 1991. Features – 16 bit OS Single user Multi tasking GUI Created By Manish Mathur

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Windows 95 :~ Launched in 1995. Features – 32 bit Architecture Capable of accessing 4GB RAM Multitasking GUI (single click) Network ready OS/2 :~ Launched by IBM + Microsoft in 1987 Demerits – Slow Booting No support to existing application Windows NT :~ Called windows with new Technology. Regarded as OS for network server. Features – 32 bit OS Multi tasking Multi User GUI Network enabled Enhanced security facility High memory requirement High processor requirement Expensive Portability Created By Manish Mathur

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UNIX :~ Launched in 1969 by AT&T Labs USA. Features – Portable, Multi-User, Multi-tasking OS Uses plain text to store data Treat devices as file In-built programming support with command line interpreter. Small size (UNIX V7 occupies less then 10MB) Formed backbone of the Internet Linux is advanced, GUI version of UNIX. Mac OS :~ Dev. By Apple Inc., in 1984 for their Macintosh computers. Features – Completely GUI based Multi-tasking Many server programs (Samba, DNS, SMTP etc) poor memory management conflict with OS extensions Created By Manish Mathur

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Features of OS Techniques of combining the processing work of multiple users in such a manner that achieves the highest resources efficiency is called “Interleaving techniques”. Created By Manish Mathur

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Multi-Programming :~ Input Output P1 P2 P3 Stores multiple program in the memory but runs only one at a time. Concurrent Execution. Uses Buffers to manage I-O-P operations simultaneously by single control unit. Creates memory partitions to store programs separately. Created By Manish Mathur

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Multi-Threading :~ Used by web servers to run the same process multiple times to serve multiple clients concurrently. It allows a process to keep running even if some threads are halted, awaiting user interaction, working on a lengthy task, It increases responsiveness, resource sharing. Multi-Tasking :~ Two or more tasks can be executed simultaneously. Types - Single user Multi tasking. Multi user Multi tasking. Created By Manish Mathur

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RAM VMS pieces of program Hard Disk RAM Virtual Memory Systems :~ “Virtual memory” is the memory which actually does not exist. It is a part of external memory that acts as an internal memory. It gives illusion that it has unlimited main memory. VMS is based on the concept of virtual memory. It divides the program into pages. During program execution first few pages are loaded into main memory and rest resides in the virtual memory. The pages keep moving in and out from main memory as and when required. This process is called “Overlaying”. Created By Manish Mathur

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Multi-Processing :~ It stores multiple program in the memory and executes them simultaneously. It requires multiple CPUs to be present in the computer. Time Sharing :~ CPU time is divided into a small time slot called Time Slice . Each process is executed for a time slice only and then CPU shifted to other. Shifting of CPU is so rapid that the user can’t even notice it. It reduces the response time of computer but requires large memory. Created By Manish Mathur

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Device driver Small files that acts as interface between hardware and OS. When Calling programming invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues a command to the device to perform the user task. Mouse, Keyboard, Printer, Web camera, Pen drive, Audio devices, Scanner etc. all requires device driver. Many OS today comes with many standard built-in device drivers. Created By Manish Mathur

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Utility Program A subroutine which is ready made available in the market program. Examples – Sorting Utility, Text Editors, OS Utility, Spooling software Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On Line. This s/w is to compensate the speed difference between CPU and I/O devices. It utilizes Output spool area and Input spool area to do processing along with I/O. Debugging program This program traces the execution of the software being debug to search errors. MSD (Micro Soft Diagnostic) is a tool provided by Microsoft for debugging user programs. Created By Manish Mathur

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Language Translator converts Source code into Object code. Types – Assembler : Assembly language Machine language Compiler : High level language Machine language Interpreter : High level language Machine language Compiler Interpreter Entire program at once Line by line Display list of errors Display errors one by one Object code on disk In the main memory Fast Slow Required only first time Every time Expensive Less expensive e.g. Cobol, C, C++ e.g. BASIC Created By Manish Mathur

24 General Purpose Software
Also known as Package, these are the programs which are – ready made available. used to solve several problems used commonly by many users. 3 categories – Commercial S/w Shareware S/w Open Source S/w Examples – Word Processor DBMS Internet Browsers client program Created By Manish Mathur

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Application Software These are the programs which are – specifically written by programmer. used to solve one particular problems. used uniquely by one user. Created By Manish Mathur

26 Some General Purpose Software
Created By Manish Mathur

27 Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP)
An information processing system that brings all the resources of an organization together and integrate business operations and information flow, to synergies the resources of the organization. Fully integrated system covering all functional areas of enterprises. It offers single, unified database for the various modules. Various modules in an ERP includes –Manufacturing, Marketing, Accounting, Costing, Human resource, Supply chain etc. Created By Manish Mathur

28 Decision Support System (DSS)
DSS is an information processing system to assist managers in decision making process Characteristics :~ Support decision making Solve relatively un-structured problems User friendly interface Components :~ Database USER Planning Language Created By Manish Mathur Model base

29 Artificial Intelligence
It is a software that tries to emulate human behavior such as reasoning, seeing, hearing, communicating etc. Types :~ Natural Language, Voice Recognition, Robotics, Neural Network. Natural Language resemble human language in command and their format. Combined with voice recognition they provide most user friendly and natural way of interaction between user and system. Robotics focuses on the machines that replaces human labour. Neural networks aimed to improve decision making. They are found in E-commerce applications. Created By Manish Mathur

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Expert System ES is a decision making system that helps managers by providing them ready made decision. Components :~ (i) Knowledge base (ii) Inference Engine (iii) User Interface (iv) Explanation Facility (v) Knowledge acquisition facility User User Interface Inference Engine Knowledge Base Explanation Facility Knowledge acquisition facility Created By Manish Mathur

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Types :~ Example Based Rule Based Frame Based Benefits :~ Cost effective alternative to human expert Better then an expert Faster, consistent Better quality decision Preserve the knowledge of an expert Limitations :~ Development is costly and time consuming Difficult to obtain knowledge from an expert Fails when presented with the problem, not programmed. Created By Manish Mathur


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