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AS Physics Unit 1 6 Alternating Currents AS Physics Unit 1 6 Alternating Currents Mr D Powell

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Chapter Map

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.1 Alternating Current & Power Specification link-up 3.1.3: Current electricity: alternating currents What is an alternating current? What do we mean by the rms value of an alternating current? How can we calculate the power supplied by an alternating current? Specification link-up 3.1.3: Current electricity: alternating currents What is an alternating current? What do we mean by the rms value of an alternating current? How can we calculate the power supplied by an alternating current?

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Mr Powell 2009 Index * An AC repeatedly reverses its direction * In one cycle the charge carriers move in one direction then the other. 6.1 Alternating current and power AC measurements Frequency: f (Hz) Peak to peak value Peak value AC is used for power distribution because the peak voltage can be easily changed using transformers * Mains frequency is 50 Hz,

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.1 Alternating current and power Peak to peak value Peak value One cycle * Mains frequency is 50 Hz, one cycle lasts 1/50 sec = 0.02 sec = time period T f = 1 T

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Mr Powell 2009 Index varies according to the square of the current 6.1 Alternating current and power The heating effect of an alternating current: P = I V = I 2 R =V 2 /R R = resistance of heater At peak current I o maximum power is supplied = I o 2 R At zero current zero power is supplied Equal areas above and below mean value also Av value of a sin 2 plot = 1/2 Mean power supplied = ½ I o 2 R Average Power when sine term -> 0.5

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Mr Powell 2009 Index

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.1 Alternating current and power

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.1 Alternating current and power The mean power supplied to a resistor:

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Mr Powell 2009 Index GCSE Link.... RMS Peak..... Direct Eqiv..... The rms value is 0.707 times the peak value, and the peak value is 1.41 times the value the voltmeter shows. The peak value for 230 V mains is 325 V.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index For AC clearly for most of the time it is less than the peak voltage, so this is not a good measure of its real effect. Instead we use the root mean square voltage (V RMS ) which is 0.7 of the peak voltage (V peak ): V RMS = 1/Sqrt(2) × V peak and V peak = sqrt(2) × V RMS These equations also apply to current. The RMS value is the effective value of a varying voltage or current. It is the equivalent steady DC (constant) value which gives the same effect. For example a lamp connected to a 6V RMS AC supply will light with the same brightness when connected to a steady 6V DC supply. However, the lamp will be dimmer if connected to a 6V peak AC supply because the RMS value of this is only 4.2V (it is equivalent to a steady 4.2V DC). You may find it helps to think of the RMS value as a sort of average, but please remember that it is NOT really the average! In fact the average voltage (or current) of an AC signal is zero because the positive and negative parts exactly cancel out! RMS Values Summary....

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Mr Powell 2009 Index What do AC meters show, is it the RMS or peak voltage? AC voltmeters and ammeters show the RMS value of the voltage or current. DC meters also show the RMS value when connected to varying DC providing the DC is varying quickly, if the frequency is less than about 10Hz you will see the meter reading fluctuating instead. What does '6V AC' really mean, is it the RMS or peak voltage? If the peak value is meant it should be clearly stated, otherwise assume it is the RMS value. In everyday use AC voltages (and currents) are always given as RMS values because this allows a sensible comparison to be made with steady DC voltages (and currents), such as from a battery. For example a '6V AC supply' means 6V RMS, the peak voltage is 8.6V. The UK mains supply is 230V AC, this means 230V RMS so the peak voltage of the mains is about 320V! So what does root mean square (RMS) really mean? First square all the values, then find the average (mean) of these square values over a complete cycle, and find the square root of this average. That is the RMS value. Confused? Ignore the maths (it looks more complicated than it really is), just accept that RMS values for voltage and current are a much more useful quantity than peak values. More on Measurement...

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.1 Alternating current and power

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.1 Alternating current and power

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Mr Powell 2009 Index

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Mr Powell 2009 Index

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Mr Powell 2009 Index 6.2 Using an Oscilloscope Specification link-up 3.1.3: Current electricity: Oscilloscopes How do we use an oscilloscope as a dc voltmeter? How do we use it as an ac voltmeter? How do we use an oscilloscope to measure frequency? Specification link-up 3.1.3: Current electricity: Oscilloscopes How do we use an oscilloscope as a dc voltmeter? How do we use it as an ac voltmeter? How do we use an oscilloscope to measure frequency?

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Inside a scope...

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y i n v o l v e a u d i e n c e d i s c u s s i o n, w h i c h w i l l c r e a t e a c t i o n i t e m s. U s e P o w e r P o i n t t o k e e p t r a c k o f t h e s e a c t i o n i t e m s d u r i n g y o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n I n S l i d e S h o w, c l i c k o n t h e r i g h t m o u s e b u t t o n S e l e c t M e e t i n g M i n d e r S e l e c t t h e A c t i o n I t e m s t a b T y p e i n a c t i o n i t e m s a s t h e y c o m e u p C l i c k O K t o d i s m i s s t h i s b o x T h i s w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y c r e a t e a n A c t i o n I t e m s l i d e a t t h e e n d o f y o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h y o u r p o i n t s e n t e r e d.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The Deflection tube…a basic CRO

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The CRO + electronic bits….

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The time base signal... Voltage across X plates

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The traces we get with time base off d.c input upper plate positive d.c input lower plate positive no input – spot adjusted left no input a.c input d.c input upper plate more positive

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The traces we get with time base on high frequency a.c. input low frequency a.c input no input d.c input – upper plate positive d.c input – lower plate positive a.c input with a diode

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The basic workings of TV... 3 guns rather than 1 The shadow mask is one of two major technologies used to manufacture cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer displays that produce color images (the other is aperture grille). Tiny holes in a metal plate separate the coloured phosphors in the layer behind the front glass of the screen. The holes are placed in a manner ensuring that electrons from each of the tube's three cathode guns reach only the appropriately-coloured phosphors on the display. All three beams pass through the same holes in the mask, but the angle of approach is different for each gun. The spacing of the holes, the spacing of the phosphors, and the placement of the guns is arranged so that for example the blue gun only has an unobstructed path to blue phosphors. The red, green, and blue phosphors for each pixel are generally arranged in a triangular shape (sometimes called a "triad"). All early color televisions and the majority of CRT computer monitors, past and present, use shadow mask technology. This principle was first proposed by Werner Flechsig in a German patent in 1938.cathode ray tube televisionscomputer displayscoloraperture grillephosphorselectronsred greenbluepixeltriangulartriad

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Lissajous curves Prior to modern computer graphics, Lissajous curves were typically generated using an oscilloscope (as illustrated). Two phase-shifted sinusoid inputs are applied to the oscilloscope in X-Y mode and the phase relationship between the signals is presented as a Lissajous figure. Lissajous curves can also be traced mechanically by means of a harmonograph.oscilloscope harmonograph In oscilloscope we suppose x is CH1 and y is CH2, A is amplitude of CH1 and B is amplitude of CH2, a is frequency of CH1 and b is frequency of CH2, so a/b is a ratio of frequency of two channels, finally, δ is the phase shift of CH1. When the input to an LTI system is sinusoidal, the output will be sinusoidal with the same frequency, but it may have a different amplitude and some phase shift. Using an oscilloscope which has the ability to plot one signal against another signal (as opposed to one signal against time) produces an ellipse which is a Lissajous figure with of the case a = b in which the eccentricity of the ellipse is a function of the phase shift. The figure below summarizes how the Lissajous figure changes over different phase shifts. The phase shifts are all negative so that delay semantics can be used with a causal LTI system. The arrows show the direction of rotation of the Lissajous figure.LTI systemoscilloscopeeccentricitydelaysemanticscausal

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Mr Powell 2009 Index

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Mr Powell 2009 Index

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Mr Powell 2009 Index

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Mr Powell 2009 Index An a.c. dynamo or generator

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Mr Powell 2009 Index + Peak value V 0 V T - Draw a graph to show the variation of voltage with time.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Draw the graph to show the variation of current with time.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Draw the graph to show the variation of power with time.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Compare this with a d.c circuit

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Draw a graph to show the variation of voltage with time.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Draw a graph to show the variation of current with time.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Draw a graph to show the variation of power with time.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Now, you know that P = I V and V = I R So P = I 2 R

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Mr Powell 2009 Index The mean power is the average value of power over one complete cycle I 0 = Peak current Peak power = I 0 2 R Mean power = ½ I 0 2 R The root mean square (rms) or effective value of an alternating current or pd, is the value of direct current or pd which would supply the same power in a given resistor.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Example.... A 2 W resistor passes an alternating current of a peak value of 3 A. Calculate the peak power, the mean power and the rms or effective value of the alternating current. The peak power = I 0 2 R = 3 2 x 2 = 18 W The mean power = ½ I 0 2 R = ½ x 18 = 9 W

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Mr Powell 2009 Index What value of direct current through the 2 W resistor gives 9W of power? Let the equivalent direct current = I I 2 R = 9W I 2 X 2 = 9 I = 4.5 I = 2.12 A

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Mr Powell 2009 Index So a direct current of 2.12 A gives the same power as 3A alternating current.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index So peak power P = I 0 2 R Mean power = ½ I 0 2 R rms value (I rms ) (I rms ) 2 R = ½ I 0 2 R So (I rms ) = I 0 / 2

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Mr Powell 2009 Index Calculate the rms value of the alternating current if a 16 ohm resistor passes an a.c. with a peak value of 5A.

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Mr Powell 2009 Index R = 16 I 0 = 5A (I rms ) 2 R = ½ I 0 2 R So (I rms ) = I 0 / 2 = 5/ 2 = 3.53A

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