# Increasing profits through ultrasonic disintegration

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Increasing profits through ultrasonic disintegration

Index About Toscano. Ultrasound science. Ultrasound engineering.
Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids. References. R&D. Conclusions.

Manufacturer and distributor of water, industry and environmental equipments. Development leads to water sector. More than 4,000 m2 of installations.

1. About Toscano … our company R&D.
Agreements with Universities and Public Administrations. High production capacity (smd, robots…). Laboratory and testing bench.

Experience with DUMO Ultralyzer technology
1. About Toscano Experience with DUMO Ultralyzer technology Toscano is the designer, manufacturer and provider of DUMO© Ultralyzer technology. 11 reference sites have been installed since 2005. This year more than 20 projects have been submitted for tender.

Physics principles: some types of oscillations
2. Ultrasound science Physics principles: some types of oscillations Ball on a spring Rotation earth Pendulum

Physics principles: waves
2. Ultrasound science Physics principles: waves The ball starts to oscillate as soon as it is pushed (perturbated). Pulse

Physics principles: waves
2. Ultrasound science Physics principles: waves Oscillation

Physics principles: waves
2. Ultrasound science Physics principles: waves Ball movement over time describes a wave. In terms of physics a wave is a perturbation that propagates through a medium.

Physics principles: waves
2. Ultrasound science Physics principles: waves A A complete oscillation takes a T time (Period) Time For one complete oscillation T, the frequence f is the number of oscillations per second, termed as f = T-1 a = A·sen(ωt) // ω = 2π·f

2. Ultrasound science Acoustic waves: types
Sound is a wave where excited magnitude is pressure (vertical axis is A = P). Ultrasound is a type of acoustic wave where the frequence is higher than 20 kHz (human limit). In the same way as sound, ultrasound needs a medium to propagate (wastewater or sludge). 20 Hz 20 kHz Infrasound Acoustic Ultrasound

2. Ultrasound science Ultrasonic waves
Successive pressures (+) and (-) cause particles movement and wave propagation. (A) is the amplitude and determines power (P), (P = E/t, E = mω2A2/2) and intensity I (I = P/S), measured in (W/cm2).

Ultrasonic Cavitation
2. Ultrasound science Ultrasonic Cavitation When pressures (+) and (-) take place under frequences about 20 kHz and intensities between 25 and 50 W/cm2, the medium breaks and produces small bubbles. This phenomenon is known as Ultrasonic Cavitation.

Creation and implosion of the cavitation bubbles
2. Ultrasound science Creation and implosion of the cavitation bubbles Ultrasonic cavitation is the process consisting of bubble creation, growth, and collapse by implosion. Cavitation bubbles can reach internal temperatures about 5,000 ºC and pressures about 500 bar. These extreme conditions are controlled and used to disintegrate biomass → DUMO Ultralyzer.

3. Ultrasound engineering
How can we produce ultrasonic waves? Piezoelectricity: a pressure wave pushes on the piezoelectric crystal inducing internal crystal vibration, which causes electrical voltage at the crystal surface. This phenomenon is reversible and used to generate ultrasound waves. Electrical energy Piezoelectrical crystal Ultrasonic wave

3. Ultrasound engineering
DUMO Ultralyzer parts: GENERATOR Transform the inlet electric signal (240 Vac, 50 Hz) into a sinusoidal wave (900 Vrms at 20 kHz). Able to adapt automatically to all conditions in order to maintain constant the oscillating unit amplitude.

3. Ultrasound engineering
DUMO Ultralyzer parts: OSCILLATING UNIT Receives electrical signal, transforms into acoustic for transfering to the medium. It has three parts: Converter: receives electrical signal and transforms into acoustic. Booster: Amplifies the signal. Sonotrode: Transfers the acoustic energy to the medium (sludge). Converter Booster Sonotrode

3. Ultrasound engineering
DUMO Ultralyzer parts: REACTOR BODY Inside reactor body acoustic waves impact on the sludge. Each standard unit is split into 5 zones corresponding to 5 oscillating units.

3. Ultrasound engineering
Taking advantage of each cavitation zone Each split zone is calculated to receive maximum cavitation dosage. The effect is optimized through flow movement inside the reactor body.

3. Ultrasound engineering
Most effective cavitation: horn type sonotrode

3. Ultrasound engineering
Cavitation effect over sonotrode Sonotrode after 1.5 to 2 years New sonotrode

3. Ultrasound engineering
Cavitation effect over biomass Cavitation causes from deagglomeration up to cell lysis. This effect is the basis of the DUMO Ultralyzer technology.

3. Ultrasound engineering
DUMO Ultralyzer sizing Flow rate to treat is about 30 to 50% of the total TWAS. Each 5 kW unit can treat up to 30 m3/d (= 1.25 m3/h) of TWAS → 4 kWh/m3. Reactor body volume is only 29 litres, which means a real advantage in term of space.

3. Ultrasound engineering
An example of common sizing Consider a typical WwTW with the following parameters: Qraw = 1,000 m3/h (Qmax = 1,500 m3/h) → 105 population. Primary sludge: 6, g/l. Secondary sludge: 4,250 6,7 g/l (sludge to sonicate). Thickener mixed sludge: 10, g/l → 195 m3/d. Anaerobic digester: V = 4,500 m3, HRT = 25 d, VSdeg = 45%. It is only necessary 5 kW unit for each 200 m3/d of mixed sludge…!!!

3. Ultrasound engineering
Applications BIOLOGICAL REACTOR 2º CLARIFIER RAS DUMO Ultralyzer works on sludge and water lines. Sludge line is for anaerobic digestion(1) and denitrification(2). Water line is for bulking & foaming. (2) WAS THICKENER TWAS DIGESTER (1) THICKENED PRIMARY SLUDGE BLENDED SLUDGE

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Hydrolysis: the limited step in anaerobic digestion Ultrasonic disintegration is the solution to solve conventional hydrolysis step (8 to 10 days) which takes place in 90 seconds when sonicated.

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Effect of sonication on sludge water phase

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Degree of Disintegration: DDCOD Centrifugation of the sonicated and non sonicated sludge between 10 and 30 min at 40,000 g. Filtration through a 0.45 μm membrane (soluble). COD measurement. Reference disintegration is 22 hours at 20 °C with 0.5 molar NaOH (alkaline disintegration). DDCOD= [ΔCODUS / ΔCODNaOH] * [%].

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
How much energy is required for an adequate DDCOD?

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Increasing the anaerobic digestion performance

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Optimum conditions in the anaerobic digester WAS thickened between 3 and 6%. (Although it is possible to work from 1% to 9%). HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) ≤ 35 days. VS degradation (digestion performance) ≤ 50%. Biogas production ≤ 0,45 Nm3/Kg MVfed. Standard costs in biosolids for disposal, energy and polymer purchase. The others parameters (pH, Tª, etc…) remain as in the conventional operation.

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Typical example for a HRT days digestion Increase in VS degradation: %. Increase in biogas production: %. Reduction in sludge production: %. Increase in sludge dewatering: %. Reduction in sludge viscosity: %. Complete elimination of the problems associated with the filamentous micro organisms inside the anaerobic digester.

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
Cost - benefit analysis in Shanganagh WWTP (Ireland) Parameter Unit Conventional Ultrasound Difference VS - degradation % 46.29 54.96 8.67 Biogas production Nm3/d 4,254 5,076 823 TS digested load ton/d 12.06 10.93 1.13 Polymer cost €/kg 2.99 0.00 Disposal cost €/ton 75.00 Energy purchase €/kWh 0.11 Saving in polymer €/year 92,158 83,501 8,656 Saving in disposal 1,501,067 1,246,731 254,336 Saving in energy 341,596 407,665 66,069 TOTAL ULTRASONIC SAVING PER YEAR (€) 329,062

4. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids
The engineered solution Developed know-how allows a highly detailed engineering. Predictive analysis. Mass Balance calculation. Engineering design. Start up and commissioning. Training. Service & support.

Spanish installations
5. References Spanish installations BILBAO MADRID BARCELONA CIUDAD REAL MURCIA SEVILLA MALLORCA

5. References Tablada WWTP TWAS flow of 100 m3/d.
2 anaerobic digesters of 3,300 m3 each one. HRT of 60 days. Thickened WAS through DAF. Installation of one 5 kW ultrasound reactor since 2006 equiped with all necessary peripherals.

DAF air inside TWAS had to be removed for an effective cavitation. A de-aeration tank was designed and installed.

5. References Tablada WWTP RESULTS WWTP works only with one digester.
HRT reduced over 50%. VS degradation improved 14%. Dewatering increased 18%.

5. References La Gavia WWTP TWAS flow of 240 m3/d.
Anaerobic digestion volume of 14,500 m3. VS degradation of 41%. HRT 24 days. WAS mechanical thickening. 10 kW ultrasonic system installed in 2007.

5. References La Gavia WWTP

5. References La Gavia WWTP

5. References La Gavia WWTP RESULTS (predicted)
VS degradation increased up to 57.63%. Biogas production increased by 20%. Dewatering enhancement of 16.5%.

5. References Arriandi WWTP Blended sludge flow of 127 m3/d.
1 anaerobic digester with foaming problems inside. VS degradation of about 46%. WAS thickening through DAF. 3 kW of ultrasound since 2009.

5. References Arriandi WWTP (DEPOSITO+AGITADOR) BOMBA DE TRASVASE

5. References Arriandi WWTP

5. References Arriandi WWTP RESULTS
Biogas production increased by 28%. Dewatering increased by 8%. Sludge production reduced over 21%. No problems associated with foaming inside the digester.

5. References Son Servera WWTP
1 anaerobic digester with 2,300 m3 of volume. TWAS sonication of 30 m3/d, meaning 50% of TWAS flow rate. 5 kW reactor installed in 2008.

5. References Son Servera WWTP

5. References Son Servera WWTP

5. References Son Servera WWTP RESULTS
Increase in VS degradation by 24%. Sludge reduction over 14%. 13% of enhancement in dewatering.

5. References Montornés WWTP
1 anaerobic digester with 5,000 m3 of volume. VS degradation by 42%. TWAS flow of 75 m3/d. 4 kW reactor installed in 2010.

5. References Montornés WWTP

5. References Montornés WWTP

5. References Montornés WWTP RESULTS
Increase in VS degradation (biogas production) of 20%. Sludge reduction over 15%. 12% of enhancement in dewatering.

5. References Tomelloso WWTP
2 anaerobic digesters with 7,000 m3 of total volume. VS degradation of 45%. TWAS flow of 140 m3/d. 7 kW system installed in 2011.

5. References Tomelloso WWTP

5. References Tomelloso WWTP

5. References Tomelloso WWTP RESULTS
Start up and commissioning in November 2011. Results forecasted in project (19% of improvement in VS degradation).

5. References Terrassa WWTP
First pilot plant has been installed in Spain for improving denitrification process. IFAS (Integrated Fixed Film of Activated sludge) reactor with 4 m3 of capacity was installed. SRT between 7 and 10 days. Flow rate of 16 m3/d. NO3 to remove about 5 mg/l.

5. References Terrassa WWTP Denitrification transforms NO3 in N2.
It is a reduction process in which facultative bacteria, in anoxic regime, use NO3 as acceptor rather than dissolved Oxigen. It is necessary a carbon source readily biodegradable.

5. References Terrassa WWTP
Disintegrated sludge is fantastic carbon source readily biodegradable. It is necessary to measure COD/TN releasing after sonication.

5. References Terrassa WWTP
Enzimatic activity is highly increased after sonication, which means better biodegradability. Acceleration in TN and WAS production degradation takes place.

5. References Terrassa WWTP RESULTS
5 mg/l of NO3 (all required) removed with one ultrasound system equiped with 1 kW. No external carbon source. Specific WAS reduction of 25 to 30% (Lysis and Cryptic Growth process induced).

5. References Arrudas ETE - Brazil

5. References Arrudas ETE - Brazil

5. References Arrudas ETE - Brazil

Shanganagh WWTP - Ireland
5. References Shanganagh WWTP - Ireland

Shanganagh WWTP - Ireland
5. References Shanganagh WWTP - Ireland

Activities carried out and coming soon…
5. References Activities carried out and coming soon… SPAIN IRELAND PORTUGAL BRASIL ISRAEL Estiviel Swords* Lamego Arrudas** Jerusalem North of Seville Greystones ADP Onça Haifa Villapérez WyG Carbono Eficiente Sabesp Be’er Sheva Bétera Veolia Ireland SIMARSUL Centroprojekt - Palomares AECOM Águas do Algarve Sanepar (*) Just awarded. (**) Expansion works of the plant. WWTP tendered, Company contacted or project studing.

R&D today is engineering for tomorrow…
Special DUMO Ultralyzer unit has been designed for this purpose. One mobile unit with 2 kW of ultrasound power fully equiped is used for different test and proofs.

R&D today is engineering for tomorrow…
Different DUMO Ultralyzer applications have been studied. Scientific publications about Dewatering and Disinfection have been carried out. Promising results were obtained.

6. R&D Dewatering It is necessary a wide range of particle size to optimize solid - liquid separation. Sonication is a good way to change particle size. After sonication water inside flocs and cells is easily delibered.

IMPORTANT: do not treat 100% of TWAS
6. R&D Dewatering Mixture of untreated TWAS and PS* Mixture of sonicated TWAS and PS. Mixture of sonicated and untreated TWAS and PS. (*) Primary Sludge. Dried matter test after dewatering (%) IMPORTANT: do not treat 100% of TWAS

6. R&D Dewatering Stereo-microscopic image
Digested sludge after floculation Digested sludge after disintegration and floculation

6. R&D Disinfection Disintection depends highly on the suspended solids contain (TSS). SS can protect bacteria and virus from the UV irradiation (Scattering). That leads to a tremendous increase in UV irradiation.

UV disinfection channel
6. R&D Disinfection Installation was designed to treat water (not sluge) before disinfection process. Only 0.11 kWh/m3 of ultrasound dosage it is necessary to avoid scattering. Sand filter UV disinfection channel

Evolution in the Total Coliforms elimination
6. R&D Disinfection Evolution in the Total Coliforms elimination

7. Conclusions. To sum up DUMO Ultralyzer represents an innovative, tested, and sustainable technology for water & environment market. The available support allows to get quick advantage of the science and the engineering in a full plug & play project. State of the art technolgy, in terms of biosolids disintegration, is now accessible.