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Web-based Training in Technology: Professional Development for the Digital Age A Review of Literature by Susan Dupre University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Presentation on theme: "Web-based Training in Technology: Professional Development for the Digital Age A Review of Literature by Susan Dupre University of Louisiana at Lafayette."— Presentation transcript:

1 Web-based Training in Technology: Professional Development for the Digital Age A Review of Literature by Susan Dupre University of Louisiana at Lafayette

2 Introduction: Topic Overview Students must acquire basic technology literacy before entering high school. Classroom teachers expected to provide technology-rich learning environments. Teachers must acquire technology skills to successfully integrate technology into teaching practices.

3 Introduction: Topic Overview Need: Technology–related professional development Funding: NCLBs funding mechanism proven insufficient Result: Increasing need with decreasing funding Solution: Technology–mediated professional development (TMPD)

4 Introduction: Purpose What evidence, if any, exists that technology- mediated training programs can be effective in changing or enhancing a teachers classroom practice? What factors might influence a teachers technology acquisition and/or beliefs about his or her ability to use technology in the classroom?

5 Introduction Without a doubt,... E-learning has become an essential component of the educational scene. Holmes & Gardner, 2006

6 Review of Literature: Overview of Technology-Delivered Instruction The E-learning Aisle E-L EARNING is the use of electronic means to deliver content, manage students through their learning, and test students on their comprehension. Clarke, 2002 O FFLINE L EARNING is asynchronous in nature and communicated in flexible time. Romiszowski, 2004 O NLINE L EARNING is synchronous in nature and communicated in real time.

7 Review of Literature: Overview of Technology-Delivered Instruction WBT: An old product with new packaging W EB - BASED T RAINING (WBT) is a combination of online and offline learning. Completed online = anytime, anywhere learning Utilizes the original tutorial-style modules of CBT Usually asynchronous and self-paced Interactive lessons offer pre-testing options Does not require an instructor across TIME, PLACE, CONTENT, and DURATION of learning are controlled by the learners.

8 Review of Literature: Overview of Technology-Delivered Instruction Evaluating non-traditional delivery systems Pollard and Pollards (2004) Delphi study revealed that the following factors affect learning in an online environment: Learner skills Prior knowledge Beliefs and attitudes Course and lesson design T HESE ARE THE SAME FACTORS THAT AFFECT LEARNING IN A TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM.

9 Review of Literature: Overview of Technology-Delivered Instruction Evaluating non-traditional delivery systems Sandholtz (2001) identified three common criteria that might be used to measure the effectiveness of professional development: Participants evaluations of their own learning. The gain in skills as the result of program participation. Plans of participants to use technology in their classrooms. T HESE CRITERIA CAN ALSO BE APPLIED TO PARTICIPANTS WHO HAVE UTILIZED AN ONLINE DELIVERY SYSTEM.

10 Review of Literature: Changing American Classrooms Cart-pushers: The national scene The success of any educational reform approach depends not only on teachers belief in and will to implement the proposed changes, but the development of teachers professional skills necessary to implement such changes. Donnelly, Dove, & Tiffany-Morales, 2002

11 Original NETS*T(ISTE, 2000)Refreshed NETS*T (ISTE, 2008) Technology Operations/ConceptsFacilitating/Inspiring Student Learning and Creativity PlanningandDesigning Learning Experiences Designing Digital Age Learning and Assessments Teaching, Learning, and CurriculumModeling Digital Age Work/Learning Assessment /EvaluationPromoting/Modeling Digital Citizenship Productivity/Professional PracticeEngagement in Professional Growth and Leadership Social, Ethical, Legal, Human Issues. Review of Literature: Changing American Classrooms Cart-pushers: National The National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS*T)

12 Review of Literature: Changing American Classrooms Cart-pushers: State/District A DVANTAGES TO D ISTRICTS OFFERED BY TMPD: Reduced travel time and travel costs. Reduced printing costs. Reduced time away from job. Reduced turn-around time for new initiatives. Justification for investments in computers, networks and servers. Driscoll, 1999

13 Review of Literature: Changing American Classrooms Cart-pushers: Classroom Teachers D IGITAL N ATIVES VS. D IGITAL ADOPTERS As a result, education has lagged behind and is now feeling the effects. When [The Internet] exploded into public consciousness in 1994,... it took only four years to engage 50 million users It took radio 38 years and television 13 years to reach the same audience. National Governors Association/Milken, 1999

14 Review of Literature: Defining Technology Integration Measuring technology integration Northwest Educational Technology Consortium (2005) developed a framework called OPTIC to guide assessment of technology integration: Teachers are trained in a full range of technology uses and in determining appropriate roles and applications. Teachers and students routinely turn to technology when needed. Teachers and students are empowered and supported in carrying out their choices.

15 Review of Literature: Defining Technology Integration Measuring technology integration Mishra and Koehler (2006) propose that the blending of technology, instructional pedagogy, and subject-specific content represents a new expertise. TPACK Overall teacher knowledge is directly tied to knowledge of technology.

16 Review of Literature: Defining Technology Integration Supporting technology integration 1994: 3% of all instructional rooms had Internet access. 2003: 93% of classrooms and 100% of public school buildings had Internet access. Wells & Lewis, 2006 However, effective use of these resources has been slow: The difficulty of quantifying educational benefits of classroom technology use The inadequacy of staff development when compared to employee training in the private sector. Donnelly, Dove, and Tiffany-Morales, 2002

17 Review of Literature: Defining Technology Integration Supporting technology integration Barriers to technology integration: Attitudes and beliefs of stakeholders Skills of stakeholders Accessibility and availability of technology Level of technical support Level of funding Time to learn and practice technology skills. Rogers, 2000

18 Review of Literature: Defining Technology Integration Technology integration as change DoI Diffusion of Innovations Theory (Rogers, 1962) CBAM Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall, Wallace, & Dosset, 1973) SoC Stages of Concern (Hall & Hord, 2005) LAT Learning/Adoption Trajectory (Sherry & Gibson, 2002)

19 Review of Literature: Professional Development in the Digital Age NCSD (2001) Standards for E-Learning provided guidelines for quality professional development that districts should consider before choosing TMPD: Quality Learning Experiences Content Quality Content and Time Flexibility Learner Readiness Interactivity Cost Standards for TMPD

20 Review of Literature: Professional Development in the Digital Age Factors that influence online learning In most cases, WBT platform mirrors F2F delivery. INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Best performance when users have control, practice content, and receive feedback. EXPERIENCE CONTEXT Can be influenced by content, strategies, media, and sites KNOWLEDGE/BELIEFS/ATTITUDES Naturally occurring groups include task-oriented users, grade-oriented users, and goal-oriented users. LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS Fishman, Best, Foster, & Marx, 201; Valle & Duffy, 2004; Sitzmann, Kraiger, Stewart, & Wisher, 2006

21 Review of Literature: Professional Development in the Digital Age Computer Self-Efficacy Low computer self-efficacy continues to predict usage and should be a factor in choices about what and how technologies are adopted, introduced, and supported. Compeau, Higgins, & Huff, 1999

22 Discussion: Summary and Interpretations If the primary advantage to WBT is the ability to customize time, place, content, and duration of learning, this may be true. However, what if E-learning alters the role, the perceptions, or even the learning style of participants? There are really no models of E-learning per seonly e-enhancements of models of learning. Mayes & deFreitas, 2004

23 Discussion: Summary and Interpretations What part do teacher pedagogical beliefs and computer self-efficacy play in integrating technology? Can WBT serve to mitigate these factors and be used as a viable, effective option for supplementing teacher professional development? Conditions appear to be in place for successful integration of technology into America classrooms, yet there is still surprisingly little high-level use despite teachers ready access to technology. Ertmer, 2005

24 Discussion: Summary and Interpretations The growing popularity of technology-mediated instruction, including Web-based training, should not overshadow the need to understand if the delivery medium is effective and if certain methodological factors moderate its effectiveness. Sitzmann, Kraiger, Stewart, & Wisher, 2006

25 Web-based Training in Technology: Professional Development for the Digital Age A Review of Literature by Susan Dupre University of Louisiana at Lafayette


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